Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)

A (Alpha)

Alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as Omega is the last. These letters occur in the text of Revelation 1:8, Revelation 1:11; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:13, and are represented by "Alpha" and "Omega" respectively (omitted in R.V., Revelation 1:11). They mean "the first and last." (Compare Hebrews 12:2; Isaiah 41:4; Isaiah 44:6; Revelation 1:11, Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8.) In the symbols of the early Christian Church these two letters are frequently combined with the cross or with Christ's monogram to denote his divinity.

Aaron

The eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, a daughter of Levi (Exodus 6:20). Some explain the name as meaning mountaineer, others mountain of strength, illuminator. He was born in Egypt three years before his brother Moses, and a number of years after his sister Miriam (Exodus 2:1, Exodus 2:4; Exodus 7:7). He married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab of the house of Judah (Exodus 6:23; 1_Chronicles 2:10), by whom he had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. When the time for the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt drew nigh, he was sent by God (Exodus 4:14, Exodus 4:27) to meet his long-absent brother, that he might co-operate with him in all that they were required to do in bringing about the Exodus. He was to be the "mouth" or "prophet" of Moses, i.e., was to speak for him, because he was a man of a ready utterance (Exodus 7:1, Exodus 7:2, Exodus 7:9, Exodus 7:10, Exodus 7:19). He was faithful to his trust, and stood by Moses in all his interviews with Pharaoh.

When the ransomed tribes fought their first battle with Amalek in Rephidim, Moses stood on a hill overlooking the scene of the conflict with the rod of God in his outstretched hand. On this occasion he was attended by Aaron and Hur, his sister's husband, who held up his wearied hands till Joshua and the chosen warriors of Israel gained the victory (Exodus 17:8).

Afterwards, when encamped before Sinai, and when Moses at the command of God ascended the mount to receive the tables of the law, Aaron and his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, along with seventy of the elders of Israel, were permitted to accompany him part of the way, and to behold afar off the manifestation of the glory of Israel's God (Exodus 19:24; Exodus 24:9). While Moses remained on the mountain with God, Aaron returned unto the people; and yielding through fear, or ignorance, or instability of character, to their clamour, made unto them a golden calf, and set it up as an object of worship (Exodus 32:4; Psalms 106:19). On the return of Moses to the camp, Aaron was sternly rebuked by him for the part he had acted in this matter; but he interceded for him before God, who forgave his sin (Deuteronomy 9:20).

On the mount, Moses received instructions regarding the system of worship which was to be set up among the people; and in accordance therewith Aaron and his sons were consecrated to the priest's office (Lev. 8; 9). Aaron, as high priest, held henceforth the prominent place appertaining to that office.

When Israel had reached Hazeroth, in "the wilderness of Paran," Aaron joined with his sister Miriam in murmuring against Moses, "because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married," probably after the death of Zipporah. But the Lord vindicated his servant Moses, and punished Miriam with leprosy (Num. 12). Aaron acknowledged his own and his sister's guilt, and at the intercession of Moses they were forgiven.

Twenty years after this, when the children of Israel were encamped in the wilderness of Paran, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram conspired against Aaron and his sons; but a fearful judgment from God fell upon them, and they were destroyed, and the next day thousands of the people also perished by a fierce pestilence, the ravages of which were only stayed by the interposition of Aaron (Num. 16). That there might be further evidence of the divine appointment of Aaron to the priestly office, the chiefs of the tribes were each required to bring to Moses a rod bearing on it the name of his tribe. And these, along with the rod of Aaron for the tribe of Levi, were laid up overnight in the tabernacle, and in the morning it was found that while the other rods remained unchanged, that of Aaron "for the house of Levi" budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds (Numbers 17:1). This rod was afterwards preserved in the tabernacle (Hebrews 9:4) as a memorial of the divine attestation of his appointment to the priesthood.

Aaron was implicated in the sin of his brother at Meribah (Numbers 20:8), and on that account was not permitted to enter the Promised Land. When the tribes arrived at Mount Hor, "in the edge of the land of Edom," at the command of God Moses led Aaron and his son Eleazar to the top of that mountain, in the sight of all the people. There he stripped Aaron of his priestly vestments, and put them upon Eleazar; and there Aaron died on the top of the mount, being 123 years old (Numbers 20:23. Compare Deuteronomy 10:6; Deuteronomy 32:50), and was "gathered unto his people." The people, "even all the house of Israel," mourned for him thirty days. Of Aaron's sons two survived him, Eleazar, whose family held the high-priesthood till the time of Eli; and Ithamar, in whose family, beginning with Eli, the high-priesthood was held till the time of Solomon. Aaron's other two sons had been struck dead (Leviticus 10:1, Leviticus 10:2) for the daring impiety of offering "strange fire" on the alter of incense.

The Arabs still show with veneration the traditionary site of Aaron's grave on one of the two summits of Mount Hor, which is marked by a Mohammedan chapel. His name is mentioned in the Koran, and there are found in the writings of the rabbins many fabulous stories regarding him.

He was the first anointed priest. His descendants, "the house of Aaron," constituted the priesthood in general. In the time of David they were very numerous (1_Chronicles 12:27). The other branches of the tribe of Levi held subordinate positions in connection with the sacred office. Aaron was a type of Christ in his official character as the high priest. His priest-hood was a "shadow of heavenly things," and was intended to lead the people of Israel to look forward to the time when "another priest" would arise "after the order of Melchizedek" (Hebrews 6:20). (See MOSES.)

Aaronites

The descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the support of David at Hebron (1_Chronicles 12:27). Eleazar (Numbers 3:32), and at a later period Zadok (1_Chronicles 27:17), was their chief.

Abaddon

Destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon , i.e., destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Revelation 9:11). It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22; Job 31:12; Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 27:20. In the last three of these passages the Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon." We may regard this word as a personification of the idea of destruction, or as sheol, the realm of the dead.

Abagtha

One of the seven eunuchs in Ahasuerus's court (Esther 1:10; Esther 2:21).

Abana

Stony (Heb. marg. "Amanah," perennial), the chief river of Damascus (2_Kings 5:12). Its modern name is Barada, the Chrysorrhoas, or "golden stream," of the Greeks. It rises in a cleft of the Anti-Lebanon range, about 23 miles north-west of Damascus, and after flowing southward for a little way parts into three smaller streams, the central one flowing through Damascus, and the other two on each side of the city, diffusing beauty and fertility where otherwise there would be barrenness.

Abarim

Regions beyond; i.e., on the east of Jordan, a mountain, or rather a mountain-chain, over against Jericho, to the east and south-east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab. From "the top of Pisgah", i.e., Mount Nebo (q.v.), one of its summits, Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 3:27; Deuteronomy 32:49), and there he died (Deuteronomy 34:1, Deuteronomy 34:5). The Israelites had one of their encampments in the mountains of Abarim (Numbers 33:47, Numbers 33:48) after crossing the Arnon.

Abba

This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New Testament (Gospel of Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father." It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."

Abda

Servant. (1.) The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the tribute (1_Kings 4:6); i.e., the forced labour (R.V., "levy").

(2.) A Levite of the family of Jeduthun (Nehemiah 11:17), also called Obadiah (1_Chronicles 9:16).

Abdeel

Servant of God, (Jeremiah 36:26), the father of Shelemiah.

Abdi

My servant. (1.) 1_Chronicles 6:44. (2.) 2_Chronicles 29:12. (3.) Ezra 10:26.

Abdiel

Servant of God, (1_Chronicles 5:15), a Gadite chief.

Abdon

Servile. (1.) The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge of Israel (Judges 12:13). He is probably the Bedan of 1_Samuel 12:11.

(2.) The first-born of Gibeon of the tribe of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 8:30; 1_Chronicles 9:36).

(3.) The son of Micah, one of those whom Josiah sent to the prophetess Huldah to ascertain from her the meaning of the recently discovered book of the law (2_Chronicles 34:20). He is called Achbor in 2_Kings 22:12.

(4.) One of the "sons" of Shashak (1_Chronicles 8:23). This is the name also of a Levitical town of the Gershonites, in the tribe of Asher (Joshua 21:30; 1_Chronicles 6:74). The ruins of Abdeh, some 8 miles north-east of Accho, probably mark its site.

Abednego

Servant of Nego = Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of Daniel's three companions (Daniel 2:49). With Shadrach and Meshach, he was delivered from the burning fiery furnace (Dan. 3:12-30).

Abel

(1.) (HEBREW HEBHEL) A breath, or vanity. The second son of Adam and Eve. He was put to death by his brother Cain (Gen. 4:1-16). Guided by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each of them offered up to God of the firstfruits of his labours. Cain, as a husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; Abel, as a shepherd, of the firstlings of his flock. "The Lord had respect unto Abel and his offering; but unto Cain and his offering he had not respect" (Genesis 4:3). On this account Cain was angry with his brother, and formed the design of putting him to death; a design which he at length found an opportunity of carrying into effect (Genesis 4:8, Genesis 4:9. Compare 1_John 3:12). There are several references to Abel in the New Testament. Our Saviour speaks of him as "righteous" (Gospel of Matthew 23:35). "The blood of sprinkling" is said to speak "better things than that of Abel" (Hebrews 12:24); i.e., the blood of Jesus is the reality of which the blood of the offering made by Abel was only the type. The comparison here is between the sacrifice offered by Christ and that offered by Abel, and not between the blood of Christ calling for mercy and the blood of the murdered Abel calling for vengeance, as has sometimes been supposed. It is also said (Hebrews 11:4) that "Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain." This sacrifice was made "by faith;" this faith rested in God, not only as the Creator and the God of providence, but especially in God as the great Redeemer, whose sacrifice was typified by the sacrifices which, no doubt by the divine institution, were offered from the days of Adam downward. On account of that "faith" which looked forward to the great atoning sacrifice, Abel's offering was accepted of God. Cain's offering had no such reference, and therefore was rejected.

Abel was the first martyr, as he was the first of our race to die. (2.) (Heb. 'abhel ), lamentation (1_Samuel 6:18), the name given to the great stone in Joshua's field whereon the ark was "set down." The Revised Version, however, following the Targum and the LXX., reads in the Hebrew text 'ebhen (= a stone), and accordingly translates "unto the great stone, whereon they set down the ark." This reading is to be preferred. (3.) (Hebrew 'abhel ) A grassy place, a meadow. This word enters into the composition of the following words: (a.) Abel-beth-maachah - Meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a metropolis (2_Samuel 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2_Samuel 20:14), by Benhadad (1_Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2_Kings 15:29) about 734 B.C.. (b.) It is elsewhere called Abel-maim meadow of the waters, (2_Chronicles 16:4). Its site is occupied by the modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on a rising ground to the east of the brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into the Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan.

Abel-beth-maachah

Meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a metropolis (2_Samuel 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2_Samuel 20:14), by Benhadad (1_Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2_Kings 15:29) about 734 B.C..

Abel-maim

Meadow of the waters, (2_Chronicles 16:4). Its site is occupied by the modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on a rising ground to the east of the brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into the Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan

Abel-cheramim

(Judges 11:33, R.V.; A. V., "plain of the vineyards"), a village of the Ammonites, whither Jephthah pursued their forces.

Abel-meholah

Meadow of dancing, or the dancing-meadow, the birth-place and residence of the prophet Elisha, not far from Beth-shean (1_Kings 4:12), in the tribe of Issachar, near where the Wady el-Maleh emerges into the valley of the Jordan, "the rich meadow-land which extends about 4 miles south of Beth-shean; moist and luxuriant." Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah on his return up the Jordan valley from Horeb (1_Kings 19:16). It is now called 'Ain Helweh .

Abel-mizraim

Meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i.e., on the west of Jordan, at the "threshing-floor of Atad." Here the Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob (Genesis 50:4). Its site is unknown.

Abel-shittim

Meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" (Numbers 25:1; Joshua 2:1; Micah 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan, in the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of the Israelites, their last resting-place before they crossed the Jordan (Numbers 33:49; Numbers 22:1; Numbers 26:3; Numbers 31:12; compare Numbers 25:1; Numbers 31:16).

Abez

Tin, or white, a town in the tribe of Issachar (Joshua 19:20), at the north of the plain of Esdraelon. It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Beida.

Abia

My father is the Lord, the Greek form of Abijah, or Abijam (Gospel of Matthew 1:7), instead of Abiah (1_Chronicles 7:8). In Gospel of Luke 1:5, the name refers to the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which David divided the priests (1_Chronicles 24:10).

Abi-albon

Father of strength; i.e., "valiant", one of David's body-guard of thirty mighty men (2_Samuel 23:31); called also Abiel (1_Chronicles 11:32).

Abiasaph

Father of gathering; the gatherer, the youngest of the three sons of Korah the Levite, head of a family of Korhites (Exodus 6:24); called Ebisaph (1_Chronicles 6:37).

Abiathar

Father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech the high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in descent from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1_Samuel 22:20; 1_Samuel 23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader (1_Samuel 30:7). When David ascended the throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed high priest (1_Chronicles 15:11; 1_Kings 2:26) and the "king's companion" (1_Chronicles 27:34). Meanwhile Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made high priest. These appointments continued in force till the end of David's reign (1_Kings 4:4). Abiathar was deposed (the sole historical instance of the deposition of a high priest) and banished to his home at Anathoth by Solomon, because he took part in the attempt to raise Adonijah to the throne. The priesthood thus passed from the house of Ithamar (1_Samuel 2:30; 1_Kings 1:19; 1_Kings 2:26, 1_Kings 2:27). Zadok now became sole high priest. In Gospel of Mark 2:26, reference is made to an occurrence in "the days of Abiathar the high priest." But from 1 Sam. 22, we learn explicitly that this event took place when Ahimelech, the father of Abiathar, was high priest. The apparent discrepancy is satisfactorily explained by interpreting the words in Mark as referring to the life-time of Abiathar, and not to the term of his holding the office of high priest. It is not implied in Mark that he was actual high priest at the time referred to. Others, however, think that the loaves belonged to Abiathar, who was at that time (Leviticus 24:9) a priest, and that he either himself gave them to David, or persuaded his father to give them.

Abib

An ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain (Exodus 13:4; Exodus 23:15); the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the seventh of the civil year. It began about the time of the vernal equinox, on 21st March. It was called Nisan, after the Captivity (Nehemiah 2:1). On the fifteenth day of the month, harvest was begun by gathering a sheaf of barley, which was offered unto the Lord on the sixteenth (Leviticus 23:4).

Abida

Or Abidah - Father of knowledge; knowing, one of the five sons of Midian, who was the son of Abraham by Keturah (1_Chronicles 1:33), and apparently the chief of an Arab tribe.

Abidan

Father of judgment; judge, head of the tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus (Numbers 1:11; Numbers 2:22).

Abiel

Father (i.e., "possessor") of God = "pious." (1.) The son of Zeror and father of Ner, who was the grandfather of Saul (1_Samuel 14:51; 1_Chronicles 8:33; 1_Chronicles 9:39). In 1_Samuel 9:1, he is called the "father," probably meaning the grandfather, of Kish. (2.) An Arbathite, one of David's warriors (1_Chronicles 11:32); called also Abi-albon (2_Samuel 23:31).

Abiezer

Father of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The second of the three sons of Hammoleketh, the sister of Gilead. He was the grandson of Manasseh (1_Chronicles 7:18). From his family Gideon sprang (Joshua 17:2; compare Judges 6:34; Judges 8:2). He was also called Jeezer (Numbers 26:30). (2.) One of David's thirty warriors (2_Samuel 23:27; compare 1_Chronicles 27:12). (3.) The prince of the tribe of Dan at the Exodus (Numbers 1:12).

Abiezrite

Father of help, a descendant of Abiezer (Judges 6:11, Judges 6:24; Judges 8:32).

Abigail

Father (i.e., "leader") of the dance, or "of joy." (1.) The sister of David, and wife of Jether an Ishmaelite (1_Chronicles 2:16, 1_Chronicles 2:17). She was the mother of Amasa (2_Samuel 17:25).

(2.) The wife of the churlish Nabal, who dwelt in the district of Carmel (1_Samuel 25:3). She showed great prudence and delicate management at a critical period of her husband's life. She was "a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance." After Nabal's death she became the wife of David (1 Sam. 25:14-42), and was his companion in all his future fortunes (1_Samuel 27:3; 1_Samuel 30:5; 2_Samuel 2:2). By her David had a son called Chileab (2_Samuel 3:3), elsewhere called Daniel (1_Chronicles 3:1).

Abihail

Father of might. (1.) Numbers 3:35. (2.) 1_Chronicles 2:29. (3.) 1_Chronicles 5:14.

(4.) The second wife of King Rehoboam (2_Chronicles 11:18), a descendant of Eliab, David's eldest brother.

(5.) The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15).

Abihu

Father of Him; i.e., "worshipper of God", the second of the sons of Aaron (Exodus 6:23; Numbers 3:2; Numbers 26:60; 1_Chronicles 6:3). Along with his three brothers he was consecrated to the priest's office (Exodus 28:1). With his father and elder brother he accompanied the seventy elders part of the way up the mount with Moses (Exodus 24:1, Exodus 24:9). On one occasion he and Nadab his brother offered incense in their censers filled with "strange" (i.e., common) fire, i.e., not with fire taken from the great brazen altar (Leviticus 6:9, etc.), and for this offense they were struck dead, and were taken out and buried without the camp (Leviticus 10:1; compare Numbers 3:4; Numbers 26:61; 1_Chronicles 24:2). It is probable that when they committed this offense they were intoxicated, for immediately after is given the law prohibiting the use of wine or strong drink to the priests.

Abihud

Father (i.e., "possessor") of renown. (1.) One of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 8:3); called also Ahihud (1_Chronicles 8:7).

(2.) A descendant of Zerubbabel and father of Eliakim (Gospel of Matthew 1:13, "Abiud"); called also Juda (Gospel of Luke 3:26), and Obadiah (1_Chronicles 3:21).

Abijah

Father (i.e., "possessor or worshipper") of Jehovah. (1.) 1_Chronicles 7:8. (2.) 1_Chronicles 2:24. (3.) The second son of Samuel (1_Samuel 8:2; 1_Chronicles 6:28). His conduct, along with that of his brother, as a judge in Beer-sheba, to which office his father had appointed him, led to popular discontent, and ultimately provoked the people to demand a royal form of government.

(4.) A descendant of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, a chief of one of the twenty-four orders into which the priesthood was divided by David (1_Chronicles 24:10). The order of Abijah was one of those which did not return from the Captivity (Ezra 2:36; Nehemiah 7:39; Nehemiah 12:1).

(5.) The son of Rehoboam, whom he succeeded on the throne of Judah (1_Chronicles 3:10). He is also called Abijam (1_Kings 14:31; 1_Kings 15:1). He began his three years' reign (2_Chronicles 12:16; 2_Chronicles 13:1, 2_Chronicles 13:2) with a strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten tribes to their allegiance. His address to "Jeroboam and all Israel," before encountering them in battle, is worthy of being specially noticed (2_Chronicles 13:5). It was a very bloody battle, no fewer than 500,000 of the army of Israel having perished on the field. He is described as having walked "in all the sins of his father" (1_Kings 15:3; 2_Chronicles 11:20). It is said in 1_Kings 15:2 that "his mother's name was Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom;" but in 2_Chronicles 13:2 we read, "his mother's name was Michaiah, the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah." The explanation is that Maachah is just a variation of the name Michaiah, and that Abishalom is probably the same as Absalom, the son of David. It is probable that "Uriel of Gibeah" married Tamar, the daughter of Absalom (2_Samuel 14:27), and by her had Maachah. The word "daughter" in 1_Kings 15:2 will thus, as it frequently elsewhere does, mean grand-daughter.

(6.) A son of Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. On account of his severe illness when a youth, his father sent his wife to consult the prophet Ahijah regarding his recovery. The prophet, though blind with old age, knew the wife of Jeroboam as soon as she approached, and under a divine impulse he announced to her that inasmuch as in Abijah alone of all the house of Jeroboam there was found "some good thing toward the Lord," he only would come to his grave in peace. As his mother crossed the threshold of the door on her return, the youth died, and "all Israel mourned for him" (1 Kings 14:1-18).

(7.) The daughter of Zechariah (2_Chronicles 29:1; compare Isaiah 8:2), and afterwards the wife of Ahaz. She is also called Abi (2_Kings 18:2).

(8.) One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 7:8). "Abiah," A.V.

Abijam

Father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called Abijah (1_Kings 15:1, 1_Kings 15:7, 1_Kings 15:8). (See ABIJAH, 5.)

Abilene

A plain, a district lying on the east slope of the Anti-Lebanon range; so called from its chief town, Abila (Gospel of Luke 3:1), which stood in the Suk Wady Barada, between Heliopolis (Baalbec) and Damascus, 38 miles from the former and 18 from the latter. Lysanias was governor or tetrarch of this province.

Abimael

Father of Mael, one of the sons or descendants of Joktan, in Northern Arabia (Genesis 10:28; 1_Chronicles 1:22).

Abimelech

My father a king, or father of a king, a common name of the Philistine kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian kings. (1.) The Philistine king of Gerar in the time of Abraham (Gen. 20:1-18). By an interposition of Providence, Sarah was delivered from his harem, and was restored to her husband Abraham. As a mark of respect he gave to Abraham valuable gifts, and offered him a settlement in any part of his country; while at the same time he delicately and yet severely rebuked him for having practiced a deception upon him in pretending that Sarah was only his sister. Among the gifts presented by the king were a thousand pieces of silver as a "covering of the eyes" for Sarah; i.e., either as an atoning gift and a testimony of her innocence in the sight of all, or rather for the purpose of procuring a veil for Sarah to conceal her beauty, and thus as a reproof to her for not having worn a veil which, as a married woman, she ought to have done. A few years after this Abimelech visited Abraham, who had removed southward beyond his territory, and there entered into a league of peace and friendship with him. This league was the first of which we have any record. It was confirmed by a mutual oath at Beer-sheba (Genesis 21:22).

(2.) A king of Gerar in the time of Isaac, probably the son of the preceding (Gen. 26:1-22). Isaac sought refuge in his territory during a famine, and there he acted a part with reference to his wife Rebekah similar to that of his father Abraham with reference to Sarah. Abimelech rebuked him for the deception, which he accidentally discovered. Isaac settled for a while here, and prospered. Abimelech desired him, however, to leave his territory, which Isaac did. Abimelech afterwards visited him when he was encamped at Beer-sheba, and expressed a desire to renew the covenant which had been entered into between their fathers (Genesis 26:26).

(3.) A son of Gideon (Judges 9:1), who was proclaimed king after the death of his father (Judg. 8:33-9:6). One of his first acts was to murder his brothers, seventy in number, "on one stone," at Ophrah. Only one named Jotham escaped. He was an unprincipled, ambitious ruler, often engaged in war with his own subjects. When engaged in reducing the town of Thebez, which had revolted, he was struck mortally on his head by a mill-stone, thrown by the hand of a woman from the wall above. Perceiving that the wound was mortal, he desired his armour-bearer to thrust him through with his sword, that it might not be said he had perished by the hand of a woman (Judges 9:50).

(4.) The son of Abiathar, and high priest in the time of David (1_Chronicles 18:16). In the parallel passage, 2_Samuel 8:17, we have the name Ahimelech, and Abiathar, the son of Ahimelech. This most authorities consider the more correct reading. (5.) Achish, king of Gath, in the title of Ps. 34. (Compare 1_Samuel 21:10.)

Abinadab

Father of nobleness; i.e., "noble." (1.) A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the covenant was deposited after having been brought back from the land of the Philistines (1_Samuel 7:1). It remained there twenty years, till it was at length removed by David (1_Samuel 7:1, 1_Samuel 7:2; 1_Chronicles 13:7).

(2.) The second of the eight sons of Jesse (1_Samuel 16:8). He was with Saul in the campaign against the Philistines in which Goliath was slain (1_Samuel 17:13).

(3.) One of Saul's sons, who persisted with his father in the battle of Gilboa (1_Samuel 31:2; 1_Chronicles 10:2).

(4.) One of Solomon's officers, who "provided victuals for the king and his household." He presided, for this purpose, over the district of Dor (1_Kings 4:11).

Abinoam

Father of kindness, the father of Barak (Judges 4:6; Judges 5:1).

Abiram

Father of height; i.e., "proud." (1.) One of the sons of Eliab, who joined Korah in the conspiracy against Moses and Aaron. He and all the conspirators, with their families and possessions (except the children of Korah), were swallowed up by an earthquake (Num. 16:1-27; Numbers 26:9; Psalms 106:17).

(2.) The eldest son of Hiel the Bethelite, who perished prematurely in consequence of his father's undertaking to rebuild Jericho (1_Kings 16:34), according to the words of Joshua (1_Kings 6:26). (See JERICHO.)

Abishag

Father of (i.e., "given to") error, a young woman of Shunem, distinguished for her beauty. She was chosen to minister to David in his old age. She became his wife (1_Kings 1:3, 1_Kings 1:4, 1_Kings 1:15). After David's death Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, to entreat the king to permit him to marry Abishag. Solomon suspected in this request an aspiration to the throne, and therefore caused him to be put to death (1_Kings 2:17).

Abishai

Father of (i.e., "desirous of") a gift, the eldest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was the brother of Joab and Asahel (2_Samuel 2:18; 1_Chronicles 2:16). Abishai was the only one who accompanied David when he went to the camp of Saul and took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul's bolster (1_Samuel 26:5). He had the command of one of the three divisions of David's army at the battle with Absalom (2_Samuel 18:2, 2_Samuel 18:5, 2_Samuel 18:12). He slew the Philistine giant Ishbi-benob, who threatened David's life (2_Samuel 21:15). He was the chief of the second rank of the three "mighties" (2_Samuel 23:18, 2_Samuel 23:19; 1_Chronicles 11:20, 1_Chronicles 11:21); and on one occasion withstood 300 men, and slew them with his own spear (2_Samuel 23:18). Abishai is the name of the Semitic chief who offers gifts to the lord of Beni-Hassan.

Abishua

Father of welfare; i.e., "fortunate." (1.) The grandson of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 8:4).

(2.) The son of Phinehas the high priest (1_Chronicles 6:4, 1_Chronicles 6:5, 1_Chronicles 6:50; Ezra 7:5).

Abishur

Father of the wall; i.e., "mason", one of the two sons of Shammai of the tribe of Judah (1_Chronicles 2:28, 1_Chronicles 2:29).

Abital

Father of dew; i.e., "fresh", David's fifth wife (2_Samuel 3:4).

Abitub

Father of goodness, a Benjamite (1_Chronicles 8:11).

Abjects

(Psalms 35:15), the translation of a Hebrew word meaning smiters; probably, in allusion to the tongue, slanderers. (Compare Jeremiah 18:18.)

Ablution

Or washing, was practiced (1.) When a person was initiated into a higher state: e.g., when Aaron and his sons were set apart to the priest's office, they were washed with water previous to their investiture with the priestly robes (Leviticus 8:6).

(2.) Before the priests approached the altar of God, they were required, on pain of death, to wash their hands and their feet to cleanse them from the soil of common life (Exodus 30:17). To this practice the Psalmist alludes, Psalms 26:6.

(3.) There were washings prescribed for the purpose of cleansing from positive defilement contracted by particular acts. Of such washings eleven different species are prescribed in the Levitical law (Lev. 12-15).

(4.) A fourth class of ablutions is mentioned, by which a person purified or absolved himself from the guilt of some particular act. For example, the elders of the nearest village where some murder was committed were required, when the murderer was unknown, to wash their hands over the expiatory heifer which was beheaded, and in doing so to say, "Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it" (Deuteronomy 21:1). So also Pilate declared himself innocent of the blood of Jesus by washing his hands (Gospel of Matthew 27:24). This act of Pilate may not, however, have been borrowed from the custom of the Jews.

The same practice was common among the Greeks and Romans. The Pharisees carried the practice of ablution to great excess, thereby claiming extraordinary purity (Gospel of Matthew 23:25). Mark (Gospel of Mark 7:1) refers to the ceremonial ablutions. The Pharisees washed their hands "oft," more correctly, "with the fist" (R.V., "diligently"), or as an old father, Theophylact, explains it, "up to the elbow." (Compare also Gospel of Mark 7:4; Leviticus 6:28; Leviticus 11:32; Leviticus 15:22) (See WASHING.)

Abner

Father of light; i.e., "enlightening", the son of Ner and uncle of Saul. He was commander-in-chief of Saul's army (1_Samuel 14:50; 1_Samuel 17:55; 1_Samuel 20:25). He first introduced David to the court of Saul after the victory over Goliath (1_Samuel 17:57). After the death of Saul, David was made king over Judah, and reigned in Hebron. Among the other tribes there was a feeling of hostility to Judah; and Abner, at the head of Ephraim, fostered this hostility in the interest of the house of Saul, whose son Ish-bosheth he caused to be proclaimed king (2_Samuel 2:8). A state of war existed between these two kings. A battle fatal to Abner, who was the leader of Ish-boseth's army, was fought with David's army under Joab at Gibeon (2_Samuel 2:12). Abner, escaping from the field, was overtaken by Asahel, who was "light of foot as a wild roe," the brother of Joab and Abishai, whom he thrust through with a back stroke of his spear (2_Samuel 2:18).

Being rebuked by Ish-bosheth for the impropriety of taking to wife Rizpah, who had been a concubine of King Saul, he found an excuse for going over to the side of David, whom he now professed to regard as anointed by the Lord to reign over all Israel. David received him favorably, and promised that he would have command of the armies. At this time Joab was absent from Hebron, but on his return he found what had happened. Abner had just left the city; but Joab by a stratagem recalled him, and meeting him at the gate of the city on his return, thrust him through with his sword (2_Samuel 3:27, 2_Samuel 3:31; 2_Samuel 4:12. Compare 1_Kings 2:5, 1_Kings 2:32). David lamented in pathetic words the death of Abner, "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" (2_Samuel 3:33.)

Abomination

This word is used (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers (Genesis 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (Gospel of John 18:28; Acts 10:28; Acts 11:3).

(2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Genesis 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, arose probably from the fact that Lower and Middle Egypt had formerly been held in oppressive subjection by a tribe of nomad shepherds (the Hyksos), who had only recently been expelled, and partly also perhaps from this other fact that the Egyptians detested the lawless habits of these wandering shepherds.

(3.) Pharaoh was so moved by the fourth plague, that while he refused the demand of Moses, he offered a compromise, granting to the Israelites permission to hold their festival and offer their sacrifices in Egypt. This permission could not be accepted, because Moses said they would have to sacrifice "the abomination of the Egyptians" (Exodus 8:26); i.e., the cow or ox, which all the Egyptians held as sacred, and which they regarded it as sacrilegious to kill.

(4.) Daniel (Daniel 11:31), in that section of his prophecies which is generally interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities that were to fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says, "And they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate." Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to be erected on the altar of burnt-offering, on which sacrifices were offered to Jupiter Olympus. (Compare 1 Macc. 1:57). This was the abomination of the desolation of Jerusalem. The same language is employed in Daniel 9:27 (compare Gospel of Matthew 24:15), where the reference is probably to the image-crowned standards which the Romans set up at the east gate of the temple (A.D. 70), and to which they paid idolatrous honors. "Almost the entire religion of the Roman camp consisted in worshipping the ensign, swearing by the ensign, and in preferring the ensign before all other gods." These ensigns were an "abomination" to the Jews, the "abomination of desolation." This word is also used symbolically of sin in general (Isaiah 66:3); an idol (Isaiah 44:19); the ceremonies of the apostate Church of Rome (Revelation 17:4); a detestable act (Ezekiel 22:11).

Abram

Exalted father

Abraham

Father of a multitude, son of Terah, named (Genesis 11:27) before his older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of the promises. Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred in his native country of Chaldea. He then, with his father and his family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in which he had hitherto dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to Haran, where he abode fifteen years. The cause of his migration was a call from God (Acts 7:2). There is no mention of this first call in the Old Testament; it is implied, however, in Gen. 12. While they tarried at Haran, Terah died at the age of 205 years. Abram now received a second and more definite call, accompanied by a promise from God (Genesis 12:1, Genesis 12:2); whereupon he took his departure, taking his nephew Lot with him, "not knowing whither he went" (Hebrews 11:8). He trusted implicitly to the guidance of Him who had called him.

Abram now, with a large household of probably a thousand souls, entered on a migratory life, and dwelt in tents. Passing along the valley of the Jabbok, in the land of Canaan, he formed his first encampment at Sichem (Genesis 12:6), in the vale or oak-grove of Moreh, between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south. Here he received the great promise, "I will make of thee a great nation," etc. (Genesis 12:2, Genesis 12:3, Genesis 12:7). This promise comprehended not only temporal but also spiritual blessings. It implied that he was the chosen ancestor of the great Deliverer whose coming had been long ago predicted (Genesis 3:15). Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah." He again moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down into Egypt. This took place in the time of the Hyksos, a Semitic race which now held the Egyptians in bondage. Here occurred that case of deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of Pharaoh (Genesis 12:18). Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country. He returned to Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver, and in gold" (Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:2. Compare Psalms 105:13, Psalms 105:14). The whole party then moved northward, and returned to their previous station near Bethel. Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds and those of Abram about water and pasturage. Abram generously gave Lot his choice of the pasture-ground. (Compare 1_Corinthians 6:7.) He chose the well-watered plain in which Sodom was situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and nephew were separated. Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a repetition of the promises already made to him, and then removed to the plain or "oakgrove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron. He finally settled here, pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree, called "the oak of Mamre" (Genesis 13:18). This was his third resting-place in the land.

Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who brought under tribute to him the five cities in the plain to which Lot had removed. This tribute was felt by the inhabitants of these cities to be a heavy burden, and after twelve years they revolted. This brought upon them the vengeance of Chedorlaomer, who had in league with him four other kings. He ravaged the whole country, plundering the towns, and carrying the inhabitants away as slaves. Among those thus treated was Lot. Hearing of the disaster that had fallen on his nephew, Abram immediately gathered from his own household a band of 318 armed men, and being joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, he pursued after Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near the springs of the Jordan. They attacked and routed his army, and pursued it over the range of Anti-Libanus as far as to Hobah, near Damascus, and then returned, bringing back all the spoils that had been carried away. Returning by way of Salem, i.e., Jerusalem, the king of that place, Melchizedek, came forth to meet them with refreshments. To him Abram presented a tenth of the spoils, in recognition of his character as a priest of the most high God (Genesis 14:18).

In a recently-discovered tablet, dated in the reign of the grandfather of Amraphel (Genesis 14:1), one of the witnesses is called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or Abram.

Having returned to his home at Mamre, the promises already made to him by God were repeated and enlarged (Genesis 13:14). "The word of the Lord" (an expression occurring here for the first time) "came to him" (Genesis 15:1). He now understood better the future that lay before the nation that was to spring from him. Sarai, now seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be reckoned as her own. Ishmael was accordingly thus brought up, and was regarded as the heir of these promises (Gen. 16). When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfillment of that purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham (Genesis 17:4, Genesis 17:5), and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of the covenant. It was then announced that the heir to these covenant promises would be the son of Sarai, though she was now ninety years old; and it was directed that his name should be Isaac. At the same time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name was changed to Sarah. On that memorable day of God's thus revealing his design, Abraham and his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were circumcised (Gen. 17). Three months after this, as Abraham sat in his tent door, he saw three men approaching. They accepted his proffered hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the fare which Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was none other than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the guise of men. The Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a son by Sarah, who was rebuked for her unbelief. Abraham accompanied the three as they proceeded on their journey. The two angels went on toward Sodom; while the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him the destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city. The patriarch interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city. But as not even ten righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the city would have been spared, the threatened destruction fell upon it; and early next morning Abraham saw the smoke of the fire that consumed it as the "smoke of a furnace" (Gen. 19:1-28).

After fifteen years' residence at Mamre, Abraham moved southward, and pitched his tent among the Philistines, near to Gerar. Here occurred that sad instance of prevarication on his part in his relation to Abimelech the King (Gen. 20). (See ABIMELECH.) Soon after this event, the patriarch left the vicinity of Gerar, and moved down the fertile valley about 25 miles to Beer-sheba. It was probably here that Isaac was born, Abraham being now an hundred years old. A feeling of jealousy now arose between Sarah and Hagar, whose son, Ishmael, was no longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir. Sarah insisted that both Hagar and her son should be sent away. This was done, although it was a hard trial to Abraham (Genesis 21:12). (See HAGAR; ISHMAEL.)

At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of perhaps twenty-five years. These years of peace and happiness were spent at Beer-sheba. The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the mountains of Moriah. His faith stood the test (Hebrews 11:17). He proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead. From this circumstance that place was called Jehovah-jireh, i.e., "The Lord will provide." The promises made to Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of God to the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and returned to his home at Beer-sheba (Genesis 22:19), where he resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron.

Some years after this Sarah died at Hebron, being 127 years old. Abraham acquired now the needful possession of a burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, by purchase from the owner of it, Ephron the Hittite (Gen. 23); and there he buried Sarah. His next care was to provide a wife for Isaac, and for this purpose he sent his steward, Eliezer, to Haran (or Charran, Acts 7:2), where his brother Nahor and his family resided (Genesis 11:31). The result was that Rebekah, the daughter of Nahor's son Bethuel, became the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24). Abraham then himself took to wife Keturah, who became the mother of six sons, whose descendants were afterwards known as the "children of the east" (Judges 6:3), and later as "Saracens." At length all his wanderings came to an end. At the age of 175 years, 100 years after he had first entered the land of Canaan, he died, and was buried in the old family burying-place at Machpelah (Genesis 25:7).

The history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression on the ancient world, and references to it are interwoven in the religious traditions of almost all Eastern nations. He is called "the friend of God" (James 2:23), "faithful Abraham" (Galatians 3:9), "the father of us all" (Romans 4:16).

Abraham's Bosom

(Gospel of Luke 16:22, Gospel of Luke 16:23) refers to the custom of reclining on couches at table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one who sat or reclined above him. To "be in Abraham's bosom" thus meant to enjoy happiness and rest (Gospel of Matthew 8:11; Gospel of Luke 16:23) at the banquet in Paradise. (See BANQUET; MEAL.)

Abronah

One of Israel's halting-places in the desert (Numbers 33:34, Numbers 33:35), just before Ezion-gaber. In A.V., "Ebronah."

Absalom

Father of peace; i.e., "peaceful" David's son by Maacah (2_Samuel 3:3; compare 1_Kings 1:6). He was noted for his personal beauty and for the extra-ordinary profusion of the hair of his head (2_Samuel 14:25, 2_Samuel 14:26). The first public act of his life was the blood-revenge he executed against Amnon, David's eldest son, who had basely wronged Absalom's sister Tamar. This revenge was executed at the time of the festivities connected with a great sheep-shearing at Baal-hazor. David's other sons fled from the place in horror, and brought the tidings of the death of Amnon to Jerusalem. Alarmed for the consequences of the act, Absalom fled to his grandfather at Geshur, and there abode for three years (2_Samuel 3:3; 13:23-38).

David mourned his absent son, now branded with the guilt of fratricide. As the result of a stratagem carried out by a woman of Tekoah, Joab received David's sanction to invite Absalom back to Jerusalem. He returned accordingly, but two years elapsed before his father admitted him into his presence (2_Samuel 14:28). Absalom was now probably the oldest surviving son of David, and as he was of royal descent by his mother as well as by his father, he began to aspire to the throne. His pretensions were favoured by the people. By many arts he gained their affection; and after his return from Geshur (2_Samuel 15:7; marg., R.V.) he went up to Hebron, the old capital of Judah, along with a great body of the people, and there proclaimed himself king. The revolt was so successful that David found it necessary to quit Jerusalem and flee to Mahanaim, beyond Jordan; where upon Absalom returned to Jerusalem and took possession of the throne without opposition. Ahithophel, who had been David's chief counsellor, deserted him and joined Absalom, whose chief counsellor he now became. Hushai also joined Absalom, but only for the purpose of trying to counteract the counsels of Ahithophel, and so to advantage David's cause. He was so far successful that by his advice, which was preferred to that of Ahithophel, Absalom delayed to march an army against his father, who thus gained time to prepare for the defense.

Absalom at length marched out against his father, whose army, under the command of Joab, he encountered on the borders of the forest of Ephraim. Twenty thousand of Absalom's army were slain in that fatal battle, and the rest fled. Absalom fled on a swift mule; but his long flowing hair, or more probably his head, was caught in the bough of an oak, and there he was left suspended till Joab came up and pierced him through with three darts. His body was then taken down and cast into a pit dug in the forest, and a heap of stones was raised over his grave. When the tidings of the result of that battle were brought to David, as he sat impatiently at the gate of Mahanaim, and he was told that Absalom had been slain, he gave way to the bitter lamentation: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" (2_Samuel 18:33. Compare Exodus 32:32; Romans 9:3).

Absalom's three sons (2_Samuel 14:27; compare 2_Samuel 18:18) had all died before him, so that he left only a daughter, Tamar, who became the grandmother of Abijah.

Acacia

(Hebrew shittim) Exodus 25:5, R.V. probably the Acacia seyal (the gum-arabic tree); called the "shittah" tree (Isaiah 41:19). Its wood is called shittim wood (Exodus 26:15, Exodus 26:26; Exodus 25:10, Exodus 25:13, Exodus 25:23, Exodus 25:28, etc.). This species (A. seyal) is like the hawthorn, a gnarled and thorny tree. It yields the gum-arabic of commerce. It is found in abundance in the Sinaitic peninsula.

Accad

The high land or mountains, a city in the land of Shinar. It has been identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to the north of Babylon; but this is doubtful. It was one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom (Genesis 10:10). It stood close to the Euphrates, opposite Sippara. (See SEPHARVAIM.)

It is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia. The Accadians who came from the "mountains of the east," where the ark rested, attained to a high degree of civilization. In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called "the black heads" and "the black faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent. They invented the form of writing in pictorial hieroglyphics, and also the cuneiform system, in which they wrote many books partly on papyrus and partly on clay. The Semitic Babylonians ("the white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country; and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated classes of Babylonia. A large portion of the Ninevite tablets brought to light by Oriental research consists of interlinear or parallel translations from Accadian into Assyrian; and thus that long-forgotten language has been recovered by scholars. It belongs to the class of languages called agglutinative, common to the Tauranian race; i.e., it consists of words "glued together," without declension of conjugation. These tablets in a remarkable manner illustrate ancient history. Among other notable records, they contain an account of the Creation which closely resembles that given in the book of Genesis, of the Sabbath as a day of rest, and of the Deluge and its cause. (See BABYLONIA, CHALDEA.)

Accho

Sultry or sandy, a town and harbor of Phoenicia, in the tribe of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judges 1:31). It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about 100 B.C.. Here Paul landed on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). During the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and subsequently, on account of its being occupied by the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was called St. Jean d'Acre, or simply Acre.

Accuser

Satan is styled the "accuser of the brethren" (Revelation 12:10. Compare Job 1:6; Zechariah 3:1), as seeking to uphold his influence among men by bringing false charges against Christians, with the view of weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which they are identified. He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser of men before God, laying to their charge the violations of the law of which they were guilty, and demanding their punishment. The same Greek word, rendered "accuser," is found in Gospel of John 8:10 (but omitted in the Revised Version); Acts 23:30, Acts 23:35; Acts 24:8; Acts 25:16, Acts 25:18, in all of which places it is used of one who brings a charge against another.

Aceldama

The name which the Jews gave in their proper tongue, i.e., in Aramaic, to the field which was purchased with the money which had been given to the betrayer of our Lord. The word means "field of blood." It was previously called "the potter's field" (Gospel of Matthew 27:7, Gospel of Matthew 27:8; Acts 1:19), and was appropriated as the burial-place for strangers. It lies on a narrow level terrace on the south face of the valley of Hinnom. Its modern name is Hak ed-damm.

Achaia

The name originally of a narrow strip of territory in Greece, on the north-west of the Peloponnesus. Subsequently it was applied by the Romans to the whole Peloponnesus, now called the Morea, and the south of Greece. It was then one of the two provinces (Macedonia being the other) into which they divided the country when it fell under their dominion. It is in this latter enlarged meaning that the name is always used in the New Testament (Acts 18:12, Acts 18:27; Acts 19:21; Romans 15:26; Romans 16:5, etc.). It was at the time when Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles under the proconsul form of government; hence the appropriate title given to Gallio as the "deputy," i.e., proconsul, of Achaia (Acts 18:12).

Achaichus

(1_Corinthians 16:17), one of the members of the church of Corinth who, with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the church. These three probably were the bearers of the letter from Corinth to the apostle to which he alludes in 1_Corinthians 7:1.

Achan

Called also Achar, i.e., one who troubles (1_Chronicles 2:7), in commemoration of his crime, which brought upon him an awful destruction (Joshua 7:1). On the occasion of the fall of Jericho, he seized, contrary to the divine command, an ingot of gold, a quantity of silver, and a costly Babylonish garment, which he hid in his tent. Joshua was convinced that the defeat which the Israelites afterwards sustained before Ai was a proof of the divine displeasure on account of some crime, and he at once adopted means by the use of the lot for discovering the criminal. It was then found that Achan was guilty, and he was stoned to death in the valley of Achor. He and all that belonged to him were then consumed by fire, and a heap of stones was raised over the ashes.

Achbor

Gnawing = mouse. (1.) An Edomitish king (Genesis 36:38; 1_Chronicles 1:49).

(2.) One of Josiah's officers sent to the prophetess Huldah to inquire regarding the newly-discovered book of the law (2_Kings 22:12, 2_Kings 22:14). He is also called Abdon (2_Chronicles 34:20).

Achish

Angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the Philistine kings. (1.) The king with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul (1_Samuel 21:10). He is called Abimelech in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably this same king to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of 600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on war against the surrounding tribes (1_Samuel 27:5). Achish had great confidence in the valor and fidelity of David (1_Samuel 28:1, 1_Samuel 28:2), but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit him to go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts (1_Samuel 29:2). David remained with Achish a year and four months. (2.) Another king of Gath, probably grandson of the foregoing, to whom the two servants of Shimei fled. This led Shimei to go to Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon put him to death (1_Kings 2:39).

Achmetha

(Ezra 6:2), called Ecbatana by classical writers, the capital of northern Media. Here was the palace which was the residence of the old Median monarchs, and of Cyrus and Cambyses. In the time of Ezra, the Persian kings resided usually at Susa of Babylon. But Cyrus held his court at Achmetha; and Ezra, writing a century after, correctly mentions the place where the decree of Cyrus was found.

Achor

Trouble , a valley near Jericho, so called in consequence of the trouble which the sin of Achan caused Israel (Joshua 7:24, Joshua 7:26). The expression "valley of Achor" probably became proverbial for that which caused trouble, and when Isaiah (Isaiah 65:10) refers to it he uses it in this sense: "The valley of Achor, a place for herds to lie down in;" i.e., that which had been a source of calamity would become a source of blessing. Hosea also (Hosea 2:15) uses the expression in the same sense: "The valley of Achor for a door of hope;" i.e., trouble would be turned into joy, despair into hope. This valley has been identified with the Wady Kelt.

Achsah

Anklet, Caleb's only daughter (1_Chronicles 2:49). She was offered in marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of Debir, or Kirjath-sepher. This was done by Othniel (q.v.), who accordingly obtained her as his wife (Joshua 15:16; Judges 1:9).

Achshaph

Fascination, a royal city of the Canaanites, in the north of Palestine (Joshua 11:1; Joshua 12:20; Joshua 19:25). It was in the eastern boundary of the tribe of Asher, and is identified with the modern ruined village of Kesaf or Yasif, N. E. of Accho.

Achzib

Falsehood. (1.) A town in the Shephelah, or plain country of Judah (Joshua 15:44); probably the same as Chezib of Genesis 38:5 = Ain Kezbeh.

(2.) A Phoenician city (the Gr. Ecdippa ), always retained in their possession though assigned to the tribe of Asher (Joshua 19:29; Judges 1:31). It is identified with the modern es-Zib, on the Mediterranean, about 8 miles north of Accho.

Acre

Is the translation of a word ( tse'med ), which properly means a yoke, and denotes a space of ground that may be plowed by a yoke of oxen in a day. It is about an acre of our measure (Isaiah 5:10; 1_Samuel 14:14).

Acts of the Apostles

The title now given to the fifth and last of the historical books of the New Testament. The author styles it a "treatise" (Acts 1:1). It was early called "The Acts," "The Gospel of the Holy Ghost," and "The Gospel of the Resurrection." It contains properly no account of any of the apostles except Peter and Paul. John is noticed only three times; and all that is recorded of James, the son of Zebedee, is his execution by Herod. It is properly therefore not the history of the "Acts of the Apostles," a title which was given to the book at a later date, but of "Acts of Apostles," or more correctly, of "Some Acts of Certain Apostles.&q

ot; As regards its authorship, it was certainly the work of Luke, the "beloved physician" (compare Gospel of Luke 1:1; Acts 1:1). This is the uniform tradition of antiquity, although the writer nowhere makes mention of himself by name. The style and idiom of the Gospel of Luke and of the Acts, and the usage of words and phrases common to both, strengthen this opinion. The writer first appears in the narrative in Acts 16:11, and then disappears till Paul's return to Philippi two years afterwards, when he and Paul left that place together (Acts 20:6), and the two seem henceforth to have been constant companions to the end. He was certainly with Paul at Rome (Acts 28; Colossians 4:14). Thus he wrote a great portion of that history from personal observation. For what lay beyond his own experience he had the instruction of Paul. If, as is very probable, 2 Timothy was written during Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Luke was with him then as his faithful companion to the last (2_Timothy 4:11). Of his subsequent history we have no certain information.

The design of Luke's Gospel was to give an exhibition of the character and work of Christ as seen in his history till he was taken up from his disciples into heaven; and of the Acts, as its sequel, to give an illustration of the power and working of the gospel when preached among all nations, "beginning at Jerusalem." The opening sentences of the Acts are just an expansion and an explanation of the closing words of the Gospel. In this book we have just a continuation of the history of the church after Christ's ascension. Luke here carries on the history in the same spirit in which he had commenced it. It is only a book of beginnings, a history of the founding of churches, the initial steps in the formation of the Christian society in the different places visited by the apostles. It records a cycle of "representative events.&q

ot; All through the narrative we see the ever-present, all-controlling power of the ever-living Saviour. He worketh all and in all in spreading abroad his truth among men by his Spirit and through the instrumentality of his apostles.

The time of the writing of this history may be gathered from the fact that the narrative extends down to the close of the second year of Paul's first imprisonment at Rome. It could not therefore have been written earlier than A.D. 61 or 62, nor later than about the end of A.D. 63. Paul was probably put to death during his second imprisonment, about A.D. 64, or, as some think, 66.

The place where the book was written was probably Rome, to which Luke accompanied Paul.

The key to the contents of the book is in Acts 1:8, "Ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth." After referring to what had been recorded in a "former treatise" of the sayings and doings of Jesus Christ before his ascension, the author proceeds to give an account of the circumstances connected with that event, and then records the leading facts with reference to the spread and triumphs of Christianity over the world during a period of about thirty years. The record begins with Pentecost (A.D. 33) and ends with Paul's first imprisonment (A.D. 63 or 64). The whole contents of the book may be divided into these three parts: (1.) Chaps. 1-12, describing the first twelve years of the Christian church. This section has been entitled "From Jerusalem to Antioch." It contains the history of the planting and extension of the church among the Jews by the ministry of Peter.

(2.) Chaps. 13-21, Paul's missionary journeys, giving the history of the extension and planting of the church among the Gentiles.

(3.) Chaps. 21-28, Paul at Rome, and the events which led to this. Chaps. 13-28 have been entitled "From Antioch to Rome." In this book it is worthy of note that no mention is made of the writing by Paul of any of his epistles. This may be accounted for by the fact that the writer confined himself to a history of the planting of the church, and not to that of its training or edification. The relation, however, between this history and the epistles of Paul is of such a kind, i.e., brings to light so many undesigned coincidences, as to prove the genuineness and authenticity of both, as is so ably shown by Paley in his Horce Paulince. "No ancient work affords so many tests of veracity; for no other has such numerous points of contact in all directions with contemporary history, politics, and topography, whether Jewish, or Greek, or Roman." Lightfoot. (See PAUL.)

Adah

Ornament. (1.) The first of Lamech's two wives, and the mother of Jabal and Jubal (Genesis 4:19, Genesis 4:20, Genesis 4:23).

(2.) The first of Esau's three wives, the daughter of Elon the Hittite (Genesis 36:2, Genesis 36:4), called also Bashemath (Genesis 26:34).

Adam

Red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages. It was the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27 - 5:32). "God created man [Heb., Adam ] in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.&q

ot; Adam was absolutely the first man whom God created. He was formed out of the dust of the earth (and hence his name), and God breathed into this nostrils the breath of life, and gave him dominion over all the lower creatures (Genesis 1:26; Genesis 2:7). He was placed after his creation in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate it, and to enjoy its fruits under this one prohibition: "Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.&q

ot; The first recorded act of Adam was his giving names to the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, which God brought to him for this end. Thereafter the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and while in an unconscious state took one of his ribs, and closed up his flesh again; and of this rib he made a woman, whom he presented to him when he awoke. Adam received her as his wife, and said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man." He called her Eve, because she was the mother of all living.

Being induced by the tempter in the form of a serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, Eve persuaded Adam, and he also did eat. Thus man fell, and brought upon himself and his posterity all the sad consequences of his transgression. The narrative of the Fall comprehends in it the great promise of a Deliverer (Genesis 3:15), the "first gospel" message to man. They were expelled from Eden, and at the east of the garden God placed a flame, which turned every way, to prevent access to the tree of life (Gen. 3). How long they were in Paradise is matter of mere conjecture.

Shortly after their expulsion Eve brought forth her first-born, and called him Cain. Although we have the names of only three of Adam's sons, viz., Cain, Abel, and Seth yet it is obvious that he had several sons and daughters (Genesis 5:4). He died aged 930 years.

Adam and Eve were the progenitors of the whole human race. Evidences of varied kinds are abundant in proving the unity of the human race. The investigations of science, altogether independent of historical evidence, lead to the conclusion that God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth" (Acts 17:26. Compare Romans 5:12; 1 Cor. 15:22-49).

Adam, a Type

The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to come." On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam. This typical relation is described in Romans 5:14.

Adam, the City of

Is referred to in Joshua 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the west bank of Jordan (1_Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the Israelites' passing over (Joshua 3:16).

Adamah

Red earth, a fortified city of Naphtali, probably the modern Damieh, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias (Joshua 19:33, Joshua 19:36).

Adamant

(Heb. shamir ), Ezekiel 3:9. The Greek word adamas means diamond. This stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard steel. It is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of the truth (Zechariah 7:12), and of hardheartedness against the truth (Jeremiah 17:1).

Adar

Large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7, Esther 3:13; Esther 8:12; Esther 9:1, Esther 9:15, Esther 9:17, Esther 9:19, Esther 9:21). It included the days extending from the new moon of our March to the new moon of April. The name was first used after the Captivity. When the season was backward, and the lambs not yet of a paschal size, or the barley not forward enough for abib, then a month called Veadar, i.e., a second Adar, was intercalated.

Adbeel

Miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and head of an Arabian tribe (Genesis 25:13; 1_Chronicles 1:29).

Addar

Ample, splendid, son of Bela (1_Chronicles 8:3); called also "Ard" (Genesis 46:21)

Adder

(Psalms 140:3; Romans 3:13, "asp") is the rendering of (1.) Akshub ("coiling" or "lying in wait"), properly an asp or viper, found only in this passage. (2.) Pethen ("twisting"), a viper or venomous serpent identified with the cobra (Naja haje) (Psalms 58:4; Psalms 91:13); elsewhere "asp." (3.) Taiphoni ("hissing") (Proverbs 23:32); elsewhere rendered "cockatrice," Isaiah 11:8; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 59:5; Jeremiah 8:17, as it is here in the margin of the Authorized Version. The Revised Version has "basilisk." This may have been the yellow viper, the Daboia xanthina, the largest and most dangerous of the vipers of Palestine. (4.) Shephiphon ("creeping"), occurring only in Genesis 49:17, the small speckled venomous snake, the "horned snake," or cerastes. Dan is compared to this serpent, which springs from its hiding-place on the passer-by.

Addi

Ornament, (Gospel of Luke 3:28), the son of Cosam, and father of Melchi, one of the progenitors of Christ.

Addon

Low, one of the persons named in Nehemiah 7:61 who could not "shew their father's house" on the return from captivity. This, with similar instances (Nehemiah 7:63), indicates the importance the Jews attached to their genealogies.

Adiel

Ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer under David and Solomon (1_Chronicles 27:25). (2.) A family head of the tribe of Simeon (1_Chronicles 4:36). (3.) A priest (1_Chronicles 9:12).

Adin

Effeminate. (1.) Ezra 8:6. (2.) Nehemiah 10:16.

Adina

Slender, one of David's warriors (1_Chronicles 11:42), a Reubenite.

Adino

The Eznite, one of David's mighty men (2_Samuel 23:8). (See JASHOBEAM.)

Adjuration

A solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1_Samuel 14:24; Joshua 6:26; 1_Kings 22:16).

We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Gospel of Matthew 26:63; Gospel of Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer.

The word "adjure", i.e., cause to swear is used with reference to the casting out of demons (Acts 19:13).

Admah

Earth, one of the five cities of the vale of Siddim (Genesis 10:19). It was destroyed along with Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:24; Deuteronomy 29:23). It is supposed by some to be the same as the Adam of Joshua 3:16, the name of which still lingers in Damieh, the ford of Jordan. (See ZEBOIM.)

Adnah

Delight. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1_Chronicles 12:20). (2.) A general under Jehoshaphat, chief over 300,000 men (2_Chronicles 17:14).

Adonibezek

Lord of Bezek, a Canaanitish king who, having subdued seventy of the chiefs that were around him, made an attack against the armies of Judah and Simeon, but was defeated and brought as a captive to Jerusalem, where his thumbs and great toes were cut off. He confessed that God had requited him for his like cruelty to the seventy kings whom he had subdued (Judges 1:4; compare 1_Samuel 15:33).

Adonijah

My Lord is Jehovah. (1.) The fourth son of David (2_Samuel 3:4). After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he became heir-apparent to the throne. But Solomon, a younger brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his father was dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon should at once be proclaimed and admitted to the throne. Adonijah fled and took refuge at the altar, and received pardon for his conduct from Solomon on the condition that he showed himself "a worthy man" (1 Kings 1:5-53). He afterwards made a second attempt to gain the throne, but was seized and put to death (1_Kings 2:13).

(2.) A Levite sent with the princes to teach the book of the law to the inhabitants of Judah (2_Chronicles 17:8).

(3.) One of the "chiefs of the people" after the Captivity (Nehemiah 10:16).

Adonikam

Whom the Lord sets up, one of those "which came with Zerubbabel" (Ezra 2:13). His "children," or retainers, to the number of 666, came up to Jerusalem (Ezra 8:13).

Adoniram

(Adoram 1_Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was "over the tribute," i.e., the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to death by the people of Israel (1_Kings 4:6; 1_Kings 5:14)

Adoni-zedec

Lord of justice or righteousness was king in Jerusalem at the time when the Israelites invaded Palestine (Joshua 10:1, Joshua 10:3). He formed a confederacy with the other Canaanitish kings against the Israelites, but was utterly routed by Joshua when he was engaged in besieging the Gibeonites. The history of this victory and of the treatment of the five confederated kings is recorded in Josh. 10:1-27. (Compare Deuteronomy 21:23). Among the Tell Amarna tablets (see EGYPT) are some very interesting letters from Adoni-zedec to the King of Egypt. These illustrate in a very remarkable manner the history recorded in Josh. 10, and indeed throw light on the wars of conquest generally, so that they may be read as a kind of commentary on the book of Joshua. Here the conquering career of the Abiri (i.e., Hebrews) is graphically described: "Behold, I say that the land of the king my lord is ruined"," The wars are mighty against me", "The Hebrew chiefs plunder all the king's lands", "Behold, I the chief of the Amorites am breaking to pieces." Then he implores the king of Egypt to send soldiers to help him, directing that the army should come by sea to Ascalon or Gaza, and thence march to Wru-sa-lin (Jerusalem) by the valley of Elah.

Adoption

The giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who is not a son by birth. (1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Exodus 2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7).

(2.) National. God adopted Israel (Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; Hosea 11:1; Romans 9:4).

(3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption represents the new relations into which the believer is introduced by justification, and the privileges connected therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (Gospel of John 17:23; Romans 5:5), a spiritual nature (2_Peter 1:4; Gospel of John 1:13), the possession of a spirit becoming children of God (1_Peter 1:14; 2_John 1:4; Romans 8:15; Galatians 5:1; Hebrews 2:15), present protection, consolation, supplies (Gospel of Luke 12:27; Gospel of John 14:18; 1_Corinthians 3:21; 2_Corinthians 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Hebrews 12:5), and a future glorious inheritance (Romans 8:17, Romans 8:23; James 2:5; Philippians 3:21).

Adoram

See ADONIRAM.

Adore

To worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Exodus 3:5; Joshua 5:15), and prostration (Genesis 17:3; Psalms 95:6; Isaiah 44:15, Isaiah 44:17, Isaiah 44:19; Isaiah 46:6). To "kiss the Son" in Psalms 2:12 is to adore and worship him. (See Daniel 3:5, Daniel 3:6.) The word itself does not occur in Scripture.

Adrammelech

Adar the king. (1.) An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2_Kings 17:31), and brought by the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2_Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38).

Adramyttium

A city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times was called Eolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea belonged to this city (Acts 27:2). He was conveyed in it only to Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti, and is a place of some traffic.

Adria

(Acts 27:27; R.V., "the sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the Mare Superum of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare Inferum or Tyrrhenian Sea.

Adriel

Flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1_Samuel 18:19). The five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the Gibeonites (2_Samuel 21:8, 2_Samuel 21:9. Here it is said that Michal "brought up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them as if she had been their own mother, or that for "Michal" we should read "Merab," as in 1_Samuel 18:19).

Adullam

One of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now 'Aid-el-ma (Joshua 12:15; Joshua 15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory over Goliath (1_Samuel 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2_Chronicles 11:7). It was called "the glory of Israel" (Micah 1:15).

The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented" (1_Samuel 22:2). Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.

Adullamite

An inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Genesis 38:1, Genesis 38:12, Genesis 38:20).

Adultery

Conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin.

The Mosaic law (Num. 5:11-31) prescribed that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of jealousy." There is, however, no recorded instance of the application of this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations with the view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing about a divorce. It has been inferred from Gospel of John 8:1 that this sin became very common during the age preceding the destruction of Jerusalem.

Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery spiritually (Jeremiah 3:6, Jeremiah 3:8, Jeremiah 3:9; Ezekiel 16:32; Hosea 1:1, Hosea 2:1, Hosea 3:1 Revelation 2:22). An apostate church is an adulteress (Isaiah 1:21; Ezekiel 23:4, Ezekiel 23:7, Ezekiel 23:37), and the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation" (Gospel of Matthew 12:39). (Compare Rev. 12.)

Adummim

The red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking toward Gilgal, mentioned Joshua 15:7; Joshua 18:17. It was nearly half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Gospel of Luke 10:30). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and carriages for the first time have come along this road from Jerusalem.

Adversary

(Heb. satan ), an opponent or foe (1_Kings 5:4; 1_Kings 11:14, 1_Kings 11:23, 1_Kings 11:25; Gospel of Luke 13:17); one that speaks against another, a complainant (Gospel of Matthew 5:25; Gospel of Luke 12:58); an enemy (Gospel of Luke 18:3), and specially the devil (1_Peter 5:8).

Advocate

(Gr. parakletos ), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by defending or comforting him. It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (Gospel of John 14:16; Gospel of John 15:26; Gospel of John 16:7, where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," q.v.). It is applied to Christ in 1_John 2:1, where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all the places where it occurs. Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul before Felix.

Aenon

Springs, a place near Salim where John baptized (Gospel of John 3:23). It was probably near the upper source of the Wady Far'ah , an open valley extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan. It is full of springs. A place has been found called 'Ainun , four miles north of the springs.

Affection

Feeling or emotion. Mention is made of "vile affections" (Romans 1:26) and "inordinate affection" (Colossians 3:5). Christians are exhorted to set their affections on things above (Colossians 3:2). There is a distinction between natural and spiritual or gracious affections (Ezekiel 33:32).

Affinity

Relationship by alliance (2_Chronicles 18:1) or by marriage (1_Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Leviticus 18:6. Consanguinity is relationship by blood.

Afflictions

Common to all (Job 5:7; Job 14:1; Psalms 34:19); are for the good of men (James 1:2, James 1:3, James 1:12; 2_Corinthians 12:7) and the glory of God (2_Corinthians 12:7; 1_Peter 4:14), and are to be borne with patience by the Lord's people (Psalms 94:12; Proverbs 3:12). They are all directed by God (Lamentations 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his people (2_Corinthians 4:16) in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:35).

Agabus

Prophet, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27, Acts 11:28). Many years afterwards he met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of the bonds and affliction that awaited him at Jerusalem should he persist in going thither (Acts 21:10).

Agag

Flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian. (1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by Balaam (Numbers 24:7). He lived at the time of the Exodus.

(2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered, in retributive justice (Judg. 1), to be brought out and cut in pieces (1 Sam. 15:8-33. Compare Exodus 17:11; Numbers 14:45).

Agagite

A name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1, Esther 3:10; Esther 8:3, Esther 8:5). Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.

Agate

(Heb. shebo ), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest (Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12), the second in the third row. This may be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isaiah 54:12 and Ezekiel 27:16, this word is the rendering of the Hebrew cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely crystalline silica more or less in bands of different tints.

This word is from the Greek name of a stone found in the river Achates in Sicily.

Age

Used to denote the period of a man's life (Genesis 47:28), the maturity of life (Gospel of John 9:21), the latter end of life (Job 11:17), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8), and an indefinite period (Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 3:5, Ephesians 3:21; Colossians 1:26). Respect to be shown to the aged (Leviticus 19:32). It is a blessing to communities when they have old men among them (Isaiah 65:20; Zechariah 8:4). The aged supposed to excel in understanding (Job 12:20; Job 15:10; Job 32:4, Job 32:9; 1_Kings 12:6, 1_Kings 12:8). A full age the reward of piety (Job 5:26; Genesis 15:15).

Agee

Fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David's mighty men (2_Samuel 23:11).

Agony

Contest; wrestling; severe struggling with pain and suffering. Anguish is the reflection on evil that is already past, while agony is a struggle with evil at the time present. It is only used in the New Testament by Luke (Gospel of Luke 22:44) to describe our Lord's fearful struggle in Gethsemane.

The verb from which the noun "agony" is derived is used to denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as "Strive [agonize] to enter" (Gospel of Luke 13:24); "Then would my servants fight" [agonize] (Gospel of John 18:36). Compare 1_Corinthians 9:25; Colossians 1:29; Colossians 4:12; 1_Timothy 6:12; 2_Timothy 4:7, where the words "striveth," "labour," "conflict," "fight," are the renderings of the same Greek verb.

Agriculture

Tilling the ground (Genesis 2:15; Genesis 4:2, Genesis 4:3, Genesis 4:12) and rearing cattle were the chief employments in ancient times. The Egyptians excelled in agriculture. And after the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this art. Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth. See table for The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods: I. Sowing Time Months Tisri, latter half Marchesvan Kisleu, former half Beginning about the autumnal equinox. Cultivation time Early rain due - First showers of autumn II. Unripe Time Kisleu, latter half Tebet Sebat, former half Cultivation time III. Cold Season Sebat, latter half Adar [Veader] Nisan, former half Cultivation time Latter rain due. (Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 5:24; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1; James 5:7; Job 29:23) IV. Harvest Time Nisan, latter half Ijar Sivan, former half Beginning about vernal equinox. Barley green. Passover. V. Summer Sivan, latter half Tammuz Ab, former half Total absence of rain VI. Sultry Season Ab, latter half Elul Tisri, former half Ingathering of fruits The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the year mainly with the gathering in of the fruits.

The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine richly productive (Psalms 1:3; Psalms 65:10; Proverbs 21:1; Isaiah 30:25; Isaiah 32:2, Isaiah 32:20; Hosea 12:11), and the appliances of careful cultivation and of manure increased its fertility to such an extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant population, "20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber (1_Kings 5:11), and in large quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the merchandise in which they traded (Ezekiel 27:17).

The wheat sometimes produced an hundredfold (Genesis 26:12; Gospel of Matthew 13:23). Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful (Numbers 13:23), and the vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant fruit (Deuteronomy 33:24). Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year, when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Leviticus 25:1; Deuteronomy 15:1). It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deuteronomy 22:9). A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deuteronomy 23:24, Deuteronomy 23:25; Gospel of Matthew 12:1). The poor were permitted to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings. A forgotten sheaf in the field was to be left also for the poor. (See Leviticus 19:9, Leviticus 19:10; Deuteronomy 24:19.)

Agricultural Implements and Operations

The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations of agriculture. plows of a simple construction were known in the time of Moses (Deuteronomy 22:10; compare Job 1:14). They were very light, and required great attention to keep them in the ground (Gospel of Luke 9:62). They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14), cows (1_Samuel 6:7), and asses (Isaiah 30:24); but an ox and an ass must not be yoked together in the same plough (Deuteronomy 22:10). Men sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isaiah 28:24). The oxen were urged on by a "goad," or long staff pointed at the end, so that if occasion arose it could be used as a spear also (Judges 3:31; 1_Samuel 13:21). When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the field (Gospel of Matthew 13:3). The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated spots the seed was trampled in by cattle (Isaiah 32:20); but doubtless there was some kind of harrow also for covering in the seed scattered in the furrows of the field. The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to circumstances. The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves (Genesis 37:7; Leviticus 23:10; Ruth 2:7, Ruth 2:15; Job 24:10; Jeremiah 9:22; Micah 4:12), which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor or stored in barns (Gospel of Matthew 6:26). The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle to tread repeatedly over them (Deuteronomy 25:4; Isaiah 28:28). On occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth 2:17; Isaiah 28:27). There was also a "threshing instrument" (Isaiah 41:15; Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the corn. It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2_Samuel 24:22; 1_Chronicles 21:23; Isaiah 3:15). It was somewhat like the Roman tribulum, or threshing instrument. When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up against the wind (Jeremiah 4:11), and afterwards tossed with wooden scoops (Isaiah 30:24). The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Psalms 35:5; Job 21:18; Isaiah 17:13. The refuse of straw and chaff was burned (Isaiah 5:24). Freed from impurities, the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deuteronomy 28:8; Proverbs 3:10; Gospel of Matthew 6:26; Gospel of Matthew 13:30; Gospel of Luke 12:18).

Agrippa I

The grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and Bernice. The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of the territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias, with the title of king ("king Herod"), and finally of that of Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he became ruler over the whole of Palestine. He was a persecutor of the early Christians. He slew James, and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:1). He died at Caesarea, being "eaten of worms" (Acts 12:23), A.D. 44. (Compare Josephus, Ant. xix. 8.)

Agrippa II

Son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, A.D. 27. He was the brother of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius (A.D. 48) invested him with the office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem, and made him governor (A.D. 50) of Chalcis. He was afterwards raised to the rank of king, and made governor over the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Acts 25:13; Acts 26:2, Acts 26:7). It was before him that Paul delivered (A.D. 59) his speech recorded in Acts 26. His private life was very profligate. He died (the last of his race) at Rome, at the age of about seventy years, A.D. 100.

Ague

The translation in Leviticus 26:16 (R.V., "fever") of the Hebrew word kaddah'ath , meaning "kindling", i.e., an inflammatory or burning fever. In Deuteronomy 28:22 the word is rendered "fever."

Agur

Gatherer; the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in Prov. 30. Nothing is known of him beyond what is there recorded.

Ah!

An exclamation of sorrow or regret (Psalms 35:25; Isaiah 1:4, Isaiah 1:24; Jeremiah 1:6; Jeremiah 22:18; Gospel of Mark 15:29).

Aha

An exclamation of ridicule (Psalms 35:21; Psalms 40:15; Psalms 70:3). In Isaiah 44:16 it signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25, R.V.

Ahab

Father's brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings 16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause Ahab renewed war (1_Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet Micaiah warned him that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false prophets who encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was imprisoned for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose. Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1_Kings 21:19) was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years. Because of his idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2_Kings 8:18; 2_Chronicles 22:3; Micah 6:16).

(2.) A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 29:21), of whom nothing further is known.

Ahasuerus

There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.) The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Daniel 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.

(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, probably the Cambyses of profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (529 B.C.).

(3.) The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of Esther. He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia." This was in all probability the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius (485 B.C.). In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years (486-465 B.C.). He invaded Greece with an army, it is said, of more than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom returned with him. Leonidas, with his famous 300, arrested his progress at the Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by Themistocles at Salamis. It was after his return from this invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen.

Ahava

Water, the river (Ezra 8:21) by the banks of which the Jewish exiles assembled under Ezra when about to return to Jerusalem from Babylon. In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia. It has, however, been supposed to be the name of a place (Ezra 8:15) now called Hit, on the Euphrates, east of Damascus.

Ahaz

Possessor. (1.) A grandson of Jonathan (1_Chronicles 8:35; 1_Chronicles 9:42).

(2.) The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings 16; Isa. 7-9; 2 Chr. 28). He gave himself up to a life of wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to the great injury of his kingdom and his own humiliating subjection to the Assyrians (2_Kings 16:7, 2_Kings 16:9; 2_Kings 15:29). He also introduced among his people many heathen and idolatrous customs (Isaiah 8:19; Isaiah 38:8; 2_Kings 23:12). He died at the age of thirty-five years, after reigning sixteen years (740-724 B.C.), and was succeeded by his son Hezekiah. Because of his wickedness he was "not brought into the sepulchre of the kings."

Ahaziah

Held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed the counsels of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness the ways of his father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from under his authority (2_Kings 3:5). He united with Jehoshaphat in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which proved a failure (2_Chronicles 20:35). His messengers, sent to consult the god of Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects of a fall from the roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king that he would never rise from his bed (1 Kings 22:51 - 2 Kings 1:18).

(2.) The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah. Called Jehoahaz (2_Chronicles 21:17; 2_Chronicles 25:23), and Azariah (2_Chronicles 22:6). Guided by his idolatrous mother Athaliah, his reign was disastrous (2_Kings 8:24; 2_Kings 9:29). He joined his uncle Jehoram, king of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of Damascus; but was wounded at the pass of Gur when attempting to escape, and had strength only to reach Megiddo, where he died (2_Kings 9:22). He reigned only one year.

Ahiam

Mother's brother, one of David's thirty heroes (2_Samuel 23:33; 1_Chronicles 11:35).

Ahiezer

Brother of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The chief of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus (Numbers 1:12; Numbers 2:25; Numbers 10:25).

(2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to David at Ziklag (1_Chronicles 12:3).

Ahihud

Brother (i.e., "friend") of union. (1.) A son of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 8:7).

(2.) Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of Judah. Chief of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to superintend the division of Canaan among the tribe (Numbers 34:27).

Ahijah

Brother (i.e., "friend") of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1_Chronicles 8:7, R.V.). In A.V. called "Ahiah.&q

ot; (2.) One of the five sons of Jerahmeel, who was great-grandson of Judah (1_Chronicles 2:25).

(3.) Son of Ahitub (1_Samuel 14:3, 1_Samuel 14:18), Ichabod's brother; the same probably as Ahimelech, who was high priest at Nob in the reign of Saul (1_Samuel 22:11). Some, however, suppose that Ahimelech was the brother of Ahijah, and that they both officiated as high priests, Ahijah at Gibeah or Kirjath-jearim, and Ahimelech at Nob.

(4.) A Pelonite, one of David's heroes (1_Chronicles 11:36); called also Eliam (2_Samuel 23:34).

(5.) A Levite having charge of the sacred treasury in the temple (1_Chronicles 26:20).

(6.) One of Solomon's secretaries (1_Kings 4:3).

(7.) A prophet of Shiloh (1_Kings 11:29; 1_Kings 14:2), called the "Shilonite," in the days of Rehoboam. We have on record two of his remarkable prophecies, 1_Kings 11:31, announcing the rending of the ten tribes from Solomon; and 1_Kings 14:6, delivered to Jeroboam's wife, foretelling the death of Abijah the king's son, the destruction of Jeroboam's house, and the captivity of Israel "beyond the river." Jeroboam bears testimony to the high esteem in which he was held as a prophet of God (1_Kings 14:2, 1_Kings 14:3).

Ahikam

Brother of support = helper, one of the five whom Josiah sent to consult the prophetess Huldah in connection with the discovery of the book of the law (2_Kings 22:12; 2_Chronicles 34:20). He was the son of Shaphan, the royal secretary, and the father of Gedaliah, governor of Judea after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians (2_Kings 25:22; Jeremiah 40:5; Jeremiah 43:6). On one occasion he protected Jeremiah against the fury of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 26:24). It was in the chamber of another son (Germariah) of Shaphan that Baruch read in the ears of all the people Jeremiah's roll.

Ahimaaz

Brother of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife of Saul (1_Samuel 14:50).

(2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high priest (1_Chronicles 6:8, 1_Chronicles 6:53). On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in Jerusalem (2_Samuel 15:24; 2_Samuel 17:15). He was swift of foot, and was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from telling him of his death (2_Samuel 18:19).

Ahiman

Brother of a gift = liberal. (1.) One of the three giant Anakim brothers whom Caleb and the spies saw in Mount Hebron (Numbers 13:22) when they went in to explore the land. They were afterwards driven out and slain (Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:10).

(2.) One of the guardians of the temple after the Exile (1_Chronicles 9:17).

Ahimelech

Brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar (1_Samuel 22:20). He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In 1_Chronicles 18:16 he is called Abimelech, and is probably the same as Ahiah (1_Samuel 14:3, 1_Samuel 14:18). He was the twelfth high priest, and officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and his companions he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he fled from Saul (1_Samuel 21:1). He was summoned into Saul's presence, and accused, on the information of Doeg the Edomite, of disloyalty because of his kindness to David; whereupon the king commanded that he, with the other priests who stood beside him (86 in all), should be put to death. This sentence was carried into execution by Doeg in the most cruel manner (1_Samuel 22:9). Possibly Abiathar had a son also called Ahimelech, or the two names, as some think, may have been accidentally transposed in 2_Samuel 8:17; 1_Chronicles 18:16, marg.; 1_Chronicles 24:3, 1_Chronicles 24:6, 1_Chronicles 24:31.

Ahinadab

Brother of liberality = liberal one of the twelve commissariat officers appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise supplies by monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim (1_Kings 4:14), east of Jordan.

Ahinoam

Brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1_Samuel 14:50).

(2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1_Samuel 25:43; 1_Samuel 27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2_Samuel 3:2). (See 1_Samuel 30:5, 1_Samuel 30:18; 2_Samuel 2:2.)

Ahio

Brotherly. (1.) One of the sons of Beriah (1_Chronicles 8:14).

(2.) One of the sons of Jehiel the Gibeonite (1_Chronicles 8:31; 1_Chronicles 9:37).

(3.) One of the sons of Abinadab the Levite. While Uzzah went by the side of the ark, he walked before it guiding the oxen which drew the cart on which it was carried, after having brought it from his father's house in Gibeah (1_Chronicles 13:7; 2_Samuel 6:3, 2_Samuel 6:4).

Ahira

Brother of evil = unlucky, or my brother is friend, chief of the tribe of Naphtali at the Exodus (Numbers 1:15; Numbers 2:29).

Ahishar

Brother of song = singer, the officer who was "over the household" of Solomon (1_Kings 4:6).

Ahithophel

Brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted David (Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12) and espoused the cause of Absalom (2_Samuel 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2_Samuel 15:31). This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer any influence, and accordingly he at once left the camp of Absalom and returned to Giloh, his native place where, after arranging his worldly affairs, he hanged himself, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers (2 Sam. 17:1-23). He was the type of Judas (Psalms 41:9).

Ahitub

Brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1_Samuel 14:3; 1_Samuel 22:9, 1_Samuel 22:11, 1_Samuel 22:12, 1_Samuel 22:20).

(2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1_Chronicles 6:7, 1_Chronicles 6:8; 2_Samuel 8:17).

Ahlab

Fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician border (Judges 1:31), north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly identified with Giscala, now el-Jish.

Ahoah

Brotherly, one of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 8:4). He is also called Ahiah (1_Chronicles 8:7) and Iri (1_Chronicles 7:7). His descendants were called Ahohites (2_Samuel 23:9, 2_Samuel 23:28).

Ahohite

An epithet applied to Dodo, one of Solomon's captains (1_Chronicles 27:4); to his son Eleazar, one of David's three mightiest heroes (2_Samuel 23:9; 1_Chronicles 11:12); and to Zalmon, one of the thirty (2_Samuel 23:28; 1_Chronicles 11:29), from their descent from Ahoah.

Aholah

She has her own tent, a name used by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 23:4, Ezekiel 23:5, Ezekiel 23:36, Ezekiel 23:44) as a symbol of the idolatry of the kingdom of Israel. This kingdom is described as a lewd woman, an adulteress, given up to the abominations and idolatries of the Egyptians and Assyrians. Because of her crimes, she was carried away captive, and ceased to be a kingdom. (Compare Psalms 78:67; 1_Kings 12:25; 2_Chronicles 11:13.)

Aholiab

Tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to the work of preparing materials for the tabernacle (Exodus 31:6; Exodus 35:34; Exodus 36:1, Exodus 36:2; Exodus 38:23).

Aholibah

My tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied symbolically to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship of the true God and given herself up to the idolatries of foreign nations. (Ezekiel 23:4, Ezekiel 23:11, Ezekiel 23:22, Ezekiel 23:36, Ezekiel 23:44).

Aholibamah

Tent of the height, the name given to Judith, the daughter of Beeri = Anah (Genesis 26:34; Genesis 36:2), when she became the wife of Esau. A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she received her name from the district. From her descended three tribes of Edomites, founded by her three sons.

Ai

Ruins. (1.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Joshua 10:1; Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:3). It was the scene of Joshua's defeat, and afterwards of his victory. It was the second Canaanite city taken by Israel (Joshua 7:2; 8:1-29). It lay rebuilt and inhibited by the Benjamites (Ezra 2:28; Nehemiah 7:32; Nehemiah 11:31). It lay to the east of Bethel, "beside Beth-aven." The spot which is most probably the site of this ancient city is Haiyan, 2 miles east from Bethel. It lay up the Wady Suweinit, a steep, rugged valley, extending from the Jordan valley to Bethel.

(2.)A city in the Ammonite territory (Jeremiah 49:3). Some have thought that the proper reading of the word is Ar (Isaiah 15:1).

Aijeleth Shahar

Hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Ps. 22. It is probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which the psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the name some instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the subject of the psalm.

Air

The atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky (1_Thessalonians 4:17; Revelation 9:2; Revelation 16:17). This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew ruah (Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the rendering of shamaiyim, usually translated "heavens.&q

ot; The expression "to speak into the air" (1_Corinthians 14:9) is a proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to "beat the air" (1_Corinthians 9:26) denotes to labour in vain.

Ajalon

And Aijalon, place of deer. (1.)A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could not drive the Amorites (Judges 1:35). It was one of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites (1_Chronicles 6:69). It was not far from Beth-shemesh (2_Chronicles 28:18). It was the boundary between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in Jewish history (2_Chronicles 11:10; 1_Samuel 14:31; 1_Chronicles 8:13). With reference to the valley named after the town, Joshua uttered the celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" (Joshua 10:12). It has been identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q.v.) speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by the invaders, and describes himself as "afflicted, greatly afflicted" by the calamities that had come on the land, urging the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.

(2.)A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judges 12:12), the modern Jalun, three miles north of Cabul.

Akkub

(Another form of Jacob) (1.) The head of one of the families of Nethinim (Ezra 2:45).

(2.)A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from Babylon (1_Chronicles 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45).

(3.)A descendant of David (1_Chronicles 3:24).

Akrabbim

Scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole district, and hence the name (Numbers 34:4). It is called "Maaleh-acrabbim" in Joshua 15:3, and "the ascent of Akrabbim" in Numbers 34:4.

Alabaster

Occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of "ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Gospel of Matthew 26:7; Gospel of Mark 14:3; Gospel of Luke 7:37). These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where they were made. The name was then given to the stone of which they were made; and finally to all perfume vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman "broke" the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done, the long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very easily wrought into boxes. Mark says (Gospel of Mark 14:5) that this box of ointment was worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of the value of seven-pence half-penny of our money, and therefore worth about 10 pounds. But if we take the denarius as the day's wage of a laborer (Gospel of Matthew 20:2), say two shillings of our money, then the whole would be worth about 30 pounds, so costly was Mary's offering.

Alamoth

Virgins, a musical term (1_Chronicles 15:20), denoting that the psalm which bears this inscription (Psalms 46:1) was to be sung by soprano or female voices.

Alarm

A particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give warning to the Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness (Numbers 10:5, Numbers 10:6), a call to arms, or a war-note (Jeremiah 4:19; Jeremiah 49:2; Zephaniah 1:16).

Alemeth

Covering. (1.) One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 7:8).

(2.)One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz (1_Chronicles 8:36).

(3.)A sacerdotal city of Benjamin (1_Chronicles 6:60), called also Almon (Joshua 21:18), now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient Anathoth.

Alexander

Man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6).

(2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Gospel of Mark 15:21).

(3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as the following.

(4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1_Timothy 1:19; 2_Timothy 4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him (1_Timothy 1:20; compare 1_Corinthians 5:5).

Alexander the Great

The king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Daniel 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (Daniel 7:6; Daniel 11:3, Daniel 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, 323 B.C.. His empire was divided among his four generals.

Alexandria

The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about 333 B.C.). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). See Map, Ancient Alexandria. Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated at one time. It was begun 280 B.C., and finished about 200 or 150 B.C.. (See VERSION.)

Algum

(2_Chronicles 2:8; 2_Chronicles 9:10, 2_Chronicles 9:11), the same as almug (1_Kings 10:11).

Alien

A foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens. (1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no landed property.

(2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being naturalized (Leviticus 22:10; Psalms 39:12). Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions, the same rights as other citizens (Leviticus 19:33, Leviticus 19:34; Deuteronomy 10:19). They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and abandoning idolatry (Deuteronomy 23:3).

This term is used (Ephesians 2:12) to denote persons who have no interest in Christ.

Allegory

Used only in Galatians 4:24, where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically.

Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2_Samuel 12:1) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Ecclesiastes 12:2, there is a striking allegorical description of old age.

Alleluia

The Greek form (Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:3, Revelation 19:4, Revelation 19:6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (Ps. 106, Psalms 111:1, Psalms 112:1, Psalms 113:1, etc.).

Alliance

A treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage.

Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Genesis 14:13), also with Abimelech (Genesis 21:22). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3-27). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Leviticus 18:3, Leviticus 18:4; Leviticus 20:22, Leviticus 20:23).

Solomon formed a league with Hiram (1_Kings 5:12). This "brotherly covenant" is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amos 1:9). He also appears to have entered into an alliance with Pharaoh (1_Kings 10:28, 1_Kings 10:29).

In the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel various alliances were formed between them and also with neighboring nations at different times.

From patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by the blood of some sacrificial victim. The animal sacrificed was cut in two (except birds), and between these two parts the persons contracting the alliance passed (Genesis 15:10). There are frequent allusions to this practice (Jeremiah 34:18). Such alliances were called "covenants of salt" (Numbers 18:19; 2_Chronicles 13:5), salt being the symbol of perpetuity. A pillar was set up as a memorial of the alliance between Laban and Jacob (Genesis 31:52). The Jews throughout their whole history attached great importance to fidelity to their engagements. Divine wrath fell upon the violators of them (Joshua 9:18; 2_Samuel 21:1, 2_Samuel 21:2; Ezekiel 17:16).

Allon

Oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Joshua 19:33, "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark.

(2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1_Chronicles 4:37).

Allon-bachuth

Oak of weeping a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Genesis 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Judges 4:5).

Almodad

Immeasurable the first named of the sons of Joktan (Genesis 10:26), the founder of an Arabian tribe.

Almon

Hidden one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin (Joshua 21:18), called also Alemeth (1_Chronicles 6:60).

Almond

A native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, shaked, signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even in January. In Ecclesiastes 12:5, it is referred to as illustrative, probably, of the haste with which old age comes. There are others, however, who still contend for the old interpretation here. "The almond tree bears its blossoms in the midst of winter, on a naked, leafless stem, and these blossoms (reddish or flesh-colored in the beginning) seem at the time of their fall exactly like white snow-flakes. In this way the almond blossom is a very fitting symbol of old age, with its silvery hair and its wintry, dry, barren, unfruitful condition." In Jeremiah 1:11 "I see a rod of an almond tree [shaked]... for I will hasten [shaked] my word to perform it" the word is used as an emblem of promptitude. Jacob desired his sons (Genesis 43:11) to take with them into Egypt of the best fruits of the land, almonds, etc., as a present to Joseph, probably because this tree was not a native of Egypt. Aaron's rod yielded almonds (Numbers 17:8; Hebrews 9:4). Moses was directed to make certain parts of the candlestick for the ark of carved work "like unto almonds" (Exodus 25:33, Exodus 25:34). The Hebrew word luz, translated "hazel" in the Authorized Version (Genesis 30:37), is rendered in the Revised Version "almond." It is probable that luz denotes the wild almond, while shaked denotes the cultivated variety.

Alms

Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The Mosaic legislation (Leviticus 25:35; Deuteronomy 15:7) tended to promote a spirit of charity, and to prevent the occurrence of destitution among the people. Such passages as these, Psalms 41:1; Psalms 112:9; Proverbs 14:31; Isaiah 10:2; Amos 2:7; Jeremiah 5:28; Ezekiel 22:29, would also naturally foster the same benevolent spirit.

In the time of our Lord begging was common (Gospel of Mark 10:46; Acts 3:2). The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their almsgivings (Gospel of Matthew 6:2). The spirit by which the Christian ought to be actuated in this duty is set forth in 1_John 3:17. A regard to the state of the poor and needy is enjoined as a Christian duty (Gospel of Luke 3:11; Gospel of Luke 6:30; Gospel of Matthew 6:1; Acts 9:36; Acts 10:2, Acts 10:4), a duty which was not neglected by the early Christians (Gospel of Luke 14:13; Acts 20:35; Galatians 2:10; Romans 15:25; 1_Corinthians 16:1). They cared not only for the poor among themselves, but contributed also to the necessities of those at a distance (Acts 11:29; Acts 24:17; 2_Corinthians 9:12). Our Lord and his attendants showed an example also in this (Gospel of John 13:29).

In modern times the "poor-laws" have introduced an element which modifies considerably the form in which we may discharge this Christian duty.

Almug

(1_Kings 10:11, 1_Kings 10:12) = algum (2_Chronicles 2:8; 2_Chronicles 9:10, 2_Chronicles 9:11), in the Hebrew occurring only in the plural almuggim (indicating that the wood was brought in planks), the name of a wood brought from Ophir to be used in the building of the temple, and for other purposes. Some suppose it to have been the white sandal-wood of India, the Santalum album of botanists, a native of the mountainous parts of the Malabar coasts. It is a fragrant wood, and is used in China for incense in idol-worship. Others, with some probability, think that it was the Indian red sandal-wood, the pterocarpus santalinus, a heavy, fine-grained wood, the Sanscrit name of which is valguka. It is found on the Coromandel coast and in Ceylon.

Aloes

(Heb. 'ahalim ), a fragrant wood (Numbers 24:6; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song_of_Solomon 4:14), the Aquilaria agallochum of botanists, or, as some suppose, the costly gum or perfume extracted from the wood. It is found in China, Siam, and Northern India, and grows to the height sometimes of 120 feet. This species is of great rarity even in India. There is another and more common species, called by Indians aghil, whence Europeans have given it the name of Lignum aquile, or eagle-wood. Aloewood was used by the Egyptians for embalming dead bodies. Nicodemus brought it (pounded aloe-wood) to embalm the body of Christ (Gospel of John 19:39); but whether this was the same as that mentioned elsewhere is uncertain.

The bitter aloes of the apothecary is the dried juice of the leaves Aloe vulgaris.

Alphaeus

(1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the epistle (Gospel of Matthew 10:3; Gospel of Mark 3:18; Gospel of Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the husband of Mary (Gospel of John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.).

(2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Gospel of Mark 2:14).

Altar

(Heb. mizbe'ah , from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of earth (Exodus 20:24) or unwrought stone (Exodus 20:25) on which sacrifices were offered. Altars were generally erected in conspicuous places (Genesis 22:9; Ezekiel 6:3; 2_Kings 23:12; 2_Kings 16:4; 2_Kings 23:8; Acts 14:13). The word is used in Hebrews 13:10 for the sacrifice offered upon it the sacrifice Christ offered.

Paul found among the many altars erected in Athens one bearing the inscription, "To the unknown God" (Acts 17:23), or rather "to an [i.e., some] unknown God." The reason for this inscription cannot now be accurately determined. It afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the "men of Athens.&q

ot; The first altar we read of is that erected by Noah (Genesis 8:20). Altars were erected by Abraham (Genesis 12:7; Genesis 13:4; Genesis 22:9), by Isaac (Genesis 26:25), by Jacob (Genesis 33:20; Genesis 35:1, Genesis 35:3), and by Moses (Exodus 17:15, "Jehovah-nissi").

In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the temple, two altars were erected. (1.) The altar of burnt offering (Exodus 30:28), called also the "brasen altar" (Exodus 39:39) and "the table of the Lord" (Malachi 1:7).

This altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is described in Exodus 27:1. It was a hollow square, 5 cubits in length and in breadth, and 3 cubits in height. It was made of shittim wood, and was overlaid with plates of brass. Its corners were ornamented with "horns" (Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 4:18).

In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils appertaining to the altar are enumerated. They were made of brass. (Compare 1_Samuel 2:13, 1_Samuel 2:14; Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:6, Numbers 16:7.)

In Solomon's temple the altar was of larger dimensions (2_Chronicles 4:1. Compare 1_Kings 8:22, 1_Kings 8:64; 1_Kings 9:25), and was made wholly of brass, covering a structure of stone or earth. This altar was renewed by Asa (2_Chronicles 15:8). It was removed by Ahaz (2_Kings 16:14), and "cleansed" by Hezekiah, in the latter part of whose reign it was rebuilt. It was finally broken up and carried away by the Babylonians (Jeremiah 52:17).

After the return from captivity it was re-erected (Ezra 3:3, Ezra 3:6) on the same place where it had formerly stood. (Compare 1 Macc. 4:47.) When Antiochus Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt offering was taken away.

Again the altar was erected by Herod, and remained in its place till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (A.D. 70).

The fire on the altar was not permitted to go out (Leviticus 6:9).

In the Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome, which occupies the site of the old temple, there is a rough projection of the natural rock, of about 60 feet in its extreme length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest part about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock seems to have been left intact when Solomon's temple was built. It was in all probability the site of the altar of burnt offering. Underneath this rock is a cave, which may probably have been the granary of Araunah's threshing-floor (1_Chronicles 21:22).

(2.) The altar of incense (Exodus 30:1), called also "the golden altar" (Exodus 39:38; Numbers 4:11), stood in the holy place "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony." On this altar sweet spices were continually burned with fire taken from the brazen altar. The morning and the evening services were commenced by the high priest offering incense on this altar. The burning of the incense was a type of prayer (Psalms 141:2; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:4).

This altar was a small movable table, made of acacia wood overlaid with gold (Exodus 37:25, Exodus 37:26). It was 1 cubit in length and breadth, and 2 cubits in height.

In Solomon's temple the altar was similar in size, but was made of cedar-wood (1_Kings 6:20; 1_Kings 7:48) overlaid with gold. In Ezekiel 41:22 it is called "the altar of wood." (Compare Exodus 30:1.)

In the temple built after the Exile the altar was restored. Antiochus Epiphanes took it away, but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Macc. 1:23; 4:49). Among the trophies carried away by Titus on the destruction of Jerusalem the altar of incense is not found, nor is any mention made of it in Heb. 9. It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an angel appeared to him (Gospel of Luke 1:11). It is the only altar which appears in the heavenly temple (Isaiah 6:6; Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:4).

Altaschith

Destroy not, the title of Psalms 57:1, Psalms 58:1, Ps. 59, and Psalms 75:1. It was probably the name of some song to the melody of which these psalms were to be chanted.

Alush

One of the places, the last before Rephidim, at which the Hebrews rested on their way to Sinai (Numbers 33:13, Numbers 33:14). It was probably situated on the shore of the Red Sea.

Amalek

Dweller in a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau (Genesis 36:12; 1_Chronicles 1:36); the chief of an Idumean tribe (Genesis 36:16). His mother was a Horite, a tribe whose territory the descendants of Esau had seized.

Amalekite

A tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of Eliphaz, for they existed in the days of Abraham (Genesis 14:7). They were probably a tribe that migrated from the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia. They dwelt in the land of the south...from Havilah until thou comest to Shur' (Numbers 13:29; 1_Samuel 15:7). They were a pastoral, and hence a nomadic race. Their kings bore the hereditary name of Agag (Numbers 24:7; 1_Samuel 15:8). They attempted to stop the Israelites when they marched through their territory (Deuteronomy 25:18), attacking them at Rephidim (Exodus 17:8; compare Deuteronomy 25:17; 1_Samuel 15:2). They afterwards attacked the Israelites at Hormah (Numbers 14:45). We read of them subsequently as in league with the Moabites (Judges 3:13) and the Midianites (Judges 6:3). Saul finally desolated their territory and destroyed their power (1_Samuel 14:48; 1_Samuel 15:3), and David recovered booty from them (1_Samuel 30:18). In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called Sute, in those of Egypt Sittiu, and the Amarna tablets include them under the general name of Khabbati, or 'plunderers.'

Amana

Perennial. (1.) The Hebrew margin of 2_Kings 5:12 gives this as another reading of Abana (q.v.), a stream near Damascus.

(2.) A mountain (Song_of_Solomon 4:8), probably the southern summit of Anti-Libanus, at the base of which are the sources of the Abana.

Amariah

Said by Jehovah. (1.) One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar (1_Chronicles 6:7, 1_Chronicles 6:52). He was probably the last of the high priests of Eleazar's line prior to the transfer of that office to Eli, of the line of Ithamar.

(2.) A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1_Chronicles 23:19; 1_Chronicles 24:23).

(3.) A 'chief priest' who took an active part in the reformation under Jehoshaphat (2_Chronicles 19:11); probably the same as mentioned in 1_Chronicles 6:9.

(4.) 1_Chronicles 6:11; Ezra 7:3. (5.) One of the high priests in the time of Hezekiah (2_Chronicles 31:15). (6.) Zephaniah 1:1. (7.) Nehemiah 11:4. (8.) Nehemiah 10:3. (9.) Ezra 10:42.

Amasa

Burden. (1.) The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1_Chronicles 2:17; 2_Samuel 17:25). He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2_Samuel 19:13), who afterwards treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2_Samuel 20:4).

(2.) A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2_Chronicles 28:12) in the reign of Ahaz.

Amasai

Burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of Samuel (1_Chronicles 6:25, 1_Chronicles 6:35).

(2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David in the "stronghold," probably of Adullam (1_Chronicles 12:18).

(3.) One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom (1_Chronicles 15:24).

(4.) The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites who took a prominent part at the instance of Hezekiah in the cleansing of the temple (2_Chronicles 29:12).

Amashai

The son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do the work of the temple (Nehemiah 11:13).

Amasiah

Burden of (i.e., "sustained by") Jehovah, the "son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself unto the Lord," a captain over thousands under Jehoshaphat (2_Chronicles 17:16; compare Judges 5:9).

Amaziah

Strengthened by Jehovah. (1.) A Levite, son of Hilkiah, of the descendants of Ethan the Merarite (1_Chronicles 6:45).

(2.) The son and successor of Joash, and eighth king of the separate kingdom of Judah(2_Kings 14:1). He began his reign by punishing the murderers of his father (2_Kings 14:5; 2_Chronicles 25:3). He was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which he did in his attempt to bring the Edomites again under the yoke of Judah (2_Chronicles 25:5, 2_Chronicles 25:6). He was commanded by a prophet of the Lord to send back the mercenaries, which he did (2_Chronicles 25:7, 2_Chronicles 25:13), much to their annoyance. His obedience to this command was followed by a decisive victory over the Edomites (2_Chronicles 25:14). Amaziah began to worship some of the idols he took from the Edomites, and this was his ruin, for he was vanquished by Joash, king of Israel, whom he challenged to battle. The disaster he thus brought upon Judah by his infatuation in proclaiming war against Israel probably occasioned the conspiracy by which he lost his life (2_Kings 14:8, 2_Kings 14:19). He was slain at Lachish, whither he had fled, and his body was brought upon horses to Jerusalem, where it was buried in the royal sepulchre (2_Kings 14:19, 2_Kings 14:20; 2_Chronicles 25:27, 2_Chronicles 25:28).

(3.) A priest of the golden calves at Bethel (Amos 7:10).

(4.) The father of Joshah, one of the Simeonite chiefs in the time of Hezekiah (1_Chronicles 4:34).

Ambassador

In the Old Testament the Hebrew word tsir, meaning "one who goes on an errand," is rendered thus (Joshua 9:4; Proverbs 13:17; Isaiah 18:2; Jeremiah 49:14; Obadiah 1:1). This is also the rendering of melits, meaning "an interpreter," in 2_Chronicles 32:31; and of malak, a "messenger," in 2_Chronicles 35:21; Isaiah 30:4; Isaiah 33:7; Ezekiel 17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those who are appointed by God to declare his will (2_Corinthians 5:20; Ephesians 6:20).

The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had recourse to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract alliances (Joshua 9:4), to solicit favours (Numbers 20:14), to remonstrate when wrong was done (Judges 11:12), to condole with a young king on the death of his father (2_Samuel 10:2), and to congratulate a king on his accession to the throne (1_Kings 5:1).

To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who sent him (2_Samuel 10:5).

Amber

(Ezekiel 1:4, Ezekiel 1:27; Ezekiel 8:2. Heb., hashmal , rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some translate the word by "polished brass," others "fine brass," as in Revelation 1:15; Revelation 2:18. It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection, however, with what is now called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging to the mineral kingdom though of vegetable origin, a fossil resin.

Ambush

Joshua at the capture of Ai lay in ambush, and so deceived the inhabitants that he gained an easy victory (Josh. 8:4-26). Shechem was taken in this manner (Judg. 9:30-45. Compare Jeremiah 51:12).

Amen

This Hebrew word means firm, and hence also faithful (Revelation 3:14). In Isaiah 65:16, the Authorized Version has "the God of truth," which in Hebrew is "the God of Amen." It is frequently used by our Saviour to give emphasis to his words, where it is translated "verily." Sometimes, only, however, in John's Gospel, it is repeated, "Verily, verily." It is used as an epithet of the Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 3:14).

It is found singly and sometimes doubly at the end of prayers (Psalms 41:13; Psalms 72:19; Psalms 89:52), to confirm the words and invoke the fulfillment of them. It is used in token of being bound by an oath (Numbers 5:22; Deuteronomy 27:15; Nehemiah 5:13; Nehemiah 8:6; 1_Chronicles 16:36). In the primitive churches it was common for the general audience to say "Amen" at the close of the prayer (1_Corinthians 14:16).

The promises of God are Amen; i.e., they are all true and sure (2_Corinthians 1:20).

Amethyst

One of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and hence its Greek name formed from a, " privative ," and methuo , "to get drunk." Its Jewish name, ahlamah' , was derived by the rabbins from the Hebrew word halam , "to dream," from its supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.

It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different parts of Europe.

Amittai

True, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher (2_Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).

Ammah

A cubit, the name of a hill which Joab and Abishai reached as the sun went down, when they were in pursuit of Abner (2_Samuel 2:24). It lay to the east of Gibeon.

Ammi

My people, a name given by Jehovah to the people of Israel (Hosea 2:1, Hosea 2:23. Compare Hosea 1:9; Ezekiel 16:8; Romans 9:25, Romans 9:26; 1_Peter 2:10).

Ammiel

People of God. (1.) One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to search the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:12). He was one of the ten who perished by the plague for their unfavorable report (Numbers 14:37).

(2.) The father of Machir of Lo-debar, in whose house Mephibosheth resided (2_Samuel 9:4, 2_Samuel 9:5; 2_Samuel 17:27).

(3.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, and afterwards of David (1_Chronicles 3:5). He is called Eliam in 2_Samuel 11:3.

(4.) One of the sons of Obed-edom the Levite (1_Chronicles 26:5).

Ammihud

People of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus (Numbers 1:10; Numbers 2:18; Numbers 7:48, Numbers 7:53).

(2.) Numbers 34:20. (3.) Numbers 34:28. (4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after the murder of Amnon (2_Samuel 13:37).

(5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1_Chronicles 9:4).

Amminadab

Kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah (Numbers 1:7; Numbers 2:3; Numbers 7:12, Numbers 7:17; Numbers 10:14). His daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Exodus 6:23).

(2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1_Chronicles 6:22), called also Izhar (1_Chronicles 6:2, 1_Chronicles 6:18).

(3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1_Chronicles 15:10, 1_Chronicles 15:11).

Amminadib

A person mentioned in Song_of_Solomon 6:12, whose chariots were famed for their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."

Ammishaddai

People of the Almighty the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Numbers 1:12; Numbers 2:25). This is one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai, "Almighty."

Ammizabad

People of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and chief captain of the host under David (1_Chronicles 27:6).

Ammon

Another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Genesis 19:38). This name is also used for his posterity (Psalms 83:7).

Ammonite

The usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot (Genesis 19:38). From the very beginning (Deuteronomy 2:16) of their history till they are lost sight of (Judges 5:2), this tribe is closely associated with the Moabites (Judges 10:11; 2_Chronicles 20:1; Zephaniah 2:8). Both of these tribes hired Balaam to curse Israel (Deuteronomy 23:4). The Ammonites were probably more of a predatory tribe, moving from place to place, while the Moabites were more settled. They inhabited the country east of the Jordan and north of Moab and the Dead Sea, from which they had expelled the Zamzummims or Zuzims (Deuteronomy 2:20; Genesis 14:5). They are known as the Beni-ammi (Genesis 19:38), Ammi or Ammon being worshipped as their chief god. They were of Semitic origin, and closely related to the Hebrews in blood and language. They showed no kindness to the Israelites when passing through their territory, and therefore they were prohibited from "entering the congregation of the Lord to the tenth generation" (Deuteronomy 23:3). They afterwards became hostile to Israel (Judges 3:13). Jephthah waged war against them, and "took twenty cities with a very great slaughter" (Judges 11:33).

They were again signally defeated by Saul (1_Samuel 11:11). David also defeated them and their allies the Syrians (2_Samuel 10:6), and took their chief city, Rabbah, with much spoil (2_Samuel 10:14; 2_Samuel 12:26).

The subsequent events of their history are noted in 2_Chronicles 20:25; 2_Chronicles 26:8; Jeremiah 49:1; Ezekiel 25:3, Ezekiel 25:6. One of Solomon's wives was Naamah, an Ammonite. She was the mother of Rehoboam (1_Kings 14:31; 2_Chronicles 12:13). The prophets predicted fearful judgments against the Ammonites because of their hostility to Israel (Zephaniah 2:8; Jeremiah 49:1; Ezekiel 25:1, Ezekiel 25:10; Amos 1:13). The national idol worshipped by this people was Molech or Milcom, at whose altar they offered human sacrifices (1_Kings 11:5, 1_Kings 11:7). The high places built for this idol by Solomon, at the instigation of his Ammonitish wives, were not destroyed till the time of Josiah (2_Kings 23:13).

Amnon

Faithful. (1.) One of the sons of Shammai, of the children of Ezra (1_Chronicles 4:20; compare 1_Chronicles 4:17).

(2.) The eldest son of David, by Ahinoam of Jezreel (1_Chronicles 3:1; 2_Samuel 3:2). Absalom caused him to be put to death for his great crime in the matter of Tamar (2_Samuel 13:28, 2_Samuel 13:29).

Amon

Builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1_Kings 22:26; 2_Chronicles 18:25).

(2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had cast down. Zephaniah (Zephaniah 1:4; Zephaniah 3:4, Zephaniah 3:11) refers to the moral depravity prevailing in this king's reign.

He was assassinated (2_Kings 21:18; 2_Chronicles 33:20) by his own servants, who conspired against him.

(3.) An Egyptian god, usually depicted with a human body and the head of a ram, referred to in Jeremiah 46:25, where the word "multitudes" in the Authorized Version is more appropriately rendered "Amon" in the Revised Version. In Nahum 3:8 the expression "populous No" the Revised Version "No-amon." Amon is identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis.

(4.) Nehemiah 7:59.

Amorites

Highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of one of the sons of Canaan (Genesis 14:7), called Amurra or Amurri in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Palestine, is known as "the land of the Amorites." The southern slopes of the mountains of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" (Deuteronomy 1:7, Deuteronomy 1:19, Deuteronomy 1:20). They seem to have originally occupied the land stretching from the heights west of the Dead Sea (Genesis 14:7) to Hebron (Gen. 13. Compare Genesis 13:8; Deuteronomy 3:8; Deuteronomy 4:46), embracing "all Gilead and all Bashan" (Deuteronomy 3:10), with the Jordan valley on the east of the river (Deuteronomy 4:49), the land of the "two kings of the Amorites," Sihon and Og (Deuteronomy 31:4; Joshua 2:10; Joshua 9:10). The five kings of the Amorites were defeated with great slaughter by Joshua (Joshua 10:10). They were again defeated at the waters of Merom by Joshua, who smote them till there were none remaining (Joshua 11:8). It is mentioned as a surprising circumstance that in the days of Samuel there was peace between them and the Israelites (1_Samuel 7:14). The discrepancy supposed to exist between Deuteronomy 1:44 and Numbers 14:45 is explained by the circumstance that the terms "Amorites" and "Amalekites" are used synonymously for the "Canaanites." In the same way we explain the fact that the "Hivites" of Genesis 34:2 are the "Amorites" of Genesis 48:22. Compare Joshua 10:6; Joshua 11:19 with 2_Samuel 21:2; also Numbers 14:45 with Deuteronomy 1:44. The Amorites were warlike mountaineers. They are represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. They are supposed to have been men of great stature; their king, Og, is described by Moses as the last "of the remnant of the giants" (Deuteronomy 3:11). Both Sihon and Og were independent kings. Only one word of the Amorite language survives, "Shenir," the name they gave to Mount Hermon (Deuteronomy 3:9).

Amos

Borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets. He was a native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles south-east of Bethlehem. He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of sycomore trees," R.V. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and was contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea (Amos 1:1; Amos 7:14, Amos 7:15; Zechariah 14:5), who survived him a few years. Under Jeroboam II. the kingdom of Israel rose to the zenith of its prosperity; but that was followed by the prevalence of luxury and vice and idolatry. At this period Amos was called from his obscurity to remind the people of the law of God's retributive justice, and to call them to repentance.

The Book of Amos consists of three parts: (1.) The nations around are summoned to judgment because of their sins (Amos 1:1-2:3). He quotes Joel 3:16.

(2.)The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of Israel, is described (Amos 2:4-6:14).

(3.) In Amos 7:1-9:10 are recorded five prophetic visions. (a.) The first two (Amos 7:1) refer to judgments against the guilty people. (b.) The next two (Amos 7:7; Amos 8:1) point out the ripeness of the people for the threatened judgments. Amos 7:10 consists of a conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel. (c.) The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel (Amos 9:1); to which is added the promise of the restoration of the kingdom and its final glory in the Messiah's kingdom. The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to natural objects and to agricultural occupations. Other allusions show also that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child of nature." These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of teeth" [i.e., want of bread] (Amos 4:6); "The excellency of Jacob" (Amos 6:8; Amos 8:7); "The high places of Isaac" (Amos 7:9); "The house of Isaac" (Amos 7:16); "He that createth the wind" (Amos 4:13). Quoted, Acts 7:42.

Amoz

Strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2_Kings 19:2, 2_Kings 19:20; 2_Kings 20:1; Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 2:1). As to his personal history little is positively known. He is supposed by some to have been the "man of God" spoken of in 2_Chronicles 25:7, 2_Chronicles 25:8.

Amphipolis

City on both sides, a Macedonian city, a great Roman military station, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica, a distance of 33 Roman miles from Philippi (Acts 17:1).

Amplias

A Roman Christian saluted by Paul (Romans 16:8).

Amram

Kindred of the High; i.e., "friend of Jehovah." (1.) The son of Kohath, the son of Levi. He married Jochebed, "his father's sister," and was the father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses (Exodus 6:18, Exodus 6:20; Numbers 3:19). He died in Egypt at the age of 137 years (Exodus 6:20). His descendants were called Amramites (Numbers 3:27; 1_Chronicles 26:23). (2.) Ezra 10:34.

Amraphel

King of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of the plain (Genesis 14:1, Genesis 14:4). It is now found that Amraphel (or Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on recently-discovered monuments. (See CHEDORLAOMER.) After defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon his capital

Anab

Grape-town, one of the cities in the mountains of Judah, from which Joshua expelled the Anakim (Joshua 11:21; Joshua 15:50). It still retains its ancient name. It lies among the hills, 10 miles south-south-west of Hebron.

Anah

Speech. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, and head of an Idumean tribe, called a Horite, as in course of time all the branches of this tribe were called from their dwelling in caves in Mount Seir (Genesis 36:20, Genesis 36:29; 1_Chronicles 1:38).

(2.) One of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite, and father of Esau's wife Aholibamah (Genesis 36:18, Genesis 36:24).

Anak

Long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim (Joshua 15:13; Joshua 21:11, Heb. Anok ).

Anakim

The descendants of Anak (Joshua 11:21; Numbers 13:33; Deuteronomy 9:2). They dwelt in the south of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Hebron (Genesis 23:2; Joshua 15:13). In the days of Abraham (Genesis 14:5, Genesis 14:6) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and Moab, east of the Jordan. They were probably a remnant of the original inhabitants of Palestine before the Canaanites, a Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings. Their formidable warlike appearance, as described by the spies sent to search the land, filled the Israelites with terror. They seem to have identified them with the Nephilim, the "giants" (Genesis 6:4; Numbers 13:33) of the antediluvian age. There were various tribes of Anakim (Joshua 15:14). Joshua finally expelled them from the land, except a remnant that found a refuge in the cities of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod (Joshua 11:22). The Philistine giants whom David encountered (2_Samuel 21:15) were descendants of the Anakim. (See GIANTS.)

Anamim

The name of an Egyptian tribe descended from Mizraim (Genesis 10:13; 1_Chronicles 1:11).

Anammelech

One of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who colonized Samaria (2_Kings 17:31). The name means "Anu is king." It was a female deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech (q.v.) was the male representing the sun.

Anan

Cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 10:26).

Ananiah

Protected by Jehovah, the name of a town in the tribe of Benjamin between Nob and Hazor (Nehemiah 11:32). It is probably the modern Beit Hanina, a small village 3 miles north of Jerusalem.

Ananias

A common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood (Acts 5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian community devoted their property to the work of furthering the gospel and of assisting the poor and needy. The proceeds of the possessions they sold were placed at the disposal of the apostles (Acts 4:36, Acts 4:37). Ananias might have kept his property had he so chosen; but he professed agreement with the brethren in the common purpose, and had of his own accord devoted it all, as he said, to these sacred ends. Yet he retained a part of it for his own ends, and thus lied in declaring that he had given it all. "The offense of Ananias and Sapphira showed contempt of God, vanity and ambition in the offenders, and utter disregard of the corruption which they were bringing into the society. Such sin, committed in despite of the light which they possessed, called for a special mark of divine indignation.&q

ot; (2.) A Christian at Damascus (Acts 9:10). He became Paul's instructor; but when or by what means he himself became a Christian we have no information. He was "a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt" at Damascus (Acts 22:12).

(3.) The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the procuratorship of Felix (Acts 23:2, Acts 23:5, Acts 23:24). He was so enraged at Paul's noble declaration, "I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day," that he commanded one of his attendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this unprovoked insult, Paul quickly replied, "God shall smite thee, thou whited wall." Being reminded that Ananias was the high priest, to whose office all respect was to be paid, he answered, "I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest" (Acts 23:5). This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is scarcely probable that Paul should have been ignorant of so public a fact. The expression may mean (a.) that Paul had at the moment overlooked the honour due to the high priest; or (b.) as others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had said, "The high priest breaking the law! God's high priest a tyrant and a lawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and have heard his voice, but surely it cannot, it ought not to be, the voice of the high priest." (See Dr. Lindsay on Acts, in loco.) (c.) Others think that from defect of sight Paul could not observe that the speaker was the high priest. In all this, however, it may be explained, Paul, with all his excellency, comes short of the example of his divine Master, who, when he was reviled, reviled not again.

Anath

An answer; i.e., to "prayer", the father of Shamgar, who was one of the judges of Israel (Judges 3:31).

Anathema

Anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is anathema, once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in Gospel of Luke 21:5, where it is rendered "gifts." In the LXX. the form anathema is generally used as the rendering of the Hebrew word herem, derived from a verb which means (1.) to consecrate or devote; and (2.) to exterminate. Any object so devoted to the Lord could not be redeemed (Numbers 18:14; Leviticus 27:28, Leviticus 27:29); and hence the idea of exterminating connected with the word. The Hebrew verb (haram) is frequently used of the extermination of idolatrous nations. It had a wide range of application. The anathema or herem was a person or thing irrevocably devoted to God (Leviticus 27:21, Leviticus 27:28); and "none devoted shall be ransomed. He shall surely be put to death" (Leviticus 27:29). The word therefore carried the idea of devoted to destruction (Numbers 21:2, Numbers 21:3; Joshua 6:17); and hence generally it meant a thing accursed.

In Deuteronomy 7:26 an idol is called a herem = anathema, a thing accursed. In the New Testament this word always implies execration. In some cases an individual denounces an anathema on himself unless certain conditions are fulfilled (Acts 23:12, Acts 23:14, Acts 23:21). "To call Jesus accursed" [anathema] (1_Corinthians 12:3) is to pronounce him execrated or accursed. If any one preached another gospel, the apostle says, "let him be accursed" (Galatians 1:8, Galatians 1:9); i.e., let his conduct in so doing be accounted accursed.

In Romans 9:3, the expression "accursed" (anathema) from Christ, i.e., excluded from fellowship or alliance with Christ, has occasioned much difficulty. The apostle here does not speak of his wish as a possible thing. It is simply a vehement expression of feeling, showing how strong was his desire for the salvation of his people.

The anathema in 1_Corinthians 16:22 denotes simply that they who love not the Lord are rightly objects of loathing and execration to all holy beings; they are guilty of a crime that merits the severest condemnation; they are exposed to the just sentence of "everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord."

Anathoth

The name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 21:18). The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2_Samuel 23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1_Chronicles 12:3). It is chiefly notable, however, as the birth-place and usual residence of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:1; Jeremiah 11:21; Jeremiah 29:27; Jeremiah 32:7). It suffered greatly from the army of Sennacherib, and only 128 men returned to it from the Exile (Nehemiah 7:27; Ezra 2:23). It lay about 3 miles north of Jerusalem. It has been identified with the small and poor village of Anata, containing about 100 inhabitants.

Anchor

From Acts 27:29, Acts 27:30, Acts 27:40, it would appear that the Roman vessels carried several anchors, which were attached to the stern as well as to the prow. The Roman anchor, like the modern one, had two teeth or flukes. In Hebrews 6:19 the word is used metaphorically for that which supports or keeps one steadfast in the time of trial or of doubt. It is an emblem of hope. "If you fear, put all your trust in God: that anchor holds."

Ancient of Days

An expression applied to Jehovah three times in the vision of Daniel (Daniel 7:9, Daniel 7:13, Daniel 7:22) in the sense of eternal. In contrast with all earthly kings, his days are past reckoning.

Andrew

Manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (Gospel of John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Gospel of Matthew 4:18; Gospel of Matthew 10:2). On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" (Gospel of John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples. After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to Jesus. The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a while their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the stated attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment (Gospel of Matthew 4:18, Gospel of Matthew 4:19; Gospel of Mark 1:16, Gospel of Mark 1:17). Very little is related of Andrew. He was one of the confidential disciples (Gospel of John 6:8; Gospel of John 12:22), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord privately regarding his future coming (Gospel of Mark 13:3). He was present at the feeding of the five thousand (Gospel of John 6:9), and he introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus (Gospel of John 12:22); but of his subsequent history little is known. It is noteworthy that Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks. These incidents may be regarded as a key to his character.

Andronicus

Man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellow prisoner of Paul (Romans 16:7); "of note among the apostles."

Anem

Two fountains, a Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar (1_Chronicles 6:73). It is also called En-gannim (q.v.) in Joshua 19:21; the modern Jenin.

Aner

A boy. (1.) A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:13, Genesis 14:24).

(2.) A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's family (1_Chronicles 6:70).

Angel

A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14; 1_Samuel 11:3; Gospel of Luke 7:24; Gospel of Luke 9:52), of prophets (Isaiah 42:19; Haggai 1:13), of priests (Malachi 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament (Revelation 1:20).

It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2_Samuel 24:16, 2_Samuel 24:17; 2_Kings 19:35), the wind (Psalms 104:4).

But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Genesis 18:2, Genesis 18:22. Compare Genesis 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Genesis 32:24, Genesis 32:30), to Joshua at Gilgal (Joshua 5:13, Joshua 5:15), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God. (1.) The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information.

Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Genesis 16:7, Genesis 16:10, Genesis 16:11; Judg. 13:1-21; Gospel of Matthew 28:2; Hebrews 1:4, etc. These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. (Daniel 7:10; Gospel of Matthew 26:53; Gospel of Luke 2:13; Hebrews 12:22, Hebrews 12:23). They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zechariah 1:9, Zechariah 1:11; Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1; 1_Thessalonians 4:16; Jude 1:9; Ephesians 1:21; Colossians 1:16).

(2.) As to their nature, they are spirits (Hebrews 1:14), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels" (Gospel of Luke 20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form (Genesis 18:2; Genesis 19:1, Genesis 19:10; Gospel of Luke 24:4; Acts 1:10), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Daniel 3:25; compare Daniel 3:28) and to men (Gospel of Luke 3:38), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures (Job 4:18; Gospel of Matthew 24:36; 1_Peter 1:12). As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" (Gospel of Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7, Revelation 12:9), and that they are "reserved unto judgment" (2_Peter 2:4). When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Psalms 78:25). Angels never die (Gospel of Luke 20:36). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power (Gospel of Mark 13:32; 2_Thessalonians 1:7; Psalms 103:20). They are called "holy" (Gospel of Luke 9:26), "elect" (1_Timothy 5:21). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" (Gospel of Luke 20:36). They are not to be worshipped (Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10).

(3.) Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence (Exodus 12:23; Psalms 104:4; Hebrews 11:28; 1_Corinthians 10:10; 2_Samuel 24:16; 1_Chronicles 21:16; 2_Kings 19:35; Acts 12:23). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Gen. 18; 19; Genesis 24:7, Genesis 24:40; Genesis 28:12; Genesis 32:1).

They appear to rebuke idolatry (Judges 2:1), to call Gideon (Judges 6:11, Judges 6:12), and to consecrate Samson (Judges 13:3). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1_Kings 19:5; 2_Kings 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Daniel 4:13, Daniel 4:23; Daniel 10:10, Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:20, Daniel 10:21). The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent (Gospel of Matthew 1:20; Gospel of Luke 1:26), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Gospel of Matthew 4:11; Gospel of Luke 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Gospel of Matthew 28:2; Gospel of John 20:12, Gospel of John 20:13; Acts 1:10, Acts 1:11).

They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Hebrews 1:14; Psalms 34:7; Psalms 91:11; Gospel of Matthew 18:10; Acts 5:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 10:3; Acts 12:7; Acts 27:23). They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Gospel of Luke 15:10). They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Gospel of Luke 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgment hereafter on the great day (Gospel of Matthew 13:39, Gospel of Matthew 13:41, Gospel of Matthew 13:49; Gospel of Matthew 16:27; Gospel of Matthew 24:31). The passages (Psalms 34:7, Gospel of Matthew 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples. The "angel of his presence" (Isaiah 63:9. Compare Exodus 23:20, Exodus 23:21; Exodus 32:34; Exodus 33:2; Numbers 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Gospel of Luke 1:19).

Anger

The emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil that presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original susceptibility of our nature, just as love is, and is not necessarily sinful. It may, however, become sinful when causeless, or excessive, or protracted (Gospel of Matthew 5:22; Ephesians 4:26; Colossians 3:8). As ascribed to God, it merely denotes his displeasure with sin and with sinners (Psalms 7:11).

Anim

Fountains, a city in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:50), now el Guwein, near Eshtemoh, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.

Animal

An organized living creature endowed with sensation. The Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Genesis 7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical law (Deut. 14:3-20; Lev. 11).

Anise

This word is found only in Gospel of Matthew 23:23. It is the plant commonly known by the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the botanist. This name dill is derived from a Norse word which means to soothe, the plant having the carminative property of allaying pain. The common dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an annual growing wild in the cornfields of Spain and Portugal and the south of Europe generally. There is also a species of dill cultivated in Eastern countries known by the name of shubit. It was this species of garden plant of which the Pharisees were in the habit of paying tithes. The Talmud requires that the seeds, leaves, and stem of dill shall pay tithes. It is an umbelliferous plant, very like the caraway its leaves, which are aromatic, being used in soups and pickles. The proper anise is the Pimpinella anisum.

Anna

Grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a "prophetess," like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah (2_Chronicles 34:22). After seven years of married life her husband died, and during her long widowhood she daily attended the temple services. When she was eighty-four years old, she entered the temple at the moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of praise and thanks to God that he had fulfilled his ancient promise in sending his Son into the world (Gospel of Luke 2:36, Gospel of Luke 2:37).

Annas

Was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas (Gospel of John 18:13), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas (Gospel of Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Numbers 3:10); and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him (Gospel of John 18:19) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place (Gospel of Matthew 26:57). This examination of our Lord before Annas is recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6).

Anoint

The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest (Exodus 29:29; Leviticus 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Exodus 30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" (Leviticus 4:3, Leviticus 4:5, Leviticus 4:16; Leviticus 6:20; Psalms 132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crowning him (1_Samuel 16:13; 2_Samuel 2:4, etc.). Prophets were also anointed (1_Kings 19:16; 1_Chronicles 16:22; Psalms 105:15). The expression, "anoint the shield" (Isaiah 21:5), refers to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as to make it supple and fit for use in war.

(2.) Anointing was also an act of hospitality (Gospel of Luke 7:38, Gospel of Luke 7:46). It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating their bodies (Deuteronomy 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2_Samuel 14:2; Psalms 104:15, etc.). This custom is continued among the Arabians to the present day.

(3.) Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to the sick, and also to wounds (Psalms 109:18; Isaiah 1:6; Gospel of Mark 6:13; James 5:14).

(4.) The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed (Gospel of Mark 14:8; Gospel of Luke 23:56).

(5.) The promised Delivered is twice called the "Anointed" or Messiah (Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:25, Daniel 9:26), because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost (Isaiah 61:1), figuratively styled the "oil of gladness" (Psalms 45:7; Hebrews 1:9). Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One (Gospel of John 1:41; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:2, Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5, Acts 18:28), the Messiah of the Old Testament.

Ant

(Heb. nemalah from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy), referred to in Proverbs 6:6; Proverbs 30:25, as distinguished for its prudent habits. Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers. This ant gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for future use; a habit that has been observed in ants in Texas, India, and Italy.

Antichrist

Against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The word is used only by the apostle John. Referring to false teachers, he says (1_John 2:18, 1_John 2:22; 1_John 4:3; 2_John 1:7), "Even now are there many antichrists." (1.) This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the "king of fierce countenance" (Daniel 7:24, Daniel 7:25; Daniel 8:23).

(2.) It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spoken of by our Lord (Gospel of Matthew 24:5, Gospel of Matthew 24:23, Gospel of Matthew 24:24).

(3.) To the "man of sin" described by Paul (2_Thessalonians 2:3, 2_Thessalonians 2:4, 2_Thessalonians 2:8).

(4.) And to the "beast from the sea" (Revelation 13:1; 17:1-18).

Antioch

(1.) In Syria, on the river Orontes, about 16 miles from the Mediterranean, and some 300 miles north of Jerusalem. It was the metropolis of Syria, and afterwards became the capital of the Roman province in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman empire. It was called the "first city of the East." Christianity was early introduced into it (Acts 11:19, Acts 11:21, Acts 11:24), and the name "Christian" was first applied here to its professors (Acts 11:26). It is intimately connected with the early history of the gospel (Acts 6:5; Acts 11:19, Acts 11:27, Acts 11:28, Acts 11:30; Acts 12:25; Acts 15:22; Galatians 2:11, Galatians 2:12). It was the great central point whence missionaries to the Gentiles were sent forth. It was the birth-place of the famous Christian father Chrysostom, who died A.D. 407. It bears the modern name of Antakia, and is now a miserable, decaying Turkish town. Like Philippi, it was raised to the rank of a Roman colony. Such colonies were ruled by "praetors" (R.V. marg., Acts 16:20, Acts 16:21).

(2.) In the extreme north of Pisidia; was visited by Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey (Acts 13:14). Here they found a synagogue and many proselytes. They met with great success in preaching the gospel, but the Jews stirred up a violent opposition against them, and they were obliged to leave the place. On his return, Paul again visited Antioch for the purpose of confirming the disciples (Acts 14:21). It has been identified with the modern Yalobatch, lying to the east of Ephesus. See map, Showing Position of Syrian Antioch

Antiochus

The name of several Syrian kings from 280 to 65 B.C.. The most notable of these were (1.) Antiochus the Great, who ascended the throne 223 B.C.. He is regarded as the "king of the north" referred to in Daniel 11:13. He was succeeded (187 B.C.) by his son, Seleucus Philopater, spoken of by Daniel (Daniel 11:20) as "a raiser of taxes", in the Revised Version, "one that shall cause an exactor to pass through the glory of the kingdom.&q

ot; (2.) Antiochus IV., surnamed "Epiphanes" i.e., the Illustrious, succeeded his brother Seleucus (175 B.C.). His career and character are prophetically described by Daniel (Daniel 11:21). He was a "vile person." In a spirit of revenge he organized an expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed, putting vast multitudes of its inhabitants to death in the most cruel manner. From this time the Jews began the great war of independence under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked success, defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent against them. Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in person, threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on the way he was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (164 B.C.).

Antipas

(1.)Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great by his Samaritan wife Malthace. He was tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea during the whole period of our Lord's life on earth (Gospel of Luke 23:7). He was a frivolous and vain prince, and was chargeable with many infamous crimes (Gospel of Mark 8:15; Gospel of Luke 3:19; Gospel of Luke 13:31, Gospel of Luke 13:32). He beheaded John the Baptist (Gospel of Matthew 14:1) at the instigation of Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Herod-Philip, whom he had married. Pilate sent Christ to him when he was at Jerusalem at the Passover (Gospel of Luke 23:7). He asked some idle questions of him, and after causing him to be mocked, sent him back again to Pilate. The wife of Chuza, his house-steward, was one of our Lord's disciples (Gospel of Luke 8:3).

(2.) A "faithful martyr" (Revelation 2:13), of whom nothing more is certainly known.

Antipatris

A city built by Herod the Great, and called by this name in honour of his father, Antipater. It lay between Caesarea and Lydda, two miles inland, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem. To this place Paul was brought by night (Acts 23:31) on his way to Caesarea, from which it was distant 28 miles. It is identified with the modern, Ras-el-'Ain where rise the springs of Aujeh, the largest springs in Palestine.

Antonia

A fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple area. It is called "the castle" (Acts 21:34, Acts 21:37). See map, Showing position of Antonia From the stairs of this castle Paul delivered his famous speech to the multitude in the area below (Acts 22:1-21). It was originally a place in which were kept the vestments of the high priest. Herod fortified it, and called it Antonia in honour of his friend Mark Antony. It was of great size, and commanded the temple. It was built on a plateau of rock, separated on the north from the hill Bezetha by a ditch about 30 feet deep and 165 feet wide.

Antothite

An inhabitant of Anathoth, found only in 1_Chronicles 11:28; 1_Chronicles 12:3. In 2_Samuel 23:27 it is Anethothite; in 1_Chronicles 27:12, Anetothite. (R.V., "Anathothite.")

Anvil

The rendering of the Hebrew word for "beaten," found only in Isaiah 41:7.

Ape

An animal of the monkey tribe (1_Kings 10:22; 2_Chronicles 9:21). It was brought from India by the fleets of Solomon and Hiram, and was called by the Hebrews - , and by the Greeks - , both words being just the Indian Tamil name of the monkey, kapi, i.e., swift, nimble, active. No species of ape has ever been found in Palestine or the adjacent regions.

Apelles

A Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes (Romans 16:10), and styles "approved in Christ."

Apharsachites

A company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in Samaria (Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:6).

Apharsites

Another of the tribes removed to Samaria (Ezra 4:9), or perhaps the same as the preceding.

Aphik

(Judges 1:31); Aphek (Joshua 13:4; Joshua 19:30), stronghold. (1.) A city of the tribe of Asher. It was the scene of the licentious worship of the Syrian Aphrodite. The ruins of the temple, "magnificent ruins" in a "spot of strange wildness and beauty", are still seen at Afka, on the north-west slopes of Lebanon, near the source of the river Adonis (now Nahr Ibrahim), 12 miles east of Gebal.

(2.) A city of the tribe of Issachar, near to Jezreel (1_Samuel 4:1; 1_Samuel 29:1; compare 1_Samuel 28:4).

(3.)A town on the road from Damascus to Palestine, in the level plain east of Jordan, near which Benhadad was defeated by the Israelites (1_Kings 20:26, 1_Kings 20:30; 2_Kings 13:17). It has been identified with the modern Fik, 6 miles east of the Sea of Galilee, opposite Tiberias.

Apocalypse

The Greek name of the Book of Revelation (q.v.).

Apocrypha

Hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which found a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word. (1.) They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it.

(2.) These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the Christian era.

(3.) The contents of the books themselves show that they were no part of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (q.v.), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc.

The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard.

Apollonia

A city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from which it was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed through it on their way to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1).

Apollos

A Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures and eloquent (Acts 18:24; R.V., "learned"). He came to Ephesus (about A.D. 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue (Acts 18:26), although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah. Aquila and Priscilla instructed him more perfectly in "the way of God", i.e., in the knowledge of Christ. He then proceeded to Corinth, where he met Paul (Acts 18:27; Acts 19:1). He was there very useful in watering the good seed Paul had sown (1_Corinthians 1:12), and in gaining many to Christ. His disciples were much attached to him (1_Corinthians 3:4, 1_Corinthians 3:22). He was with Paul at Ephesus when he wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians; and Paul makes kindly reference to him in his letter to Titus (Titus 3:13). Some have supposed, although without sufficient ground, that he was the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Apollyon

Destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented by the locusts (Revelation 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).

Apostle

A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Hebrews 3:1; Gospel of John 20:21). It is, however, generally used as designating the body of disciples to whom he entrusted the organization of his church and the dissemination of his gospel, "the twelve," as they are called (Gospel of Matthew 10:1; Gospel of Mark 3:14; Gospel of Mark 6:7; Gospel of Luke 6:13; Gospel of Luke 9:1). We have four lists of the apostles, one by each of the synoptic evangelists (Gospel of Matthew 10:2; Gospel of Mark 3:16; Gospel of Luke 6:14), and one in the Acts (Acts 1:13). No two of these lists, however, perfectly coincide.

Our Lord gave them the "keys of the kingdom," and by the gift of his Spirit fitted them to be the founders and governors of his church (Gospel of John 14:16, Gospel of John 14:17, Gospel of John 14:26; Gospel of John 15:26, Gospel of John 15:27; Gospel of John 16:7). To them, as representing his church, he gave the commission to "preach the gospel to every creature" (Gospel of Matthew 28:18). After his ascension he communicated to them, according to his promise, supernatural gifts to qualify them for the discharge of their duties (Acts 2:4; 1_Corinthians 2:16; 1_Corinthians 2:7, 1_Corinthians 2:10, 1_Corinthians 2:13; 2_Corinthians 5:20; 1_Corinthians 11:2). Judas Iscariot, one of "the twelve," fell by transgression, and Matthias was substituted in his place (Acts 1:21). Saul of Tarsus was afterwards added to their number (Acts 9:3-20; Acts 20:4; Acts 26:15; 1_Timothy 1:12; 1_Timothy 2:7; 2_Timothy 1:11).

Luke has given some account of Peter, John, and the two Jameses (Acts 12:2, Acts 12:17; Acts 15:13; Acts 21:18), but beyond this we know nothing from authentic history of the rest of the original twelve. After the martyrdom of James the Greater (Acts 12:2), James the Less usually resided at Jerusalem, while Paul, "the apostle of the uncircumcision," usually traveled as a missionary among the Gentiles (Galatians 2:8). It was characteristic of the apostles and necessary (1.) that they should have seen the Lord, and been able to testify of him and of his resurrection from personal knowledge (Gospel of John 15:27; Acts 1:21, Acts 1:22; 1_Corinthians 9:1; Acts 22:14, Acts 22:15). (2.) They must have been immediately called to that office by Christ (Gospel of Luke 6:13; Galatians 1:1). (3.) It was essential that they should be infallibly inspired, and thus secured against all error and mistake in their public teaching, whether by word or by writing (Gospel of John 14:26; Gospel of John 16:13; 1_Thessalonians 2:13).

(4.) Another qualification was the power of working miracles (Gospel of Mark 16:20; Acts 2:43; 1_Corinthians 12:8). The apostles therefore could have had no successors. They are the only authoritative teachers of the Christian doctrines. The office of an apostle ceased with its first holders.

In 2_Corinthians 8:23 and Philippians 2:25 the word "messenger" is the rendering of the same Greek word, elsewhere rendered "apostle."

Apothecary

Rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in Exodus 30:25; Exodus 37:29; Ecclesiastes 10:1. The holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. The feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered "confectioneries" in 1_Samuel 8:13.

Apparel

In Old Testament times the distinction between male and female attire was not very marked. The statute forbidding men to wear female apparel (Deuteronomy 22:5) referred especially to ornaments and head-dresses. Both men and women wore (1.) an under garment or tunic, which was bound by a girdle. One who had only this tunic on was spoken of as "naked" (1_Samuel 19:24; Job 24:10; Isaiah 20:2). Those in high stations sometimes wore two tunics, the outer being called the "upper garment" (1_Samuel 15:27; 1_Samuel 18:4; 1_Samuel 24:5; Job 1:20). (2.) They wore in common an over-garment ("mantle," Isaiah 3:22; 1_Kings 19:13; 2_Kings 2:13), a loose and flowing robe. The folds of this upper garment could be formed into a lap (Ruth 3:15; Psalms 79:12; Proverbs 17:23; Gospel of Luke 6:38). Generals of armies usually wore scarlet robes (Judges 8:26; Nahum 2:3). A form of conspicuous raiment is mentioned in Gospel of Luke 20:46; compare Gospel of Matthew 23:5. Priests alone wore trousers. Both men and women wore turbans. Kings and nobles usually had a store of costly garments for festive occasions (Isaiah 3:22; Zechariah 3:4) and for presents (Genesis 45:22; Esther 4:4; Esther 6:8, Esther 6:11; 1_Samuel 18:4; 2_Kings 5:5; 2_Kings 10:22). Prophets and ascetics wore coarse garments (Isaiah 20:2; Zechariah 13:4; Gospel of Matthew 3:4).

Appeal

A reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court. Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Exodus 18:13.)

Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome (Acts 25:11, Acts 25:12, Acts 25:21, Acts 25:25). Paul availed himself of the privilege of a Roman citizen in this matter.

Apphia

Increasing, a female Christian at Colosse (Philemon 1:2), supposed by some to have been the wife of Philemon.

Appii Forum

I.e., "the market of Appius" (Acts 28:15, R.V.), a town on the road, the "Appian Way," from Rome to Brundusium. It was 43 miles from Rome. Here Paul was met by some Roman Christians on his way to the capital. It was natural that they should halt here and wait for him, because from this place there were two ways by which travelers might journey to Rome.

Apple

(Heb. tappuah , meaning "fragrance"). Probably the apricot or quince is intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the growth of apples proper. It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of Palestine (Joel 1:12), and frequently referred to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (Song_of_Solomon 2:3, Song_of_Solomon 2:5; Song_of_Solomon 8:5). There is nothing to show that it was the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil." Dr. Tristram has suggested that the apricot has better claims than any other fruit-tree to be the apple of Scripture. It grows to a height of 30 feet, has a roundish mass of glossy leaves, and bears an orange colored fruit that gives out a delicious perfume. The "apple of the eye" is the Heb. ishon , meaning manikin, i.e., the pupil of the eye (Proverbs 7:2). (Compare the promise, Zechariah 2:8; the prayer, Psalms 17:8; and its fulfillment, Deuteronomy 32:10.)

The so-called "apple of Sodom" some have supposed to be the Solanum sanctum (Heb. hedek ), rendered "brier" (q.v.) in Micah 7:4, a thorny plant bearing fruit like the potato-apple. This shrub abounds in the Jordan valley. (See ENGEDI.)

Apron

Found in the Authorized Version in Genesis 3:7, of the bands of fig-leaves made by our first parents. In Acts 19:12, it denotes the belt or half-girdle worn by artisans and servants round the waist for the purpose of preserving the clothing from injury. In marg. of Authorized Version, Ruth 3:15, correctly rendered instead of "vail." (R.V., "mantle.")

Aquila

Eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul met on his first visit to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Along with his wife Priscilla he had fled from Rome in consequence of a decree (A.D. 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city. Paul sojourned with him at Corinth, and they wrought together at their common trade, making Cilician hair-cloth for tents. On Paul's departure from Corinth after eighteen months, Aquila and his wife accompanied him to Ephesus, where they remained, while he proceeded to Syria (Acts 18:18, Acts 18:26). When they became Christians we are not informed, but in Ephesus they were (1_Corinthians 16:19) Paul's "helpers in Christ Jesus." We find them afterwards at Rome (Romans 16:3), interesting themselves still in the cause of Christ. They are referred to some years after this as being at Ephesus (2_Timothy 4:19). This is the last notice we have of them.

Arab

Ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:52), now Er-Rabiyeh.

Arabah

Plain, in the Revised Version of 2_Kings 14:25; Joshua 3:16; Joshua 8:14; 2_Samuel 2:29; 2_Samuel 4:7 (in all these passages the A.V. has "plain"); Amos 6:14 (A.V. "wilderness"). This word is found in the Authorized Version only in Joshua 18:18. It denotes the hollow depression through which the Jordan flows from the Lake of Galilee to the Dead Sea. It is now called by the Arabs el-Ghor. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken of as extending 10 miles south of the Dead Sea, and thence to the Gulf of Akabah on the Red Sea is called the Wady el-Arabah.

Arabia

Arid, an extensive region in the south-west of Asia. It is bounded on the west by the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates. It extends far into the north in barren deserts, meeting those of Syria and Mesopotamia. It is one of the few countries of the world from which the original inhabitants have never been expelled. See map, of Arabia It was anciently divided into three parts:, (1.) Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility.

It embraced a large portion of the country now known by the name of Arabia. The Arabs call it Yemen. It lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. (2.) Arabia Deserta, the el-Badieh or "Great Wilderness" of the Arabs. From this name is derived that which is usually given to the nomadic tribes which wander over this region, the "Bedaween," or, more generally, "Bedouin," (3.) Arabia Petraea, i.e., the Rocky Arabia, so called from its rocky mountains and stony plains. It comprehended all the north-west portion of the country, and is much better known to travelers than any other portion. This country is, however, divided by modern geographers into (1.) Arabia Proper, or the Arabian Peninsula; (2.) Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert; and (3.) Western Arabia, which includes the peninsula of Sinai and the Desert of Petra, originally inhabited by the Horites (Genesis 14:6, etc.), but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or Mount Seir. The whole land appears (Gen. 10) to have been inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of Arabs.

The modern nation of Arabs is predominantly Ishmaelite. Their language is the most developed and the richest of all the Semitic languages, and is of great value to the student of Hebrew. The Israelites wandered for forty years in Arabia. In the days of Solomon, and subsequently, commercial intercourse was to a considerable extent kept up with this country (1_Kings 10:15; 2_Chronicles 9:14; 2_Chronicles 17:11). Arabians were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:11). Paul retired for a season into Arabia after his conversion (Galatians 1:17). This country is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 21:11; Isaiah 42:11; Jeremiah 25:24, etc.)

Arad

(1.) Now Tell Arad, a Canaanite city, about 20 miles south of Hebron. The king of Arad "fought against Israel and took of them prisoners" when they were retreating from the confines of Edom (Numbers 21:1; Numbers 33:40; Judges 1:16). It was finally subdued by Joshua (Joshua 12:14).

(2.) One of the sons of Beriah (1_Chronicles 8:15).

Aram

The son of Shem (Genesis 10:22); according to Genesis 22:21, a grandson of Nahor. In Gospel of Matthew 1:3, Gospel of Matthew 1:4, and Gospel of Luke 3:33, this word is the Greek form of Ram, the father of Amminadab (1_Chronicles 2:10).

The word means high, or highlands, and as the name of a country denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast of Palestine to the Euphrates. It corresponded generally with the Syria and Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans. In Genesis 25:20; Genesis 31:20, Genesis 31:24; Deuteronomy 26:5, the word "Syrian" is properly "Aramean" (R.V., marg.). Damascus became at length the capital of the several smaller kingdoms comprehended under the designation "Aram" or "Syria."

Aram-naharaim

Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in Genesis 24:10), the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west (Psalms 60:1, title); called also the "field of Aram" (Hosea 12:12, R.V.) i.e., the open country of Aram; in the Authorized Version, "country of Syria." Padan-aram (q.v.) was a portion of this country.

Aram-zobah

(Psalms 60:1, title), probably the region between the Euphrates and the Orontes.

Aran

Wild goat, a descendant of Seir the Horite (Genesis 36:28).

Ararat

Sacred land or high land, the name of a country on one of the mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided (Genesis 8:4). The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range of South Armenia. In 2_Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38, the word is rendered "Armenia" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "Land of Ararat." In Jeremiah 51:27, the name denotes the central or southern portion of Armenia. It is, however, generally applied to a high and almost inaccessible mountain which rises majestically from the plain of the Araxes. It has two conical peaks, about 7 miles apart, the one 14,300 feet and the other 10,300 feet above the level of the plain. Three thousand feet of the summit of the higher of these peaks is covered with perpetual snow. It is called Kuh-i-nuh, i.e., "Noah's mountain", by the Persians. This part of Armenia was inhabited by a people who spoke a language unlike any other now known, though it may have been related to the modern Georgian. About 900 B.C. they borrowed the cuneiform characters of Nineveh, and from this time we have inscriptions of a line of kings who at times contended with Assyria. At the close of the seventh century B.C. the kingdom of Ararat came to an end, and the country was occupied by a people who are ancestors of the Armenians of the present day.

Araunah

Agile; also called Ornan 1_Chronicles 21:15, a Jebusite who dwelt in Jerusalem before it was taken by the Israelites. The destroying angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount Moriah. Araunah offered it to David as a free gift, together with the oxen and the threshing instruments; but the king insisted on purchasing it at its full price (2_Samuel 24:24; 1_Chronicles 21:24, 1_Chronicles 21:25), for, according to the law of sacrifices, he could not offer to God what cost him nothing. On the same place Solomon afterwards erected the temple (2_Samuel 24:16; 2_Chronicles 3:1). (See ALTAR.)

Arba

Four, a giant, father of Anak. From him the city of Hebron derived its name of Kirjath-arba, i.e., the city of Araba (Joshua 14:15; Joshua 15:13; Joshua 21:11; Genesis 13:18; Genesis 23:2). (See HEBRON.)

Arbathite

A name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one of David's warriors (2_Samuel 23:31; 1_Chronicles 11:32), probably as being an inhabitant of Arabah (Joshua 15:61), a town in the wilderness of Judah.

Archangel

(1_Thessalonians 4:16; Jude 1:9), the prince of the angels.

Arch

An architectural term found only in Ezekiel 40:16, Ezekiel 40:21, Ezekiel 40:22, Ezekiel 40:26, Ezekiel 40:29. There is no absolute proof that the Israelites employed arches in their buildings. The arch was employed in the building of the pyramids of Egypt. The oldest existing arch is at Thebes, and bears the date 1350 B.C.. There are also still found the remains of an arch, known as Robinson's Arch, of the bridge connecting Zion and Moriah. (See TYROPOEON VALLEY.)

Archelaus

Ruler of the people, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was educated along with his brother Antipas at Rome. He inherited from his father a third part of his kingdom viz., Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called "king" (Gospel of Matthew 2:22). It was for fear of him that Joseph and Mary turned aside on their way back from Egypt. Till a few days before his death Herod had named Antipas as his successor, but in his last moments he named Archelaus.

Archer

A shooter with the bow (1_Chronicles 10:3). This art was of high antiquity (Genesis 21:20; Genesis 27:3). Saul was wounded by the Philistine archers (1_Samuel 31:3). The phrase "breaking the bow" (Hosea 1:5; Jeremiah 49:35) is equivalent to taking away one's power, while "strengthening the bow" is a symbol of its increase (Genesis 49:24). The Persian archers were famous among the ancients (Isaiah 13:18; Jeremiah 49:35; Jeremiah 50:9, Jeremiah 50:14, Jeremiah 50:29, Jeremiah 50:42. (See Bow).

Archevite

One of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria (Ezra 4:9); the men of Erech.

Archi

A city on the boundary of Ephraim and Benjamin (Joshua 16:2), between Bethel and Beth-horon the nether.

Archippus

Master of the horse, a "fellow-soldier" of Paul's (Philemon 1:2), whom he exhorts to renewed activity (Colossians 4:17). He was a member of Philemon's family, probably his son.

Archite

The usual designation of Hushai (2_Samuel 15:32; 2_Samuel 17:5, 2_Samuel 17:14; 1_Chronicles 27:33), who was a native of Archi. He was "the king's friend", i.e., he held office under David similar to that of our modern privy councilor.

Arcturus

Bear-keeper, the name given by the ancients to the brightest star in the constellation Bootes. In the Authorized Version (Job 9:9; Job 38:32) it is the rendering of the Hebrew word 'ash , which probably designates the constellation the Great Bear. This word ( 'ash ) is supposed to be derived from an Arabic word meaning nightwatcher, because the Great Bear always revolves about the pole, and to our northern hemisphere never sets.

Ard

Descent, a grandson of Benjamin (Numbers 26:38). In 1_Chronicles 8:3 he is called Addar. His descendants are mentioned in Numbers 26:40.

Ardon

Descendant, the last of the three sons of Caleb by his first wife Azubah (1_Chronicles 2:18).

Areopagite

A member of the court of Areopagus (Acts 17:34).

Areopagus

The Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office, and the ex-archons of blameless life.

On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares ) Paul delivered his memorable address to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22).

Aretas

The father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Gospel of Luke 3:19, Gospel of Luke 3:20; Gospel of Mark 6:17; Gospel of Matthew 14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the complications of the times on account of the death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of Damascus (2_Corinthians 11:32; compare Acts 9:25). At this time Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia.

Argob

Stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30 miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New Testament (Gospel of Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the Israelites (Deuteronomy 3:4; 1_Kings 4:13). It is now called the Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive. Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron; the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect, as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, and even the window - shutters in their places. These ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant Cities). (See BASHAN.)

Arieh

The lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah at Samaria (2_Kings 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.

Ariel

The lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16).

(2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isaiah 29:1, Isaiah 29:2, Isaiah 29:7) as "victorious under God," and in Ezekiel 43:15, Ezekiel 43:16, for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel ) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.

Arimathea

A "city of the Jews" (Gospel of Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Gospel of Matthew 27:57, Gospel of Matthew 27:60; Gospel of John 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel (1_Samuel 1:1, 1_Samuel 1:19). Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Gospel of Matthew 2:18).

Arioch

Lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate with Chedorlamer (Genesis 14:1, Genesis 14:9). The tablets recently discovered by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA) show the true reading is Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O moon-god." (2.) Daniel 2:14.

Aristarchus

Best ruler, native of Thessalonica (Acts 20:4), a companion of Paul (Acts 19:29; Acts 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome (Colossians 4:10; Philemon 1:24).

Aristobulus

A Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (Romans 16:10), whose "household" is greeted.

Ark

Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high (Genesis 6:14); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in building (Genesis 5:32; Genesis 7:6). It was intended to preserve certain persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring over the earth. It contained eight persons (Genesis 7:13; 2_Peter 2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean" one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort (Genesis 7:2, Genesis 7:3). It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and sloping roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man was swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found existing among all nations.

The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid (Exodus 2:3) is called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the Egyptian teb, meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and with pitch.

The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus reed. The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, 'aron', which is the common name for a chest or coffer used for any purpose (Genesis 50:26; 2_Kings 12:9, 2_Kings 12:10). It is distinguished from all others by such titles as the "ark of God" (1_Samuel 3:3), "ark of the covenant" (Joshua 3:6; Hebrews 9:4), "ark of the testimony" (Exodus 25:22). It was made of acacia or shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high and two cubits long, and covered all over with the purest gold. Its upper surface or lid, the mercy-seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two sides were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles by which the ark could be carried (Numbers 7:9; Numbers 10:21; Numbers 4:5, Numbers 4:19, Numbers 4:20; 1_Kings 8:3, 1_Kings 8:6). Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two cherubim, with their faces turned toward each other (Leviticus 16:2; Numbers 7:89). Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed the throne of God, while the ark itself was his footstool (Exodus 25:10; Exodus 37:1). The ark was deposited in the "holy of holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by which it was carried touched the veil which separated the two apartments of the tabernacle (1_Kings 8:8). The two tables of stone which constituted the "testimony" or evidence of God's covenant with the people (Deuteronomy 31:26), the "pot of manna" (Exodus 16:33), and "Aaron's rod that budded" (Numbers 17:10), were laid up in the ark (Hebrews 9:4). (See TABERNACLE.) The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" (Lamentations 2:1). During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the host (Numbers 4:5, Numbers 4:6; Numbers 10:33; Psalms 68:1; Psalms 132:8). It was borne by the priests into the bed of the Jordan, which separated, opening a pathway for the whole of the host to pass over (Joshua 3:15, Joshua 3:16; Joshua 4:7, Joshua 4:10, Joshua 4:11, Joshua 4:17, Joshua 4:18). It was borne in the procession round Jericho (Joshua 6:4, Joshua 6:6, Joshua 6:8, Joshua 6:11, Joshua 6:12). When carried it was always wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and carefully concealed even from the eyes of the Levites who carried it. After the settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300 and 400 years (Jeremiah 7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and was taken by the Philistines (1_Samuel 4:3), who sent it back after retaining it seven months (1_Samuel 5:7, 1_Samuel 5:8). It remained then at Kirjath-jearim (1_Samuel 7:1, 1_Samuel 7:2) till the time of David (twenty years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in Gath-rimmon for three months (2_Samuel 6:1), at the end of which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (2_Samuel 6:12). It was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (1_Kings 8:6). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points in which it was inferior to the first temple.

Arkite

(Genesis 10:17; 1_Chronicles 1:15), a designation of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.

Arm

Used to denote power (Psalms 10:15; Ezekiel 30:21; Jeremiah 48:25). It is also used of the omnipotence of God (Exodus 15:16; Psalms 89:13; Psalms 98:1; Psalms 77:15; Isaiah 53:1; Gospel of John 12:38; Acts 13:17)

Armageddon

Occurs only in Revelation 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14) shall be fought. The world properly means the "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).

Armenia

High land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2_Kings 19:37; in Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Genesis 8:4). It is for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia are mentioned in Jeremiah 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some, however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)

Armoni

Inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by them (2_Samuel 21:8, 2_Samuel 21:9).

Armour

Is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment, both offensive and defensive. (1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods of history. The "rod of iron" (Psalms 2:9) is supposed to mean a mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a strong arm. The "maul" (Proverbs 25:18; cognate Hebrew word rendered "battle-axe" in Jeremiah 51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in Ezekiel 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual translation of hereb, which properly means "poniard." The real sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always double-edged), was also used (1_Samuel 17:39; 2_Samuel 20:8; 1_Kings 20:11). The spear was another offensive weapon (Joshua 8:18; 1_Samuel 17:7). The javelin was used by light troops (Numbers 25:7, Numbers 25:8; 1_Samuel 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1_Samuel 19:9, 1_Samuel 19:10), and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The bow was, however, the chief weapon of offense. The arrows were carried in a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action (Genesis 27:3; Genesis 48:22; Psalms 18:34). The sling was a favorite weapon of the Benjamites (1_Samuel 17:40; 1_Chronicles 12:2. Compare 1_Samuel 25:29).

(2.) Of the defensive Armour a chief place is assigned to the shield or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the tzinnah), for the protection of the whole person (Genesis 15:1; Psalms 47:9; 1_Samuel 17:7; Proverbs 30:5), and the buckler (Heb. mageen ) or small shield (1_Kings 10:17; Ezekiel 26:8). In Psalms 91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel appropriated to archers or slingers. The helmet (Ezekiel 27:10; 1_Samuel 17:38), a covering for the head; the coat of mail or corselet (1_Samuel 17:5), or habergeon (Neh. 4; 16), harness or breast-plate (Revelation 9:9), for the covering of the back and breast and both upper arms (Isaiah 59:17; Ephesians 6:14). The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather or quilted cloth, were also for the covering of the body. Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn in the time of David (1_Samuel 17:6). Reference is made by Paul (Ephesians 6:14) to the panoply of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a door-like oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole person, not the small round shield. There is no armour for the back, but only for the front.

Armour-bearer

An officer selected by kings and generals because of his bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies (Judges 9:54; 1_Samuel 14:7; 1_Samuel 16:21; 1_Samuel 31:6).

Armoury

The place in which armour was deposited when not used (Nehemiah 3:19; Jeremiah 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his tabernacle (1_Samuel 21:9; 2_Samuel 8:7; 1_Chronicles 26:26, 1_Chronicles 26:27).

Army

The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order (Exodus 13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Numbers 2:2; Numbers 10:14). In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains (Numbers 31:14), and also into families (Numbers 2:34; 2_Chronicles 25:5; 2_Chronicles 26:12). From the time of their entering the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the Israelites made little progress in military affairs, although often engaged in warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus of a standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select warriors (1_Samuel 13:2; 1_Samuel 14:52; 1_Samuel 24:2). David also had a band of soldiers around him (1_Samuel 23:13; 1_Samuel 25:13). To this band he afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (2_Samuel 15:18; 2_Samuel 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (1_Samuel 4:10; 1_Samuel 15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited (Deuteronomy 17:16); but chariots and horses were afterwards added (2_Samuel 8:4; 1_Kings 10:26, 1_Kings 10:28, 1_Kings 10:29; 1_Kings 9:19). In 1_Kings 9:22 there is given a list of the various gradations of rank held by those who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance of the army were at the public expense (2_Samuel 17:28, 2_Samuel 17:29; 1_Kings 4:27; 1_Kings 10:16, 1_Kings 10:17; Judges 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 (Exodus 12:37). In David's time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (2_Samuel 24:9).

Arnon

Swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deuteronomy 3:8, Deuteronomy 3:16). This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about 80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok.

Aroer

Ruins. (1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deuteronomy 4:48; Judges 11:26; 2_Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the kingdom of Sihon (Joshua 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles west of the Dead Sea.

(2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Numbers 32:34) "before Rabbah" (Joshua 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the history of Jephthah (Judges 11:33) and of David (2_Samuel 24:5). (Compare Isaiah 17:2; 2_Kings 15:29.)

(3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (1_Samuel 30:26, 1_Samuel 30:28). It was the native city of two of David's warriors (1_Chronicles 11:44). It is now called Ararah.

Arpad

(Isaiah 10:9; Isaiah 36:19; Isaiah 37:13), also Arphad.

Arphad

Support, a Syrian city near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (2_Kings 19:13; 2_Kings 18:34; Isaiah 10:9), and Damascus (Jeremiah 49:23). After a siege of three years it fell (742 B.C.) before the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.

Arphaxad

Son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age of 438 years (Genesis 11:10; 1_Chronicles 1:17, 1_Chronicles 1:18; Gospel of Luke 3:36). He dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The tendency is to recognize in the word the name of the country nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans. Some regard the word as an Egypticized form of the territorial name of Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.

Arrows

At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning (Deuteronomy 32:23, Deuteronomy 32:42; Psalms 7:13; Psalms 18:14; Psalms 144:6; Zechariah 9:14).

They were used in war as well as in the chase (Genesis 27:3; Genesis 49:23). They were also used in divination (Ezekiel 21:21). The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4; Job 34:6; Psalms 38:2; Deuteronomy 32:23. Compare Ezekiel 5:16), or of some sudden danger (Psalms 91:5), or bitter words (Psalms 64:3), or false testimony (Proverbs 25:18).

Artaxerxes

The Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history.

(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (458 B.C.) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (464-425 B.C.); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.

Artificer

A person engaged in any kind of manual occupation (Genesis 4:22; Isaiah 3:3).

Artillery

1_Samuel 20:40, (Heb. keli , meaning "apparatus;" here meaning collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin artillaria = equipment of war.

Arvad

Wandering, (Ezekiel 27:8), a small island and city on the coast of Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre. The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.

Asa

Physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying immoralities, out of the land (1 Kings 15; 8-14). The Lord gave him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him, however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to the Lord, but to the physicians" (compare Jeremiah 17:5). He died in the forty-first year of his reign, greatly honored by his people (2_Chronicles 16:1), and was succeeded by his son Jehoshaphat.

Asahel

Made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle (2_Samuel 2:18, 2_Samuel 2:19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty men (2_Samuel 23:24; 1_Chronicles 11:26). Others of the same name are mentioned (2_Chronicles 17:8; 2_Chronicles 31:13; Ezra 10:15).

Asaph

Convener, or collector. (1.) A Levite; one of the leaders of David's choir (1_Chronicles 6:39). Psalm 50 and Psalms 73-83 inclusive are attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled in music, and a "seer" (2_Chronicles 29:30). The "sons of Asaph," mentioned in 1_Chronicles 25:1, 2_Chronicles 20:14, and Ezra 2:41, were his descendants, or more probably a class of poets or singers who recognized him as their master.

(2.) The "recorder" in the time of Hezekiah (2_Kings 18:18, 2_Kings 18:37).

(3.) The "keeper of the king's forest," to whom Nehemiah requested from Artaxerxes a "letter" that he might give him timber for the temple at Jerusalem (Nehemiah 2:8).

Ascension

See CHRIST.

Asenath

An Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Genesis 41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (Genesis 41:50; Genesis 46:20).

Ash

(Heb. o'ren , "tremulous"), mentioned only Isaiah 44:14 (R.V., "fir tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the LXX. and Vulgate versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs aran, found still in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that of the mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash tree is not known in Syria.

Ashdod

Stronghold, a Philistine city (Joshua 15:47), about midway between Gaza and Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It was one of the chief seats of the worship of Dagon (1_Samuel 5:5). It belonged to the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:47), but it never came into their actual possession. It was an important city, as it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine, and hence was strongly fortified (2_Chronicles 26:6; Isaiah 20:1). Uzziah took it, but fifty years after his death it was taken by the Assyrians (758 B.C.). According to Sargon's record, it was captured by him in 711 B.C.. The only reference to it in the New Testament, where it is called Azotus, is in the account of Philip's return from Gaza (Acts 8:40). It is now called Eshdud.

Ashdoth-pisgah

(Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 13:20) in Authorized Version, but in Revised Version translated "slopes of Pisgah." In Deuteronomy 4:49 it is translated in the Authorized Version "springs of Pisgah." The name Ashdoth is translated "springs" in the Authorized Version, but "slopes" in the Revised Version, of Joshua 10:40; Joshua 12:8. It has been identified with the springs under Mount Nebo, now called 'Ayun Musa .

Asher

Happy, Jacob's eighth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Genesis 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (Genesis 35:26; Genesis 46:17; Exodus 1:4, etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent. during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan and Naphtali (Numbers 2:27). See map, Showing the Territory of Asher The boundaries of the inheritance given to it, which contained some of the richest soil in Palestine, and the names of its towns, are recorded in Joshua 19:24; Judges 1:31, Judges 1:32. Asher and Simeon were the only tribes west of the Jordan which furnished no hero or judge for the nation. Anna the prophetess was of this tribe (Gospel of Luke 2:36).

Asherah

Plural Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Exodus 34:13; Judges 6:25; 2_Kings 23:6; 1_Kings 16:33, etc.). These images were also sometimes made of silver or of carved stone (2_Kings 21:7; "the graven image of Asherah," R.V.). (See GROVE [1].).

Ashes

The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Numbers 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Hebrews 9:13).

To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2_Samuel 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jeremiah 6:26, etc.).

To feed on ashes (Isaiah 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature of idol-worship. (Compare Hosea 12:1).

Ashkelon

=Askelon = Ascalon was one of the five cities of the Philistines (Joshua 13:3; 1_Samuel 6:17). It stood on the shore of the Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the judges (Judges 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after retaken by the Philistines (2_Samuel 1:20), who were not finally dispossessed till the time of Alexander the Great. Samson went down to this place from Timnath, and slew thirty men and took their spoil. The prophets foretold its destruction (Jeremiah 25:20; Jeremiah 47:5, Jeremiah 47:7). It became a noted place in the Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a bloody battle between the Saracens and the Crusaders. It was besieged and taken by Richard the Lion-hearted, and "within its walls and towers now standing he held his court." Among the Tell Amarna tablets (see EGYPT) are found letters or official dispatches from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of the king's feet," to the "great king" of Egypt, dated from Ascalon. It is now called 'Askalan'.

Ashkenaz

One of the three sons of Gomer (Genesis 10:3), and founder of one of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat must have been in Armenia (Jeremiah 51:27), probably near the Black Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine.

Ashpenaz

The master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 1:3), the "Rabsaris" of the court. His position was similar to that of the Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.

Ashtaroth

A city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og (Deuteronomy 1:4; Joshua 12:4; Joshua 13:12; Joshua 9:10). It was in the half-tribe of Manasseh (Joshua 13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites (1_Chronicles 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1_Chronicles 11:44), is named as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments 1700-1500 B.C.. The name Beesh-terah (Joshua 21:27) is a contraction for Beth-eshterah, i.e., "the house of Ashtaroth."

Ashteroth Karnaim

Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Genesis 14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called "Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon). The Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of Damascus.

Ashtoreth

The moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male deity (Judges 10:6; 1_Samuel 7:4; 1_Samuel 12:10). These names often occur in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues or different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of as Ashtoreth of the Zidonians. She was the Ishtar of the Accadians and the Astarte of the Greeks (Jeremiah 44:17; 1_Kings 11:5, 1_Kings 11:33; 2_Kings 23:13). There was a temple of this goddess among the Philistines in the time of Saul (1_Samuel 31:10). Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great deities of the Assyrians. The Phoenicians called her Astarte. Solomon introduced the worship of this idol (1_Kings 11:33). Jezebel's 400 priests were probably employed in its service (1_Kings 18:19). It was called the "queen of heaven" (Jeremiah 44:25).

Ashurites

Mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2_Samuel 2:9).

Asia

Is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus was the capital, in Acts 2:9; Acts 6:9; Acts 16:6; Acts 19:10, Acts 19:22; Acts 20:4, Acts 20:16, Acts 20:18, etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, Acts 19:27; Acts 21:27; Acts 24:18; Acts 27:2. See map, Proconsular Asia and the Seven Churches Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of the Apocalypse (Revelation 1:11). The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31) were certain wealthy citizens who were annually elected to preside over the games and religious festivals of the several cities to which they belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were Paul's friends.

Asnapper

Probably the same as Assurbani-pal (Sardanapalos of the Greeks), styled the "great and noble" (Ezra 4:10), was the son and successor (668 B.C.) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was "luxurious, ambitious, and cruel, but a magnificent patron of literature." He formed at Nineveh a library of clay tablets, numbering about 10,000. These are now mostly in the British Museum. They throw much light on the history and antiquities of Assyria.

Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of literature, and the conqueror of Elam. Towards the middle of his reign his empire was shaken by a great rebellion headed by his brother in Babylon. The rebellion was finally put down, but Egypt was lost, and the military power of Assyria was so exhausted that it could with difficulty resist the hordes of Kimmerians who poured over Western Asia. (See NINEVEH.)

Asp

(Heb. pethen ), Deuteronomy 32:33; Job 20:14, Job 20:16; Isaiah 11:8. It was probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very poisonous (Romans 3:13; Gr. aspis ). The Egyptians worshipped it as the uraeus, and it was found in the desert and in the fields. The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the figure of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See ADDER.)

Ass

Frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. 'athon ), so named from its slowness (Genesis 12:16; Genesis 45:23; Numbers 22:23; 1_Samuel 9:3). (2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor ), the common working ass of Western Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a strong ass (Genesis 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an ass and an ox in the plough (Deuteronomy 22:10). (3.) The ass's colt (Heb. 'air ), mentioned Judges 10:4; Judges 12:14. It is rendered "foal" in Genesis 32:15; Genesis 49:11. (Compare Job 11:12; Isaiah 30:6.) The ass is an unclean animal, because it does not chew the cud (Leviticus 11:26. Compare 2_Kings 6:25). Asses constituted a considerable portion of wealth in ancient times (Genesis 12:16; Genesis 30:43; 1_Chronicles 27:30; Job 1:3; Job 42:12). They were noted for their spirit and their attachment to their master (Isaiah 1:3). They are frequently spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by Abraham (Genesis 22:3), Balaam (Numbers 22:21), the disobedient prophet (1_Kings 13:23), the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in number (Judges 12:14), Zipporah (Exodus 4:20), the Shunammite (1_Samuel 25:30), etc. Zechariah (Zechariah 9:9) predicted our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon a colt," etc. (Gospel of Matthew 21:5, R.V.). Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1.) that called in Hebrew 'arod , mentioned Job 39:5 and Daniel 5:21, noted for its swiftness; and (2.) that called pe're , the wild ass of Asia (Job 39:6; Job 6:5; Job 11:12; Isaiah 32:14; Jeremiah 2:24; Jeremiah 14:6, etc.). The wild ass was distinguished for its fleetness and its extreme shyness. In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael is likened to a wild ass (Genesis 16:12. Here the word is simply rendered "wild" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "wild-ass among men").

Asshur

Second son of Shem (Genesis 10:22; 1_Chronicles 1:17). He went from the land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. (Genesis 10:11, Genesis 10:12). He probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes retained (Numbers 24:22, Numbers 24:24; Ezekiel 27:23, etc.). In Genesis 2:14 "Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital of Assyria, a city represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat, on the west bank of the Tigris. This city was founded by Bel-kap-kapu about 1700 B.C.. At a later date the capital was shifted to Ninua, or Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern bank of the river. (See CALAH; NINEVEH.)

Assos

A sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia, on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, Acts 20:14), a distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles distant.

Assurance

The resurrection of Jesus (Acts 17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr. pistis , generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full assurance [Gr. plerophoria , 'full bearing'] of faith" (Hebrews 10:22) is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for doubt. The "full assurance of understanding" (Colossians 2:2) is an entire unwavering conviction of the truth of the declarations of Scripture, a joyful steadfastness on the part of any one of conviction that he has grasped the very truth. The "full assurance of hope" (Hebrews 6:11) is a sure and well-grounded expectation of eternal glory (2_Timothy 4:7, 2_Timothy 4:8).

This assurance of hope is the assurance of a man's own particular salvation. This infallible assurance, which believers may attain unto as to their own personal salvation, is founded on the truth of the promises (Hebrews 6:18), on the inward evidence of Christian graces, and on the testimony of the Spirit of adoption (Romans 8:16). That such a certainty may be attained appears from the testimony of Scripture (Romans 8:16; 1_John 2:3; 1_John 3:14), from the command to seek after it (Hebrews 6:11; 2_Peter 1:10), and from the fact that it has been attained (2_Timothy 1:12; 2_Timothy 4:7, 2_Timothy 4:8; 1_John 2:3; 1_John 4:16).

This full assurance is not of the essence of saving faith. It is the result of faith, and posterior to it in the order of nature, and so frequently also in the order of time. True believers may be destitute of it. Trust itself is something different from the evidence that we do trust. Believers, moreover, are exhorted to go on to something beyond what they at present have when they are exhorted to seek the grace of full assurance (Hebrews 10:22; 2_Peter 1:5). The attainment of this grace is a duty, and is to be diligently sought. "Genuine assurance naturally leads to a legitimate and abiding peace and joy, and to love and thankfulness to God; and these from the very laws of our being to greater buoyancy, strength, and cheerfulness in the practice of obedience in every department of duty.&q

ot; This assurance may in various ways be shaken, diminished, and intermitted, but the principle out of which it springs can never be lost. (See FAITH.)

Assyria

The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded in 1700 B.C. under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians were Semites (Genesis 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military people, the "Romans of the East." See map, of Assyria Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is positively known. In 1120 B.C. Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the states of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel, Shalmaneser II. marched an army against the Syrian states, whose allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took that city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre and Sidon.

About a hundred years after this (745 B.C. the crown was seized by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into Syria, which had by this time regained its independence, and took (740 B.C.) Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a yearly tribute.

In 738 B.C., in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2_Kings 15:19). Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by means of a present of gold and silver (2_Kings 16:8); who accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to death, and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his army to continue the siege, "he advanced through the province east of Jordan, spreading fire and sword," and became master of Philistia, and took Samaria and Damascus. He died 727 B.C., and was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till 722 B.C.. He also invaded Syria (2_Kings 17:5), but was deposed in favour of Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into captivity, 722 B.C. (2_Kings 17:1, 2_Kings 17:24; 2_Kings 18:7, 2_Kings 18:9). He also overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:6, Isaiah 10:12, Isaiah 10:22, Isaiah 10:24, Isaiah 10:34). Mention is next made of Sennacherib (705 B.C.), the son and successor of Sargon (2_Kings 18:13; 2_Kings 19:37; Isaiah 7:17, Isaiah 7:18); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor, who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian kings made the seat of his government (2_Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38).

Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra 4:10 is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea. At length, however, its power declined. In 727 B.C. the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan (2_Kings 20:12), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their independence (625 B.C.), and Assyria fell according to the prophecies of Isaiah (Isaiah 10:5), Nahum (Nahum 3:19), and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 3:13), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed ceased to recognize the "great king" (2_Kings 18:19; Isaiah 36:4). Ezekiel (Ezek. 31) attests (about 586 B.C.) how completely Assyria was overthrown. NINEVEH, BABYLON.)

Astrologer

(Daniel 1:20; Daniel 2:2, Daniel 2:10, Daniel 2:27, etc.) Heb. 'ashshaph' , an enchanter, one who professes to divine future events by the appearance of the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deuteronomy 4:19; Deuteronomy 18:10; Isaiah 47:13).

Astronomy

The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry firmament (Amos 5:8; Psalms 19:1). In the Book of Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star" (Revelation 2:28; compare Isaiah 14:12), the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job 9:9; Job 38:31), "the crooked serpent," Draco (Job 26:13), the Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11).

The stars were called "the host of heaven" (Isaiah 40:26; Jeremiah 33:22). The oldest divisions of time were mainly based on the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, the "ordinances of heaven" (Genesis 1:14; Job 38:33; Jeremiah 31:35; Jeremiah 33:25). Such observations led to the division of the year into months and the mapping out of the appearances of the stars into twelve portions, which received from into twelve portions, which received from the Greeks the name of the "zodiac." The word "Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32) means, as the margin notes, "the twelve signs" of the zodiac. Astronomical observations were also necessary among the Jews in order to the fixing of the proper time for sacred ceremonies, the "new moons," the "passover," etc. Many allusions are found to the display of God's wisdom and power as seen in the starry heavens (Psalms 8:1; Psalms 19:1; Isaiah 51:6, etc.)

Asuppim

(1_Chronicles 26:15, 1_Chronicles 26:17, Authorized Version; but in Revised Version, "storehouse"), properly the house of stores for the priests. In Nehemiah 12:25 the Authorized Version has "thresholds," marg. "treasuries" or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."

Atad

Buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob, made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation." On this account the Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" (Genesis 50:10, Genesis 50:11). It was probably near Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble" in Judges 9:14, Judges 9:15, and "thorns" in Psalms 58:9.

Ataroth

Crowns. (1.) A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead (Numbers 32:3).

(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Joshua 16:2, Joshua 16:7), called also Ataroth-adar (Joshua 16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh .

(3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (1_Chronicles 2:54), a town of Judah inhabited by the descendants of Caleb.

Ater

Shut; lame. (1.) Ezra 2:16. (2.) Nehemiah 10:17. (3.) Ezra 2:42.

Athaliah

Whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2_Kings 8:18), who "walked in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2_Chronicles 21:6), called "daughter" of Omri (2_Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the youngest (2_Kings 11:1, 2_Kings 11:2). After a reign of six years she was put to death in an insurrection (2_Kings 11:20; 2_Chronicles 21:6; 2_Chronicles 22:10; 2_Chronicles 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with Josiah's being crowned as king.

(2.) Ezra 8:7. (3.) 1_Chronicles 8:26.

Athens

The capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man.&q

ot; On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts 17:15; compare 1_Thessalonians 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his famous speech (Acts 17:22). The altar of which Paul there speaks as dedicated "to the [properly an] unknown God" (Acts 17:23) was probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."

Atonement

This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Romans 5:11, where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence.

The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows from the death of Christ.

But the word is also used to denote that by which this reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this sense to make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for his offenses (Exodus 32:30; Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:16; Numbers 6:11), and, as regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in his behalf.

By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated our sins. But in Scripture usage the word denotes the reconciliation itself, and not the means by which it is effected. When speaking of Christ's saving work, the word "satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement." Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in behalf of sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of God. Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these were vicarious, i.e., were not merely for our benefit, but were in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or substitute. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, i.e., it is now consistent with his justice to manifest his love to transgressors. Expiation has been made for sin, i.e., it is covered. The means by which it is covered is vicarious satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement or reconciliation. To make atonement is to do that by virtue of which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about. Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God. They rectify the disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord. The reconciliation is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners toward God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward sinners, effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so that consistently with the other attributes of his character his love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing to men. The primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout the Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of infinite worth rendered to the law and justice of God (q.v.), and accepted by him in room of the very penalty man had incurred. It must also be constantly kept in mind that the atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love to guilty men (Gospel of John 3:16; Romans 3:24, Romans 3:25; Ephesians 1:7; 1_John 1:9; 1_John 4:9). The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an absolute but in a relative sense, i.e., if man is to be saved, there is no other way than this which God has devised and carried out (Exodus 34:7; Joshua 24:19; Psalms 5:4; Psalms 7:11; Nahum 1:2, Nahum 1:6; Romans 3:5). This is God's plan, clearly revealed; and f that is enough for us to know.

Atonement, Day of

The great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Leviticus 16:3; Leviticus 23:26; and Numbers 29:7.

It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)

Augustus

The cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Gospel of Luke 2:1). His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the senate (27 B.C.), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire (Gospel of Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.

Augustus' Band

(Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers belonging to Caesarea.

Ava

A place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria (2_Kings 17:24). It is probably the same with Ivah (2_Kings 18:34; 2_Kings 19:13; Isaiah 37:13). It has been identified with Hit on the Euphrates.

Aven

Nothingness; vanity. (1.) Hosea speaks of the "high places of Aven" (Hosea 10:8), by which he means Bethel. He also calls in Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of vanity" (Hosea 4:15), on account of the golden calves Jeroboam had set up there (1_Kings 12:28).

(2.)Translated by the LXX. "On" in Ezekiel 30:17. The Egyptian Heliopolis or city of On (q.v.).

(3.)In Amos 1:5 it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the modern Baalbec.

Avenger of Blood

(Heb. goel , from verb gaal , "to be near of kin," "to redeem"), the nearest relative of a murdered person. It was his right and duty to slay the murderer (2_Samuel 14:7, 2_Samuel 14:11) if he found him outside of a city of refuge. In order that this law might be guarded against abuse, Moses appointed six cities of refuge (Exodus 21:13; Numbers 35:13; Deuteronomy 19:1, Deuteronomy 19:9). These were in different parts of the country, and every facility was afforded the manslayer that he might flee to the city that lay nearest him for safety. Into the city of refuge the avenger did not dare to follow him. This arrangement applied only to cases where the death was not premeditated. The case had to be investigated by the authorities of the city, and the willful murderer was on no account to be spared. He was regarded as an impure and polluted person, and was delivered up to the goel (Deuteronomy 19:11). If the offense was merely manslaughter, then the fugitive must remain within the city till the death of the high priest (Numbers 35:25).

Avim

A people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments" on the south-west corner of the sea-coast (Deuteronomy 2:23). They were subdued and driven northward by the Caphtorim. A trace of them is afterwards found in Joshua 13:3, where they are called Avites.

Awl

An instrument only referred to in connection with the custom of boring the ear of a slave (Exodus 21:6; Deuteronomy 15:17), in token of his volunteering perpetual service when he might be free. (Compare Psalms 40:6; Isaiah 50:5).

Axe

Used in the Authorized Version of Deuteronomy 19:5; Deuteronomy 20:19; 1_Kings 6:7, as the translation of a Hebrew word which means "chopping." It was used for felling trees (Isaiah 10:34) and hewing timber for building. It is the rendering of a different word in Judges 9:48, 1_Samuel 13:20, 1_Samuel 13:21, Psalms 74:5, which refers to its sharpness. In 2_Kings 6:5 it is the translation of a word used with reference to its being made of iron. In Isaiah 44:12 the Revised Version renders by "axe" the Hebrew maatsad, which means a "hewing" instrument. In the Authorized Version it is rendered "tongs." It is also used in Jeremiah 10:3, and rendered "axe." The "battle-axe" (army of Medes and Persians) mentioned in Jeremiah 51:20 was probably, as noted in the margin of the Revised Version, a "maul" or heavy mace. In Psalms 74:6 the word so rendered means "feller." (See the figurative expression in Gospel of Matthew 3:10; Gospel of Luke 3:9.)

Azal

(Zechariah 14:5) should perhaps be rendered "very near" = "the way of escape shall be made easy." If a proper name, it may denote some place near the western extremity of the valley here spoken of near Jerusalem.

Azariah

Whom Jehovah helps. (1.) Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1_Chronicles 2:8).

(2.)Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as high priest (1_Chronicles 6:9; 1_Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He officiated at the consecration of the temple (1_Chronicles 6:10).

(3.)The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah and Asa (2_Chronicles 6:10, 2_Chronicles 6:11).

(4.)High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah (2_Kings 14:21; 2_Chronicles 26:17). He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Amos, and Joel.

(5.)High priest in the days of Hezekiah (2_Chronicles 31:10). Of the house of Zadok.

(6.)Several other priests and Levites of this name are mentioned (1_Chronicles 6:36; Ezra 7:1; 1_Chronicles 9:11; Nehemiah 3:23, etc.).

(7.)The original name of Abed-nego (Daniel 1:6, Daniel 1:7, Daniel 1:11, Daniel 1:16). He was of the royal family of Judah, and with his other two companions remarkable for his personal beauty and his intelligence as well as piety.

(8.)The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa (2_Chronicles 15:1). He stirred up the king and the people to a great national reformation.

Azazel

(Leviticus 16:8, Leviticus 16:10, Leviticus 16:26, Revised Version only here; rendered "scape-goat" in the Authorized Version). This word has given rise to many different views. Some Jewish interpreters regard it as the name of a place some 12 miles east of Jerusalem, in the wilderness. Others take it to be the name of an evil spirit, or even of Satan. But when we remember that the two goats together form a type of Christ, on whom the Lord "laid the iniquity of us all," and examine into the root meaning of this word (viz., "separation"), the interpretation of those who regard the one goat as representing the atonement made, and the other, that "for Azazel," as representing the effect of the great work of atonement (viz., the complete removal of sin), is certainly to be preferred. The one goat which was "for Jehovah" was offered as a sin-offering, by which atonement was made. But the sins must also be visibly banished, and therefore they were symbolically laid by confession on the other goat, which was then "sent away for Azazel" into the wilderness. The form of this word indicates intensity, and therefore signifies the total separation of sin: it was wholly carried away. It was important that the result of the sacrifices offered by the high priest alone in the sanctuary should be embodied in a visible transaction, and hence the dismissal of the "scape-goat." It was of no consequence what became of it, as the whole import of the transaction lay in its being sent into the wilderness bearing away sin. As the goat "for Jehovah" was to witness to the demerit of sin and the need of the blood of atonement, so the goat "for Azazel" was to witness to the efficacy of the sacrifice and the result of the shedding of blood in the taking away of sin.

Azaziah

Whom Jehovah strengthened. (1.) One of the Levitical harpers in the temple (1_Chronicles 15:21).

(2.) The father of Hoshea, who was made ruler over the Ephraimites (1_Chronicles 27:20).

(3.) One who had charge of the temple offerings (2_Chronicles 31:13).

Azekah

Dug over, a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah (Joshua 15:35), where the five confederated Amoritish kings were defeated by Joshua and their army destroyed by a hailstorm (Joshua 10:10, Joshua 10:11). It was one of the places re-occupied by the Jews on their return from the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:30)

Azel

Noble, a descendant of king Saul (1_Chronicles 8:37; 1_Chronicles 9:43, 1_Chronicles 9:44).

Azmaveth

Strong as death. (1.) One of David's thirty warriors (2_Samuel 23:31).

(2.) An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David and Solomon (1_Chronicles 27:25).

(3.) A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem (Nehemiah 12:29; Ezra 2:24).

(4.) 1_Chronicles 8:36

Azotus

The Grecized form (Acts 8:40, etc.) of Ashdod (q.v.).

Azubah

Deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb (1_Chronicles 2:18, 1_Chronicles 2:19).

(2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1_Kings 22:42).

Azur

And Azzur, helper. (1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jeremiah 28:1). (2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezekiel 11:1). (3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 10:17).

Baal

Lord. (1.) The name appropriated to the principal male god of the Phoenicians. It is found in several places in the plural BAALIM (Judges 2:11; Judges 10:10; 1_Kings 18:18; Jeremiah 2:23; Hosea 2:17). Baal is identified with Molech (Jeremiah 19:5). It was known to the Israelites as Baal-peor (Numbers 25:3; Deuteronomy 4:3), was worshipped till the time of Samuel (1_Samuel 7:4), and was afterwards the religion of the ten tribes in the time of Ahab (1_Kings 16:31; 1_Kings 18:19, 1_Kings 18:22). It prevailed also for a time in the kingdom of Judah (2_Kings 8:27; compare 2_Kings 11:18; 2_Kings 16:3; 2_Chronicles 28:2). till finally put an end to by the severe discipline of the Captivity (Zephaniah 1:4). The priests of Baal were in great numbers (1_Kings 18:19), and of various classes (2_Kings 10:19). Their mode of offering sacrifices is described in 1_Kings 18:25. The sun-god, under the general title of Baal, or "lord," was the chief object of worship of the Canaanites. Each locality had its special Baal, and the various local Baals were summed up under the name of Baalim, or "lords." Each Baal had a wife, who was a colourless reflection of himself.

(2.) A Benjamite, son of Jehiel, the progenitor of the Gibeonites (1_Chronicles 8:30; 1_Chronicles 9:36).

(3.) The name of a place inhabited by the Simeonites, the same probably as Baal-ath-beer (1_Chronicles 4:33; Joshua 19:8).

Baalah

Mistress; city. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Joshua 15:29), elsewhere called Balah (Joshua 19:3) and Bilhah (1_Chronicles 4:29). Now Khurbet Zebalah (2.) A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:10), called also Kirjath-jearim, q.v. (Joshua 15:9; 1_Chronicles 13:6), now Kuriet-el-Enab, or as some think, ' Erma .

(3.) A mountain on the northwestern boundary of Judah and Dan (Joshua 15:11).

Baalath

A town of the tribe of Dan (Joshua 19:44). It was fortified by Solomon (1_Kings 9:18; 2_Chronicles 8:6). Some have identified it with Bel'ain , in Wady Deir Balut.

Baalath-beer

Baalah of the well, (Joshua 19:8, probably the same as Baal, mentioned in 1_Chronicles 4:33, a city of Simeon.

Baalbec

Called by the Greeks Heliopolis i.e., "the city of the sun", because of its famous Temple of the Sun, has by some been supposed to be Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" (1_Kings 7:2; 1_Kings 10:17; 2_Chronicles 9:16); by others it is identified with Baal-gad (q.v.). It was a city of Coele-Syria, on the lowest declivity of Anti-Libanus, about 42 miles north-west of Damascus. It was one of the most splendid of Syrian cities, existing from a remote antiquity. After sustaining several sieges under the Moslems and others, it was finally destroyed by an earthquake in 1759. Its ruins are of great extent.

Baal-berith

Covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after the death of Gideon (Judges 8:33; Judges 9:4) In Judges 9:46 he is called simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of the covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of Jehovah (Exodus 34:12), when they began to fall away to the worship of idols.

Baale of Judah

Lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David brought the ark into Jerusalem (2_Samuel 6:2). Elsewhere (1_Chronicles 13:6) called Kirjath-jearim. (SEE BAALAH.)

Baal-gad

Lord of fortune, or troop of Baal, a Canaanite city in the valley of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon, hence called Baal-hermon (Judges 3:3; 1_Chronicles 5:23), near the source of the Jordan (Joshua 13:5; Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7). It was the most northern point to which Joshua's conquests extended. It probably derived its name from the worship of Baal. Its modern representative is Banias. Some have supposed it to be the same as Baalbec.

Baal-hamon

Place of a multitude, a place where Solomon had an extensive vineyard (Song_of_Solomon 8:11). It has been supposed to be identical with Baal-gad, and also with Hammon in the tribe of Asher (Joshua 19:28). Others identify it with Belamon, in Central Palestine, near Dothaim.

Baal-hanan

Lord of grace. (1.) A king of Edom, son of Achbor (Genesis 36:38, Genesis 36:39; 1_Chronicles 1:49, 1_Chronicles 1:50).

(2.) An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the low plains" (the Shephelah) under David (1_Chronicles 27:28).

Baal-hazor

Having a courtyard, or Baal's village, the place on the borders of Ephraim and Benjamin where Absalom held the feast of sheep-shearing when Amnon was assassinated (2_Samuel 13:23). Probably it is the same with Hazor (Nehemiah 11:33), now Tell' Asur , 5 miles north-east of Bethel.

Baal-hermon

Lord of Hermon. (1.) A city near Mount Hermon inhabited by the Ephraimites (1_Chronicles 5:23). Probably identical with Baal-gad (Joshua 11:17).

(2.) A mountain east of Lebanon (Judges 3:3). Probably it may be the same as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.

Baali

My lord, a title the prophet (Hosea 2:16) reproaches the Jewish church for applying to Jehovah, instead of the more endearing title Ishi, meaning "my husband."

Baalim

Plural of Baal; images of the god Baal (Judges 2:11; 1_Samuel 7:4).

Baalis

King of the Ammonites at the time of the Babylonian captivity (Jeremiah 40:14). He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah who had been appointed governor over the cities of Judah.

Baal-meon

Lord of dwelling, a town of Reuben (Numbers 32:38), called also Bethmeon (Jeremiah 48:23) and Beth-baal-meon (Joshua 13:17). It is supposed to have been the birth-place of Elisha. It is identified with the modern M'ain , about 3 miles south-east of Heshbon.

Baal-peor

Lord of the opening, a god of the Moabites (Numbers 25:3; Numbers 31:16; Joshua 22:17), worshipped by obscene rites. So called from Mount Peor, where this worship was celebrated, the Baal of Peor. The Israelites fell into the worship of this idol (Numbers 25:3, Numbers 25:5, Numbers 25:18; Deuteronomy 4:3; Psalms 106:28; Hosea 9:10).

Baal-perazim

Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a victory gained by David over the Philistines (2_Samuel 5:20; 1_Chronicles 14:11). Called Mount Perazim (Isaiah 28:21). It was near the valley of Rephaim, west of Jerusalem. Identified with the modern Jebel Aly.

Baal-shalisha

Lord of Shalisha, a place from which a man came with provisions for Elisha, apparently not far from Gilgal (2_Kings 4:42). It has been identified with Sirisia, 13 miles north of Lydda.

Baal-tamar

Lord of palm trees, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Gibeah of Saul (Judges 20:33). It was one of the sanctuaries or groves of Baal. Probably the palm tree of Deborah (Judges 4:5) is alluded to in the name.

Baal-zebub

Fly-lord, the god of the Philistines at Ekron (2_Kings 1:2, 2_Kings 1:3, 2_Kings 1:16. This name was given to the god because he was supposed to be able to avert the plague of flies which in that region was to be feared. He was consulted by Ahaziah as to his recovery.

Baal-zephon

Baal of the north, an Egyptian town on the shores of the Gulf of Suez (Exodus 14:2; Numbers 33:7), over against which the children of Israel encamped before they crossed the Red Sea. It is probably to be identified with the modern Jebel Deraj or Kulalah, on the western shore of the Gulf of Suez. Baal-capuna of the Egyptians was a place of worship.

Baana

Son of affliction. (1.) One of Solomon's purveyors (1_Kings 4:12).

(2.) Son of Hushai, another of Solomon's purveyors (1_Kings 4:16).

(3.) Father of Zadok (Nehemiah 3:4).

Baanah

Son of affliction. (1.) One of the two sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, a captain in Saul's army. He and his brother Rechab assassinated Ishbosheth (2_Samuel 4:2), and were on this account slain by David, and their mutilated bodies suspended over the pool at Hebron (2_Samuel 4:5, 2_Samuel 4:6, 2_Samuel 4:12).

(2.) The father of Heled, who was one of David's thirty heroes (2_Samuel 23:29; 1_Chronicles 11:30).

Baasha

Bravery, the third king of the separate kingdom of Israel, and founder of its second dynasty (1 Kings 15, 16; 2_Chronicles 16:1). He was the son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar. The city of Tirzah he made the capital of his kingdom, and there he was buried, after an eventful reign of twenty-four years (1_Kings 15:33). On account of his idolatries his family was exterminated, according to the word of the prophet Jehu (1_Kings 16:3, 1_Kings 16:4, 1_Kings 16:10).

Babe

Used of children generally (Gospel of Matthew 11:25; Gospel of Matthew 21:16; Gospel of Luke 10:21; Romans 2:20). It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith and knowledge (1_Corinthians 3:1; Hebrews 5:13; 1_Peter 2:2). In Isaiah 3:4 the word "babes" refers to a succession of weak and wicked princes who reigned over Judah from the death of Josiah downward to the destruction of Jerusalem.

Babel, Tower of

The name given to the tower which the primitive fathers of our race built in the land of Shinar after the Deluge (Genesis 11:1). Their object in building this tower was probably that it might be seen as a rallying-point in the extensive plain of Shinar, to which they had emigrated from the uplands of Armenia, and so prevent their being scattered abroad. But God interposed and defeated their design by confounding their language, and hence the name Babel, meaning "confusion." In the Babylonian tablets there is an account of this event, and also of the creation and the deluge. (See CHALDEA.) The Temple of Belus, which is supposed to occupy its site, is described by the Greek historian Herodotus as a temple of great extent and magnificence, erected by the Babylonians for their god Belus. The treasures Nebuchadnezzar brought from Jerusalem were laid up in this temple (2_Chronicles 36:7). The Birs Nimrud, at ancient Borsippa, about 7 miles south-west of Hillah, the modern town which occupies a part of the site of ancient Babylon, and 6 miles from the Euphrates, is an immense mass of broken and fire-blasted fragments, of about 2,300 feet in circumference, rising suddenly to the height of 235 feet above the desert-plain, and is with probability regarded as the ruins of the tower of Babel. This is "one of the most imposing ruins in the country." Others think it to be the ruins of the Temple of Belus.

Babylon

The Greek form of BABEL; Semitic form Babilu, meaning "The Gate of God." In the Assyrian tablets it means "The city of the dispersion of the tribes." The monumental list of its kings reaches back to 2300 B.C., and includes Khammu-rabi, or Amraphel(q.v.), the contemporary of Abraham. See map, of Babylonia It stood on the Euphrates, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris, which flowed through its midst and divided it into two almost equal parts. The Elamites invaded Chaldea (i.e., Lower Mesopotamia, or Shinar, and Upper Mesopotamia, or Accad, now combined into one) and held it in subjection. At length Khammu-rabi delivered it from the foreign yoke, and founded the new empire of Chaldea (q.v.), making Babylon the capital of the united kingdom. This city gradually grew in extent and grandeur, but in process of time it became subject to Assyria. On the fall of Nineveh (606 B.C.) it threw off the Assyrian yoke, and became the capital of the growing Babylonian empire. Under Nebuchadnezzar it became one of the most splendid cities of the ancient world.

After passing through various vicissitudes the city was occupied by Cyrus, "king of Elam," 538 B.C., who issued a decree permitting the Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1:1). It then ceased to be the capital of an empire. It was again and again visited by hostile armies, till its inhabitants were all driven from their homes, and the city became a complete desolation, its very site being forgotten from among men.

On the west bank of the Euphrates, about 50 miles south of Bagdad, there is found a series of artificial mounds of vast extent. These are the ruins of this once famous proud city. These ruins are principally (1.) the great mound called Babil by the Arabs. This was probably the noted Temple of Belus, which was a pyramid about 480 feet high. (2.) The Kasr (i.e., "the palace"). This was the great palace of Nebuchadnezzar. It is almost a square, each side of which is about 700 feet long. The little town of Hillah, near the site of Babylon, is built almost wholly of bricks taken from this single mound. (3.) A lofty mound, on the summit of which stands a modern tomb called Amran ibn-Ali. This is probably the most ancient portion of the remains of the city, and represents the ruins of the famous hanging-gardens, or perhaps of some royal palace. The utter desolation of the city once called "The glory of kingdoms" (Isaiah 13:19) was foretold by the prophets (Isa. 13:4-22; Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 50:2, Jeremiah 50:3; Daniel 2:31). The Babylon mentioned in 1_Peter 5:13 was not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of Babylon, which was inhabited by many Jews at the time Peter wrote.

In Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, "Babylon" is supposed to mean Rome, not considered as pagan, but as the prolongation of the ancient power in the papal form. Rome, pagan and papal, is regarded as one power. "The literal Babylon was the beginner and supporter of tyranny and idolatry... This city and its whole empire were taken by the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were subdued by the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans; so that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon. And it was her method to adopt the worship of the false deities she had conquered; so that by her own act she became the heiress and successor of all the Babylonian idolatry, and of all that was introduced into it by the immediate successors of Babylon, and consequently of all the idolatry of the earth." Rome, or "mystical Babylon," is "that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth" (Revelation 17:18).

Babylon, Kingdom of

Called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jeremiah 24:5; Ezek, Ezekiel 12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezekiel 17:4; Isaiah 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. Among its chief cities may be mentioned Ur (now Mugheir or Mugayyar), on the western bank of the Euphrates; Uruk, or Erech (Genesis 10:10) (now Warka), between Ur and Babylon; Larsa (now Senkereh), the Ellasar of Genesis 14:1, a little to the east of Erech; Nipur (now Niffer), south-east of Babylon; Sepharvaim (2_Kings 17:24), "the two Sipparas" (now Abu-Habba), considerably to the north of Babylon; and Eridu, "the good city" (now Abu-Shahrein), which lay originally on the shore of the Persian Gulf, but is now, owing to the silting up of the sand, about 100 miles distant from it. Another city was Kulunu, or Calneh (Genesis 10:10). The salt-marshes at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris were called Marratu, "the bitter" or "salt", the Merathaim of Jeremiah 50:21. They were the original home of the Kalda, or Chaldeans. The most famous of the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B.C.3800) and his son, Naram-Sin, who conquered a large part of Western Asia, establishing their power in Palestine, and even carrying their arms to the Sinaitic peninsula. A great Babylonian library was founded in the reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. This was put an end to by Khammu-rabi (Amraphel), who drove the Elamites out of the country, and over-came Arioch, the son of an Elamite prince. From this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. About B.C.1750 it was conquered by the Kassi, or Kosseans, from the mountains of Elam, and a Kassite dynasty ruled over it for 576 years and 9 months. In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites." In the epoch of the Kassite dynasty, however, Canaan passed into the hands of Egypt. In 729 B.C., Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III.; but on the death of Shalmaneser IV. it was seized by the Kalda or "Chaldean" prince Merodach-baladan (2_Kings 20:12), who held it till 709 B.C., when he was driven out by Sargon. Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, 689 B.C.. It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2_Chronicles 33:11). After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sum yukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty. When Nineveh was destroyed, 606 B.C., Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. His son Nebuchadrezzar (Nabu-kudur-uzur), after defeating the Egyptians at Carchemish, succeeded him as king, 604 B.C., and founded the Babylonian empire. He strongly fortified Babylon, and adorned it with palaces and other buildings. His son, Evil-merodach, who succeeded him in 561 B.C., was murdered after a reign of two years. The last monarch of the Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B.C.555-538, whose eldest son, Belshazzar (Bilu-sar-uzur), is mentioned in several inscriptions. Babylon was captured by Cyrus, 538 B.C., and though it revolted more than once in later years, it never succeeded in maintaining its independence.

Babylonish Garment

A robe of rich colours fabricated at Babylon, and hence of great value (Joshua 7:21).

Baca, Valley of

(Psalms 84:6; R.V., "valley of weeping," marg., "or balsam trees"), probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of weeping."

Backbite

In Psalms 15:3, the rendering of a word which means to run about tattling, calumniating; in Proverbs 25:23, secret tale bearing or slandering; in Romans 1:30 and 2_Corinthians 12:20, evil-speaking, maliciously defaming the absent.

Backslide

To draw back or apostatize in matters of religion (Acts 21:21; 2_Thessalonians 2:3; 1_Timothy 4:1). This may be either partial (Proverbs 14:14) or complete (Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:38, Hebrews 10:39). The apostasy may be both doctrinal and moral.

Badger

This word is found in Exodus 25:5; Exodus 26:14; Exodus 35:7, Exodus 35:23; Exodus 36:19; Exodus 39:34; Numbers 4:6, etc. The tabernacle was covered with badgers' skins; the shoes of women were also made of them (Ezekiel 16:10). Our translators seem to have been misled by the similarity in sound of the Hebrew tachash and the Latin taxus , "a badger." The revisers have correctly substituted "seal skins." The Arabs of the Sinaitic peninsula apply the name tucash to the seals and dugongs which are common in the Red Sea, and the skins of which are largely used as leather and for sandals. Though the badger is common in Palestine, and might occur in the wilderness, its small hide would have been useless as a tent covering. The dugong, very plentiful in the shallow waters on the shores of the Red Sea, is a marine animal from 12 to 30 feet long, something between a whale and a seal, never leaving the water, but very easily caught. It grazes on seaweed, and is known by naturalists as Halicore tabernaculi.

Bag

(1.) A pocket of a cone-like shape in which Naaman bound two pieces of silver for Gehazi (2_Kings 5:23). The same Hebrew word occurs elsewhere only in Isaiah 3:22, where it is rendered "crisping-pins," but denotes the reticules (or as R.V., "satchels") carried by Hebrew women.

(2.) Another word (kees) so rendered means a bag for carrying weights (Deuteronomy 25:13; Proverbs 16:11; Micah 6:11). It also denotes a purse (Proverbs 1:14) and a cup (Proverbs 23:31).

(3.) Another word rendered "bag" in 1_Samuel 17:40 is rendered "sack" in Genesis 42:25; and in 1_Samuel 9:7; 1_Samuel 21:5 "vessel," or wallet for carrying food.

(4.) The word rendered in the Authorized Version "bags," in which the priests bound up the money contributed for the restoration of the temple (2_Kings 12:10), is also rendered "bundle" (Genesis 42:35; 1_Samuel 25:29). It denotes bags used by travelers for carrying money during a journey (Proverbs 7:20; Haggai 1:6).

(5.) The "bag" of Judas was a small box (Gospel of John 12:6; Gospel of John 13:29).

Bahurim

Young men, a place east of Jerusalem (2_Samuel 3:16; 2_Samuel 19:16), on the road to the Jordan valley. Here Shimei resided, who poured forth vile abuse against David, and flung dust and stones at him and his party when they were making their way down the eastern slopes of Olivet toward Jordan (2_Samuel 16:5); and here Jonathan and Ahimaaz hid themselves (2_Samuel 17:18).

With the exception of Shimei, Azmaveth, one of David's heroes, is the only other native of the place who is mentioned (2_Samuel 23:31; 1_Chronicles 11:33).

Bajith

House, probably a city of Moab, which had a celebrated idol-temple (Isaiah 15:2). It has also been regarded as denoting simply the temple of the idol of Moab as opposed to the "high place."

Bake

The duty of preparing bread was usually, in ancient times, committed to the females or the slaves of the family (Genesis 18:6; Leviticus 26:26; 1_Samuel 8:13); but at a later period we find a class of public bakers mentioned (Hosea 7:4, Hosea 7:6; Jeremiah 37:21).

The bread was generally in the form of long or round cakes (Exodus 29:23; 1_Samuel 2:36), of a thinness that rendered them easily broken (Isaiah 58:7; Gospel of Matthew 14:19; Gospel of Matthew 26:26; Acts 20:11). Common ovens were generally used; at other times a jar was half-filled with hot pebbles, and the dough was spread over them. Hence we read of "cakes baken on the coals" (1_Kings 19:6), and "baken in the oven" (Leviticus 2:4). (See BREAD.)

Bake-meats

Baked provisions (Genesis 40:17), literally "works of the baker," such as biscuits and cakes.

Balaam

Lord of the people; foreigner or glutton, as interpreted by others, the son of Beor, was a man of some rank among the Midianites (Numbers 31:8; compare Numbers 31:16). He resided at Pethor (Deuteronomy 23:4), in Mesopotamia (Numbers 23:7). It is evident that though dwelling among idolaters he had some knowledge of the true God; and was held in such reputation that it was supposed that he whom he blessed was blessed, and he whom he cursed was cursed. When the Israelites were encamped on the plains of Moab, on the east of Jordan, by Jericho, Balak sent for Balaam "from Aram, out of the mountains of the east," to curse them; but by the remarkable interposition of God he was utterly unable to fulfill Balak's wish, however desirous he was to do so. The apostle Peter refers (2_Peter 2:15, 2_Peter 2:16) to this as an historical event. In Micah 6:5 reference also is made to the relations between Balaam and Balak. Though Balaam could not curse Israel, yet he suggested a mode by which the divine displeasure might be caused to descend upon them (Num. 25). In a battle between Israel and the Midianites (q.v.) Balaam was slain while fighting on the side of Balak (Numbers 31:8).

The "doctrine of Balaam" is spoken of in Revelation 2:14, in allusion to the fact that it was through the teaching of Balaam that Balak learned the way by which the Israelites might be led into sin. (See NICOLAITANES.) Balaam was constrained to utter prophecies regarding the future of Israel of wonderful magnificence and beauty of expression (Numbers 24:5, Numbers 24:17).

Baladan

He has given a son, the father of the Babylonian king (2_Kings 20:12; Isaiah 39:1) Merodach-baladan (q.v.).

Balah

A city in the tribe of Simeon (Joshua 19:3), elsewhere called Bilhah (1_Chronicles 4:29) and Baalah (Joshua 15:29).

Balak

Empty; spoiler, a son of Zippor, and king of the Moabites (Numbers 22:2, Numbers 22:4). From fear of the Israelites, who were encamped near the confines of his territory, he applied to Balaam (q.v.) to curse them; but in vain (Joshua 24:9).

Balance

Occurs in Leviticus 19:36 and Isaiah 46:6, as the rendering of the Hebrew kanch' , which properly means "a reed" or "a cane," then a rod or beam of a balance. This same word is translated "measuring reed" in Ezekiel 40:3, Ezekiel 40:5; Ezekiel 42:16. There is another Hebrew word, mozena'yim , i.e., "two poisers", also so rendered (Daniel 5:27). The balances as represented on the most ancient Egyptian monuments resemble those now in use. A "pair of balances" is a symbol of justice and fair dealing (Job 31:6; Psalms 62:9; Proverbs 11:1). The expression denotes great want and scarcity in Revelation 6:5.

Baldness

From natural causes was uncommon (2_Kings 2:23; Isaiah 3:24). It was included apparently under "scab" and "scurf," which disqualified for the priesthood (Leviticus 21:20). The Egyptians were rarely subject to it. This probably arose from their custom of constantly shaving the head, only allowing the hair to grow as a sign of mourning. With the Jews artificial baldness was a sign of mourning (Isaiah 22:12; Jeremiah 7:29; Jeremiah 16:6); it also marked the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow (Acts 18:18; Acts 21:24; Numbers 6:9). It is often alluded to (Micah 1:16; Amos 8:10; Jeremiah 47:5). The Jews were forbidden to follow the customs of surrounding nations in making themselves bald (Deuteronomy 14:1).

Balm

Contracted from Balsam, a general name for many oily or resinous substances which flow or trickle from certain trees or plants when an incision is made through the bark. (1.) This word occurs in the Authorized Version (Genesis 37:25; Genesis 43:11; Jeremiah 8:22; Jeremiah 46:11; Jeremiah 51:8; Ezekiel 27:17) as the rendering of the Hebrew word tsori or tseri, which denotes the gum of a tree growing in Gilead (q.v.), which is very precious. It was celebrated for its medicinal qualities, and was circulated as an article of merchandise by Arab and Phoenician merchants. The shrub so named was highly valued, and was almost peculiar to Palestine. In the time of Josephus it was cultivated in the neighbourhood of Jericho and the Dead Sea. There is an Arab tradition that the tree yielding this balm was brought by the queen of Sheba as a present to Solomon, and that he planted it in his gardens at Jericho.

(2.) There is another Hebrew word, basam or bosem, from which our word "balsam," as well as the corresponding Greek balsamon , is derived. It is rendered "spice" (Song_of_Solomon 5:1, Song_of_Solomon 5:13; Song_of_Solomon 6:2; margin of Revised Version, "balsam;" Exodus 35:28; 1_Kings 10:10), and denotes fragrance in general. Basam also denotes the true balsam-plant, a native of South Arabia (Cant. l.c.).

Bamah

A height, a name used simply to denote a high place where the Jews worshipped idols (Ezekiel 20:29). The plural is translated "high places" in Numbers 22:41 and Ezekiel 36:2.

Bamoth

Heights, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites (Numbers 21:19, Numbers 21:20) in the territory of the Moabites.

Bamoth-baal

Heights of Baal, a place on the river Arnon, or in the plains through which it flows, east of Jordan (Joshua 13:17; compare Numbers 21:28). It has been supposed to be the same place as Bamoth.

Bands

(1.) of love (Hosea 11:4); (2.) of Christ (Psalms 2:3); (3.) uniting together Christ's body the church (Colossians 2:19; Colossians 3:14; Ephesians 4:3); (4.) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezekiel 34:27; Isaiah 28:22; Isaiah 52:2); (5.) of brotherhood (Ezekiel 37:15); (6.) no bands to the wicked in their death (Psalms 73:4; Job 21:7; Psalms 10:6). Also denotes chains (Gospel of Luke 8:29); companies of soldiers (Acts 21:31); a shepherd's staff, indicating the union between Judah and Israel (Zechariah 11:7).

Bani

Built. (1.) 1_Chronicles 6:46. (2.) One of David's thirty-seven warriors, a Gadite (2_Samuel 23:36). (3.) Ezra 2:10; Ezra 10:29, Ezra 10:34, Ezra 10:38. (4.) A Levite who was prominent in the reforms on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 8:7; Nehemiah 9:4, Nehemiah 9:5). His son Rehum took part in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:17).

Banner

(1.) The flag or banner of the larger kind, serving for three tribes marching together. These standards, of which there were four, were worked with embroidery and beautifully ornamented (Numbers 1:52; Numbers 2:2, Numbers 2:3, Numbers 2:10, Numbers 2:18, Numbers 2:25; Song_of_Solomon 2:4; Song_of_Solomon 6:4, Song_of_Solomon 6:10).

(2.) The flag borne by each separate tribe, of a smaller form. Probably it bore on it the name of the tribe to which it belonged, or some distinguishing device (Numbers 2:2, Numbers 2:34).

(3.) A lofty signal-flag, not carried about, but stationary. It was usually erected on a mountain or other lofty place. As soon as it was seen the war-trumpets were blown (Psalms 60:4; Isaiah 5:26; Isaiah 11:12; Isaiah 13:2; Isaiah 18:3; Isaiah 30:17; Jeremiah 4:6, Jeremiah 4:21; Ezekiel 27:7).

(4.) A "sign of fire" (Jeremiah 6:1) was sometimes used as a signal. The banners and ensigns of the Roman army had idolatrous images upon them, and hence they are called the "abomination of desolation" (q.v.).

The principal Roman standard, however, was an eagle. (See Gospel of Matthew 24:28; Gospel of Luke 17:37, where the Jewish nation is compared to a dead body, which the eagles gather together to devour.) God's setting up or giving a banner (Psalms 20:5; Psalms 60:4; Song_of_Solomon 2:4) imports his presence and protection and aid extended to his people.

Banquet

A feast provided for the entertainment of a company of guests (Esther 5:1, Esther 7:1; 1_Peter 4:3); such as was provided for our Lord by his friends in Bethany (Gospel of Matthew 26:6; Gospel of Mark 14:3; compare Gospel of John 12:2). These meals were in the days of Christ usually called "suppers," after the custom of the Romans, and were partaken of toward the close of the day. It was usual to send a second invitation (Gospel of Matthew 22:3; Gospel of Luke 14:17) to those who had been already invited. When the whole company was assembled, the master of the house shut the door with his own hands (Gospel of Luke 13:25; Gospel of Matthew 25:10).

The guests were first refreshed with water and fragrant oil (Gospel of Luke 7:38; Gospel of Mark 7:4). A less frequent custom was that of supplying each guest with a robe to be worn during the feast (Ecclesiastes 9:8; Revelation 3:4, Revelation 3:5; Gospel of Matthew 22:11). At private banquets the master of the house presided; but on public occasions a "governor of the feast" was chosen (Gospel of John 2:8). The guests were placed in order according to seniority (Genesis 43:33), or according to the rank they held (Proverbs 25:6, Proverbs 25:7; Gospel of Matthew 23:6; Gospel of Luke 14:7).

As spoons and knives and forks are a modern invention, and were altogether unknown in the East, the hands alone were necessarily used, and were dipped in the dish, which was common to two of the guests (Gospel of John 13:26). In the days of our Lord the guests reclined at table; but the ancient Israelites sat around low tables, cross-legged, like the modern Orientals. Guests were specially honoured when extra portions were set before them (Genesis 43:34), and when their cup was filled with wine till it ran over (Psalms 23:5). The hands of the guests were usually cleaned by being rubbed on bread, the crumbs of which fell to the ground, and were the portion for dogs (Gospel of Matthew 15:27; Gospel of Luke 16:21).

At the time of the three annual festivals at Jerusalem family banquets were common. To these the "widow, and the fatherless, and the stranger" were welcome (Deuteronomy 16:11). Sacrifices also included a banquet (Exodus 34:15; Judges 16:23). Birthday banquets are mentioned (Genesis 40:20; Gospel of Matthew 14:6). They were sometimes protracted, and attended with revelry and excess (Genesis 21:8; Genesis 29:22; 1_Samuel 25:2, 1_Samuel 25:36; 2_Samuel 13:23). Portions were sometimes sent from the table to poorer friends (Nehemiah 8:10; Esther 9:19, Esther 9:22). (See MEALS.)

Baptism, Christian

An ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Gospel of Matthew 28:19, Gospel of Matthew 28:20), and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the Supper, "till he come." The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words transferred into English. It means to dip a thing into an element or liquid. In the LXX, the Greek version of the Old Testament, it is used of the ablutions and baptisms required by the Mosaic law.

These were effected by immersion, and the same word, "washings" (Hebrews 9:10, Hebrews 9:13, Hebrews 9:19, Hebrews 9:21) or "baptisms," designates them all. Moreover, all of the instances of baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 2:38; Acts 8:26; Acts 9:17, Acts 9:18; Acts 22:12; Acts 10:44; Acts 16:32) suggests the idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, i.e. by immersion. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. As in the Supper a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

The apostles of our Lord were baptized with the Holy Ghost (Gospel of Matthew 3:11) by his coming upon them (Acts 1:8). The fire also with which they were baptized sat upon them. The extraordinary event of Pentecost was explained by Peter as a fulfillment of the ancient promise that the Spirit would be poured out in the last days (Acts 2:17). He uses also with the same reference the expression shed forth as descriptive of the baptism of the Spirit (Acts 2:33). In the Pentecostal baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed forth, poured out, fell on them (Acts 11:15), came upon them, sat on them." The subjects of baptism. This raises questions of greater importance than those relating to its mode.

The controversy here is not about "believers' baptism," for that is common to all parties. Believers were baptized in apostolic times, and they have been baptized in all time by all the branches of the church. It is altogether a misrepresentation to allege, as is sometimes done by Baptists, that their doctrine is "believers' baptism," Every instance of adult baptism, or of "believers' baptism," recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:41; Acts 8:37; Acts 9:17, Acts 9:18; Acts 10:47; Acts 16:15; Acts 19:5, etc.) is just such as would be dealt with in precisely the same way by all branches of the Protestant Church, a profession of faith or of their being "believers" would be required from every one of them before baptism. The point in dispute is not the baptism of believers, but whether the infant children of believers, i.e., of members of the church, ought to be baptized.

Baptism of Christ

Christ had to be formally inaugurated into the public discharge of his offices. For this purpose he came to John, who was the representative of the law and the prophets, that by him he might be introduced into his offices, and thus be publicly recognized as the Messiah of whose coming the prophecies and types had for many ages borne witness.

John refused at first to confer his baptism on Christ, for he understood not what he had to do with the "baptism of repentance." But Christ said, "'suffer it to be so now,' NOW as suited to my state of humiliation, my state as a substitute in the room of sinners." His reception of baptism was not necessary on his own account. It was a voluntary act, the same as his act of becoming incarnate. Yet if the work he had engaged to accomplish was to be completed, then it became him to take on him the likeness of a sinner, and to fulfill all righteousness (Gospel of Matthew 3:15).

The official duty of Christ and the sinless person of Christ are to be distinguished. It was in his official capacity that he submitted to baptism. In coming to John our Lord virtually said, "Though sinless, and without any personal taint, yet in my public or official capacity as the Sent of God, I stand in the room of many, and bring with me the sin of the world, for which I am the propitiation." Christ was not made under the law on his own account. It was as surety of his people, a position which he spontaneously assumed. The administration of the rite of baptism was also a symbol of the baptism of suffering before him in this official capacity (Gospel of Luke 12:50). In thus presenting himself he in effect dedicated or consecrated himself to the work of fulfilling all righteousness.

Baptism, John's

Was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practiced by the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. Till then the New Testament economy did not exist. John's baptism bound its subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ. It was not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24; Acts 19:7).

Baptism for the Dead

Only mentioned in 1_Corinthians 15:29. This expression as used by the apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a baptism of blood in order to join a glorified church which has no existence [i.e., if the dead rise not] is a fool." Some also regard the statement here as an allusion to the strange practice which began, it is said, to prevail at Corinth, in which a person was baptized in the stead of others who had died before being baptized, to whom it was hoped some of the benefits of that rite would be extended. This they think may have been one of the erroneous customs which Paul went to Corinth to "set in order."

Bar

Used to denote the means by which a door is bolted (Nehemiah 3:3); a rock in the sea (Jonah 2:6); the shore of the sea (Job 38:10); strong fortifications and powerful impediments, etc. (Isaiah 45:2; Amos 1:5); defenses of a city (1_Kings 4:13). A bar for a door was of iron (Isaiah 45:2), brass (Psalms 107:16), or wood (Nahum 3:13).

Barabbas

I.e., son of Abba or of a father, a notorious robber whom Pilate proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to release, in accordance with the Roman custom (Gospel of John 18:40; Gospel of Mark 15:7; Gospel of Luke 23:19). But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that they demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned (Gospel of Matthew 27:16; Acts 3:14). This Pilate did.

Barachel

Whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of Job's friends (Job 32:2, Job 32:6).

Barachias

Berechiah, (4.) (q.v.), whom Jehovah hath blessed, father of the prophet Zechariah (Zechariah 1:1, Zechariah 1:7; Gospel of Matthew 23:35).

Barak

Lightning, the son of Abinoam (Judges 4:6). At the summons of Deborah he made war against Jabin. She accompanied him into the battle, and gave the signal for the little army to make the attack; in which the host of Jabin was completely routed. The battle was fought (Judges 4:16) in the plain of Jezreel (q.v.) This deliverance of Israel is commemorated in Judg. 5. Barak's faith is commended (Hebrews 11:32). "The character of Barak, though pious, does not seem to have been heroic. Like Gideon, and in a sense Samson, he is an illustration of the words in Hebrews 11:34, 'Out of weakness were made strong.'" (See Deborah.)

Barbarian

A Greek word used in the New Testament (Romans 1:14) to denote one of another nation. In Colossians 3:11, the word more definitely designates those nations of the Roman empire that did not speak Greek. In 1_Corinthians 14:11, it simply refers to one speaking a different language. The inhabitants of Malta are so called (Acts 28:1, Acts 28:2, Acts 28:4). They were originally a Carthaginian colony. This word nowhere in Scripture bears the meaning it does in modern times.

Barber

Found only once, in Ezekiel 5:1, where reference is made to the Jewish custom of shaving the head as a sign of mourning. The Nazarites were untouched by the razor from their birth (Numbers 6:5). Compare Judges 16:19.

Barefoot

To go barefoot was a sign of great distress (Isaiah 20:2, Isaiah 20:3, Isaiah 20:4), or of some great calamity having fallen on a person (2_Samuel 15:30).

Bariah

Fugitive, one of Shemaiah's five sons. Their father is counted along with them in 1_Chronicles 3:22.

Bar-jesus

Son of Joshua, the patronymic of Elymas the sorcerer (Acts 13:6), who met Paul and Barnabas at Paphos. Elymas is a word of Arabic origin meaning "wise."

Bar-jona

Son of Jonah, the patronymic of Peter (Gospel of Matthew 16:17; Gospel of John 1:42), because his father's name was Jonas. (See Peter.)

Barkos

Painter, (Ezra 2:53; Nehemiah 7:55). The father of some of the Nethinim.

Barley

A grain much cultivated in Egypt (Exodus 9:31) and in Palestine (Leviticus 27:16; Deuteronomy 8:8). It was usually the food of horses (1_Kings 4:28). Barley bread was used by the poorer people (Judges 7:13; 2_Kings 4:42). Barley of the first crop was ready for the harvest by the time of the Passover, in the middle of April (Ruth 1:22; 2_Samuel 21:9). Mention is made of barley-meal (Numbers 5:15). Our Lord fed five thousand with "five barley loaves and two small fishes" (Gospel of John 6:9).

Barn

A storehouse (Deuteronomy 28:8; Job 39:12; Haggai 2:19) for grain, which was usually under ground, although also sometimes above ground (Gospel of Luke 12:18).

Barnabas

Son of consolation, the surname of Joses, a Levite (Acts 4:36). His name stands first on the list of prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch (Acts 13:1). Luke speaks of him as a "good man" (Acts 11:24). He was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. He was a native of Cyprus, where he had a possession of land (Acts 4:36, Acts 4:37), which he sold. His personal appearance is supposed to have been dignified and commanding (Acts 14:11, Acts 14:12). When Paul returned to Jerusalem after his conversion, Barnabas took him and introduced him to the apostles (Acts 9:27).

They had probably been companions as students in the school of Gamaliel. The prosperity of the church at Antioch led the apostles and brethren at Jerusalem to send Barnabas thither to superintend the movement. He found the work so extensive and weighty that he went to Tarsus in search of Saul to assist him. Saul returned with him to Antioch and laboured with him for a whole year (Acts 11:25, Acts 11:26). The two were at the end of this period sent up to Jerusalem with the contributions the church at Antioch had made for the poorer brethren there (Acts 11:28). Shortly after they returned, bringing John Mark with them, they were appointed as missionaries to the heathen world, and in this capacity visited Cyprus and some of the principal cities of Asia Minor (Acts 13:14). Returning from this first missionary journey to Antioch, they were again sent up to Jerusalem to consult with the church there regarding the relation of Gentiles to the church (Acts 15:2; Galatians 2:1). This matter having been settled, they returned again to Antioch, bringing the decree of the council as the rule by which Gentiles were to be admitted into the church.

When about to set forth on a second missionary journey, a dispute arose between Saul and Barnabas as to the propriety of taking John Mark with them again. The dispute ended by Saul and Barnabas taking separate routes. Saul took Silas as his companion, and journeyed through Syria and Cilicia; while Barnabas took his nephew John Mark, and visited Cyprus (Acts 15:36). Barnabas is not again mentioned by Luke in the Acts.

Barrel

A vessel used for keeping flour (1_Kings 17:12, 1_Kings 17:14, 1_Kings 17:16). The same word (cad) so rendered is also translated "pitcher," a vessel for carrying water (Genesis 24:14; Judges 7:16).

Barren

For a woman to be barren was accounted a severe punishment among the Jews (Genesis 16:2; 30:1-23; 1_Samuel 1:6, 1_Samuel 1:27; Isaiah 47:9; Isaiah 49:21; Gospel of Luke 1:25). Instances of barrenness are noticed (Genesis 11:30; Genesis 25:21; Genesis 29:31; Judges 13:2, Judges 13:3; Gospel of Luke 1:7, Gospel of Luke 1:36).

Barsabas

Son of Saba, the surname (1.) of Joseph, also called Justus (Acts 1:23), some identify him with Barnabas; (2.) of Judas, who was a "prophet." Nothing more is known of him than what is mentioned in Acts 15:32.

Bartholomew

Son of Tolmai, one of the twelve apostles (Gospel of Matthew 10:3; Acts 1:13); generally supposed to have been the same as Nathanael. In the synoptic gospels Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said of Bartholomew. He was one of the disciples to whom our Lord appeared at the Sea of Tiberias after his resurrection (Gospel of John 21:2). He was also a witness of the Ascension (Acts 1:4, Acts 1:12, Acts 1:13). He was an "Israelite indeed" (Gospel of John 1:47).

Bartimaeus

Son of Timaeus, one of the two blind beggars of Jericho (Gospel of Mark 10:46; Gospel of Matthew 20:30). His blindness was miraculously cured on the ground of his faith.

Baruch

Blessed. (1.) The secretary of the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 32:12; Jeremiah 36:4). He was of the tribe of Judah (Jeremiah 51:59). To him Jeremiah dictated his prophecies regarding the invasion of the Babylonians and the Captivity. These he read to the people from a window in the temple in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah (Jer. 36). He afterwards read them before the counsellors of the king at a private interview; and then to the king himself, who, after hearing a part of the roll, cut it with a penknife, and threw it into the fire of his winter parlour, where he was sitting. During the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, he was the keeper of the deed of purchase Jeremiah had made of the territory of Hanameel (Jeremiah 32:12). Being accused by his enemies of favouring the Chaldeans, he was cast, with Jeremiah, into prison, where he remained till the capture of Jerusalem (586 B.C.). He probably died in Babylon. (2.) Nehemiah 3:20; Nehemiah 10:6; Nehemiah 11:5.

Barzillai

Of iron. (1.) A Meholathite, the father of Adriel (2_Samuel 21:8).

(2.) A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his loyalty to David. He liberally provided for the king's followers (2_Samuel 17:27). David on his death-bed, remembering his kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon (1_Kings 2:7).

(3.) A priest who married a daughter of the preceding (Ezra 2:61).

Bashan

Light soil, first mentioned in Genesis 14:5, where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates "smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth," where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. At the time of Israel's entrance into the Promised Land, Og came out against them, but was utterly routed (Numbers 21:33; Deuteronomy 3:1). This country extended from Gilead in the south to Hermon in the north, and from the Jordan on the west to Salcah on the east. Along with the half of Gilead it was given to the half-tribe of Manasseh (Joshua 13:29). Golan, one of its cities, became a "city of refuge" (Joshua 21:27). Argob, in Bashan, was one of Solomon's commissariat districts (1_Kings 4:13). The cities of Bashan were taken by Hazael (2_Kings 10:33), but were soon after reconquered by Jehoash (2_Kings 13:25), who overcame the Syrians in three battles, according to the word of Elisha (2_Kings 13:19). From this time Bashan almost disappears from history, although we read of the wild cattle of its rich pastures (Ezekiel 39:18; Psalms 22:12), the oaks of its forests (Isaiah 2:13; Ezekiel 27:6; Zechariah 11:2), and the beauty of its extensive plains (Amos 4:1; Jeremiah 50:19). Soon after the conquest, the name "Gilead" was given to the whole country beyond Jordan. After the Exile, Bashan was divided into four districts, (1.) Gaulonitis, or Jaulan, the most western; (2.) Auranitis, the Hauran (Ezekiel 47:16); (3.) Argob or Trachonitis, now the Lejah; and (4.) Batanaea, now Ard-el-Bathanyeh, on the east of the Lejah, with many deserted towns almost as perfect as when they were inhabited. (See HAURAN.)

Bashan, Hill of

(Psalms 68:15), probably another name for Hermon, which lies to the north of Bashan.

Bashan-havoth-jair

The Bashan of the villages of Jair, the general name given to Argob by Jair, the son of Manasseh (Deuteronomy 3:14), containing sixty cities with walls and brazen gates (Joshua 13:30; 1_Kings 4:13). (See ARGOB.)

Bashemath

Sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives (Genesis 36:3, Genesis 36:4, Genesis 36:13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Genesis 28:9). It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those given to them in the history (Genesis 26:34; Genesis 28:9).

(2.) A daughter of Solomon, and wife of Ahimaaz, one of his officers (1_Kings 4:15).

Basilisk

(in R.V., Isaiah 11:8; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 59:5; Jeremiah 8:17), the "king serpent," as the name imports; a fabulous serpent said to be three spans long, with a spot on its head like a crown. Probably the yellow snake is intended. (See COCKATRICE.)

Basin

Or Bason (1.) A trough or laver (Heb. aggan' ) for washing (Exodus 24:6); rendered also "goblet" (Song_of_Solomon 7:2) and "cups" (Isaiah 22:24).

(2.) A covered dish or urn (Heb. kefor ) among the vessels of the temple (1_Chronicles 28:17; Ezra 1:10; Ezra 8:27).

(3.) A vase (Heb. mizrak ) from which to sprinkle anything. A metallic vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" (Amos 6:6; Zechariah 9:15). The vessels of the tabernacle were of brass (Exodus 27:3), while those of the temple were of gold (2_Chronicles 4:8).

(4.) A utensil (Heb. saph ) for holding the blood of the victims (Exodus 12:22); also a basin for domestic purposes (2_Samuel 17:28). The various vessels spoken of by the names "basin, bowl, charger, cup, and dish," cannot now be accurately distinguished.

The basin in which our Lord washed the disciples' feet (Gospel of John 13:5) must have been larger and deeper than the hand-basin.

Basket

There are five different Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version: (1.) A basket (Heb. sal , a twig or osier) for holding bread (Genesis 40:16; Exodus 29:3, Exodus 29:23; Leviticus 8:2, Leviticus 8:26, Leviticus 8:31; Numbers 6:15, Numbers 6:17, Numbers 6:19). Sometimes baskets were made of twigs peeled; their manufacture was a recognized trade among the Hebrews.

(2.) That used (Heb. salsilloth' ) in gathering grapes (Jeremiah 6:9).

(3.) That in which the first fruits of the harvest were presented, Heb. tene , (Deuteronomy 26:2, Deuteronomy 26:4). It was also used for household purposes. In form it tapered downwards like that called corbis by the Romans.

(4.) A basket (Heb. kelub ) having a lid, resembling a bird-cage. It was made of leaves or rushes. The name is also applied to fruit-baskets (Amos 8:1, Amos 8:2).

(5.) A basket (Heb. dud ) for carrying figs (Jeremiah 24:2), also clay to the brick-yard (R.V., Psalms 81:6), and bulky articles (2_Kings 10:7). This word is also rendered in the Authorized Version "kettle" (1_Samuel 2:14), "caldron" (2_Chronicles 35:13), "seething-pot" (Job 41:20). In the New Testament mention is made of the basket (Gr. kophinos , small "wicker-basket") for the "fragments" in the miracle recorded Gospel of Mark 6:43, and in that recorded Gospel of Matthew 15:37 (Gr. spuris , large "rope-basket"); also of the basket in which Paul escaped (Acts 9:25, Gr. spuris ; 2_Corinthians 11:33, Gr. sargane , "basket of plaited cords").

Bastard

In the Old Testament the rendering of the Hebrew word mamzer' , which means "polluted." In Deuteronomy 23:2, it occurs in the ordinary sense of illegitimate offspring. In Zechariah 9:6, the word is used in the sense of foreigner. From the history of Jephthah we learn that there were bastard offspring among the Jews (Judges 11:1). In Hebrews 12:8, the word (Gr. nothoi ) is used in its ordinary sense, and denotes those who do not share the privileges of God's children.

Bastinado

Beating, a mode of punishment common in the East. It is referred to by "the rod of correction" (Proverbs 22:15), "scourging" (Leviticus 19:20), "chastising" (Deuteronomy 22:18). The number of blows could not exceed forty (Deuteronomy 25:2, Deuteronomy 25:3).

Bat

The Hebrew word ( atalleph' ) so rendered (Leviticus 11:19; Deuteronomy 14:18) implies "flying in the dark." The bat is reckoned among the birds in the list of unclean animals. To cast idols to the "moles and to the bats" means to carry them into dark caverns or desolate places to which these animals resort (Isaiah 2:20), i.e., to consign them to desolation or ruin.

Bath

A Hebrew liquid measure, the tenth part of an homer (1_Kings 7:26, 1_Kings 7:38; Ezekiel 45:10, Ezekiel 45:14). It contained 8 gallons 3 quarts of our measure. "Ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" (Isaiah 5:10) denotes great unproductiveness.

Baths

The use of the bath was very frequent among the Hebrews (Leviticus 14:8; Numbers 19:19, etc.). The high priest at his inauguration (Leviticus 8:6), and on the day of atonement, was required to bathe himself (Leviticus 16:4, Leviticus 16:24). The "pools" mentioned in Nehemiah 3:15, Nehemiah 3:16, 2_Kings 20:20, Isaiah 22:11, Gospel of John 9:7, were public bathing-places.

Bath-rabbim

Daughter of many, the name of one of the gates of the city of Heshbon, near which were pools (Song_of_Solomon 7:4).

Bath-sheba

Daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1_Chronicles 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2_Samuel 11:3) or Ammiel (1_Chronicles 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed adultery with her (2_Samuel 11:4, 2_Samuel 11:5; Ps. 51, title). The child born in adultery died (2_Samuel 12:15). After her husband was slain (2_Samuel 11:15) she was married to David (2_Samuel 11:27), and became the mother of Solomon (2_Samuel 12:24; 1_Kings 1:11; 1_Kings 2:13). She took a prominent part in securing the succession of Solomon to the throne (1_Kings 1:11, 1_Kings 1:16).

Battering-ram

(Ezekiel 4:2; Ezekiel 21:22), a military engine, consisting of a long beam of wood hung upon a frame, for making breaches in walls. The end of it which was brought against the wall was shaped like a ram's head.

Battle-axe

A mallet or heavy war-club. Applied metaphorically (Jeremiah 51:20) to Cyrus, God's instrument in destroying Babylon.

Battle-bow

The war-bow used in fighting (Zechariah 9:10; Zechariah 10:4). "Thy bow was made quite naked" (Habakkuk 3:9) means that it was made ready for use. By David's order (2_Samuel 1:18) the young men were taught the use, or rather the song of the bow. (See ARMOUR, BOW.)

Battlement

A parapet wall or balustrade surrounding the flat roofs of the houses, required to be built by a special law (Deuteronomy 22:8). In Jeremiah 5:10, it denotes the parapet of a city wall.

Bay

Denotes the estuary of the Dead Sea at the mouth of the Jordan (Joshua 15:5; Joshua 18:19), also the southern extremity of the same sea (Joshua 15:2). The same Hebrew word is rendered "tongue" in Isaiah 11:15, where it is used with reference to the forked mouths of the Nile. BAY In Zechariah 6:3, Zechariah 6:7 denotes the colour of horses, but the original Hebrew means strong, and is here used rather to describe the horses as fleet or spirited.

Bay tree

Named only in Psalms 37:35, Authorized Version. The Hebrew word so rendered is ereh, which simply means "native born", i.e., a tree not transplanted, but growing on its native soil, and therefore luxuriantly. If the psalmist intended by this word to denote any particular tree, it may have been the evergreen bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), which is a native of Palestine. Instead of "like a green bay tree" in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version has, "like a green tree in its native soil."

Bdellium

Occurs only in Genesis 2:12, where it designates a product of the land of Havilah; and in Numbers 11:7, where the manna is likened to it in colour. It was probably an aromatic gum like balsam which exuded from a particular tree (Borassus flabelliformis) still found in Arabia, Media, and India. It bears a resemblance in colour to myrrh. Others think the word denotes "pearls," or some precious stone.

Beacon

A pole (Heb. to'ren ) used as a standard or ensign set on the tops of mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves for some great national purpose (Isaiah 30:17). In Isaiah 33:23 and Ezekiel 27:5, the same word is rendered "mast." (See BANNER.)

Bealiah

Whose Lord is Jehovah, a Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes of the sling and bow (1_Chronicles 12:5).

Bealoth

Citizens, a town in the extreme south of Judah (Joshua 15:24); probably the same as Baalath-beer (Joshua 19:8). In 1_Kings 4:16, the Authorized Version has "in Aloth," the Revised Version "Bealoth."

Beam

Occurs in the Authorized Version as the rendering of various Hebrew words. In 1_Samuel 17:7, it means a weaver's frame or principal beam; in Habakkuk 2:11, a crossbeam or girder; 2_Kings 6:2, 2_Kings 6:5, a cross-piece or rafter of a house; 1_Kings 7:6, an architectural ornament as a projecting step or moulding; Ezekiel 41:25, a thick plank. In the New Testament the word occurs only in Gospel of Matthew 7:3, Gospel of Matthew 7:4, Gospel of Matthew 7:5, and Gospel of Luke 6:41, Gospel of Luke 6:42, where it means (Gr. dokos ) a large piece of wood used for building purposes, as contrasted with "mote" (Gr. karphos ), a small piece or mere splinter. "Mote" and "beam" became proverbial for little and great faults.

Beans

Mentioned in 2_Samuel 17:28 as having been brought to David when flying from Absalom. They formed a constituent in the bread Ezekiel (Ezekiel 4:9) was commanded to make, as they were in general much used as an article of diet. They are extensively cultivated in Egypt and Arabia and Syria.

Bear

A native of the mountain regions of Western Asia, frequently mentioned in Scripture. David defended his flocks against the attacks of a bear (1_Samuel 17:34). Bears came out of the wood and destroyed the children who mocked the prophet Elisha (2_Kings 2:24). Their habits are referred to in Isaiah 59:11; Proverbs 28:15; Lamentations 3:10. The fury of the female bear when robbed of her young is spoken of (2_Samuel 17:8; Proverbs 17:12; Hosea 13:8). In Daniel's vision of the four great monarchies, the Medo-Persian empire is represented by a bear (Daniel 7:5)

Beard

The mode of wearing it was definitely prescribed to the Jews (Leviticus 19:27; Leviticus 21:5). Hence the import of Ezekiel's (Ezekiel 5:1) description of the "razor" i.e., the agents of an angry providence being used against the guilty nation of the Jews. It was a part of a Jew's daily toilet to anoint his beard with oil and perfume (Psalms 133:2). Beards were trimmed with the most fastidious care (2_Samuel 19:24), and their neglect was an indication of deep sorrow (Isaiah 15:2; Jeremiah 41:5). The custom was to shave or pluck off the hair as a sign of mourning (Isaiah 50:6; Jeremiah 48:37; Ezra 9:3). The beards of David's ambassadors were cut off by Hanun (2_Samuel 10:4) as a mark of indignity.

On the other hand, the Egyptians carefully shaved the hair off their faces, and they compelled their slaves to do so also (Genesis 41:14).

Beast

This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Exodus 22:5; Numbers 20:4, Numbers 20:8, Numbers 20:11; Psalms 78:48); of beasts of burden (Genesis 45:17); of eatable beasts (Proverbs 9:2); and of swift beasts or dromedaries (Isaiah 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property (Revelation 18:13); as used for food (1_Corinthians 15:39), for service (Gospel of Luke 10:34; Acts 23:24), and for sacrifice (Acts 7:42).

When used in contradistinction to man (Psalms 36:6), it denotes a brute creature generally, and when in contradistinction to creeping things (Leviticus 11:2; Leviticus 27:26), a four-footed animal.

The Mosaic law required that beasts of labour should have rest on the Sabbath (Exodus 20:10; Exodus 23:12), and in the Sabbatical year all cattle were allowed to roam about freely, and eat whatever grew in the fields (Exodus 23:11; Leviticus 25:7). No animal could be castrated (Leviticus 22:24). Animal of different kinds were to be always kept separate (Leviticus 19:19; Deuteronomy 22:10). Oxen when used in threshing were not to be prevented from eating what was within their reach (Deuteronomy 25:4; 1_Corinthians 9:9).

This word is used figuratively of an infuriated multitude (1_Corinthians 15:32; Acts 19:29; compare Psalms 22:12, Psalms 22:16; Ecclesiastes 3:18; Isaiah 11:6), and of wicked men (2_Peter 2:12). The four beasts of Daniel 7:3, Daniel 7:17, Daniel 7:23 represent four kingdom or kings.

Beaten Gold

In Numbers 8:4, means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek Version, however, renders the word "sold gold;" the Revised Version, "beaten work of gold." In 1_Kings 10:16, 1_Kings 10:17, it probably means "mixed" gold, as the word ought to be rendered, i.e., not pure gold. Others render the word in these places "thin plates of gold."

Beaten Oil

(Exodus 27:20; Exodus 29:40), obtained by pounding olives in a mortar, not by crushing them in a mill. It was reckoned the best. (See OLIVE)

Beautiful Gate

The name of one of the gates of the temple (Acts 3:2). It is supposed to have been the door which led from the court of the Gentiles to the court of the women. It was of massive structure, and covered with plates of Corinthian brass.

Becher

First-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin (Genesis 46:21), who came down to Egypt with Jacob. It is probable that he married an Ephraimitish heiress, and that his descendants were consequently reckoned among the tribe of Ephraim (Numbers 26:35; 1_Chronicles 7:20, 1_Chronicles 7:21). They are not reckoned among the descendants of Benjamin (Numbers 26:38).

Bed

(Heb. mittah ), for rest at night (Exodus 8:3; 1_Samuel 19:13, 1_Samuel 19:15, 1_Samuel 19:16, etc.); during sickness (Genesis 47:31; Genesis 48:2; Genesis 49:33, etc.); as a sofa for rest (1_Samuel 28:23; Amos 3:12). Another Hebrew word ( er'es ) so rendered denotes a canopied bed, or a bed with curtains (Deuteronomy 3:11; Psalms 132:3), for sickness (Psalms 6:6; Psalms 41:3).

In the New Testament it denotes sometimes a litter with a coverlet (Gospel of Matthew 9:2, Gospel of Matthew 9:6; Gospel of Luke 5:18; Acts 5:15).

The Jewish bedstead was frequently merely the divan or platform along the sides of the house, sometimes a very slight portable frame, sometimes only a mat or one or more quilts. The only material for bed-clothes is mentioned in 1_Samuel 19:13. Sleeping in the open air was not uncommon, the sleeper wrapping himself in his outer garment (Exodus 22:26, Exodus 22:27; Deuteronomy 24:12, Deuteronomy 24:13).

Bedan

One of the judges of Israel (1_Samuel 12:11). It is uncertain who he was. Some suppose that Barak is meant, others Samson, but most probably this is contracted form of Abdon (Judges 12:13).

Bed-chamber

An apartment in Eastern houses, furnished with a slightly elevated platform at the upper end and sometimes along the sides, on which were laid mattresses. This was the general arrangement of the public sleeping-room for the males of the family and for guests, but there were usually besides distinct bed-chambers of a more private character (2_Kings 4:10; Exodus 8:3; 2_Kings 6:12). In 2_Kings 11:2 this word denotes, as in the margin of the Revised Version, a store-room in which mattresses were kept.

Bedstead

Used in Deuteronomy 3:11, but elsewhere rendered "couch," "bed." In 2_Kings 1:4; 2_Kings 16:2; Psalms 132:3; Amos 3:12, the divan is meant by this word.

Bee

First mentioned in Deuteronomy 1:44. Swarms of bees, and the danger of their attacks, are mentioned in Psalms 118:12. Samson found a "swarm of bees" in the carcass of a lion he had slain (Judges 14:8). Wild bees are described as laying up honey in woods and in clefts of rocks (Deuteronomy 32:13; Psalms 81:16). In Isaiah 7:18 the "fly" and the "bee" are personifications of the Egyptians and Assyrians, the inveterate enemies of Israel.

Beelzebub

(Gr. form Beelzebul ), the name given to Satan, and found only in the New Testament (Gospel of Matthew 10:25; Gospel of Matthew 12:24, Gospel of Matthew 12:27; Gospel of Mark 3:22). It is probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning "the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or "the dung-god."

Beer

Well. (1.) A place where a well was dug by the direction of Moses, at the forty-fourth station of the Hebrews in their wanderings (Numbers 21:16) in the wilderness of Moab. (See WELL). (2.) A town in the tribe of Judah to which Jotham fled for fear of Abimelech (Judges 9:21). Some have identified this place with Beeroth.

Beer-elim

Well of heroes, probably the name given to Beer, the place where the chiefs of Israel dug a well (Numbers 21:16; Isaiah 15:8).

Beeri

Illustrious, or the well-man. (1.) The father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau (Genesis 26:34), the same as Adah (Genesis 36:2). (2.) The father of the prophet Hosea (Hosea 1:1).

Beer-lahai-roi

I.e., "the well of him that liveth and seeth me," or, as some render it, "the well of the vision of life", the well where the Lord met with Hagar (Genesis 16:7, Genesis 16:14). Isaac dwelt beside this well (Genesis 24:62; Genesis 25:11). It has been identified with 'Ain Muweileh , or Moilahhi , south-west of Beersheba, and about 12 miles W. from Kadesh-barnea.

Beeroth

Wells, one of the four cities of the Hivites which entered by fraud into a league with Joshua. It belonged to Benjamin (Joshua 18:25). It has by some been identified with el-Bireh on the way to Nablus, 10 miles north of Jerusalem.

Beeroth of the Children of Jaakan

(Deuteronomy 10:6). The same as Bene-jaakan (Numbers 33:31).

Beersheba

Well of the oath, or well of seven, a well dug by Abraham, and so named because he and Abimelech here entered into a compact (Genesis 21:31). On re-opening it, Isaac gave it the same name (Genesis 26:31). It was a favourite place of abode of both of these patriarchs (Gen. 21:33-22:1, Genesis 22:19; Genesis 26:33; Genesis 28:10). It is mentioned among the "cities" given to the tribe of Simeon (Joshua 19:2; 1_Chronicles 4:28). From Dan to Beersheba, a distance of about 144 miles (Judges 20:1; 1_Chronicles 21:2; 2_Samuel 24:2), became the usual way of designating the whole Promised Land, and passed into a proverb. After the return from the Captivity the phrase is narrowed into "from Beersheba unto the valley of Hinnom" (Nehemiah 11:30). The kingdom of the ten tribes extended from Beersheba to Mount Ephraim (2_Chronicles 19:4). The name is not found in the New Testament. It is still called by the Arabs Bir es-Seba, i.e., "well of the seven", where there are to the present day two principal wells and five smaller ones. It is nearly midway between the southern end of the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean.

Beetle

Heb. hargol , meaning "leaper"). Mention of it is made only in Leviticus 11:22, where it is obvious the word cannot mean properly the beetle. It denotes some winged creeper with at least four feet, "which has legs above its feet, to leap withal." The description plainly points to the locust (q.v.). This has been an article of food from the earliest times in the East to the present day. The word is rendered "cricket" in the Revised Version.

Beeves

(An old English plural of the word beef), a name applicable to all ruminating animals except camels, and especially to the Bovidce, or horned cattle (Leviticus 22:19, Leviticus 22:21; Numbers 31:28, Numbers 31:30, Numbers 31:33, Numbers 31:38, Numbers 31:44).

Beg

That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant evidence (Exodus 23:11; Deuteronomy 15:11), but there is no mention of beggars properly so called in the Old Testament. The poor were provided for by the law of Moses (Leviticus 19:10; Deuteronomy 12:12; Deuteronomy 14:29). It is predicted of the seed of the wicked that they shall be beggars (Psalms 37:25; Psalms 109:10).

In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of beggars (Gospel of Mark 10:46; Gospel of Luke 16:20, Gospel of Luke 16:21; Acts 3:2), yet there is no mention of such a class as vagrant beggars, so numerous in the East. "Beggarly," in Galatians 4:9, means worthless.

Behead

A method of taking away life practiced among the Egyptians (Genesis 40:17). There are instances of this mode of punishment also among the Hebrews (2_Samuel 4:8; 2_Samuel 20:21, 2_Samuel 20:22; 2_Kings 10:6). It is also mentioned in the New Testament (Gospel of Matthew 14:8; Acts 12:2).

Behemoth

(Job 40:15). Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word meaning a "water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin "hippopotamus," which is probably the correct rendering of the word. The word occurs frequently in Scripture, but, except here, always as a common name, and translated "beast" or "cattle."

Bekah

Both the name and its explanation, "a half shekel," are given in Exodus 38:26. The word properly means a "division," a "part." (R.V., "beka.")

Bel

The Aramaic form of Baal, the national god of the Babylonians (Isaiah 46:1; Jeremiah 50:2; Jeremiah 51:44). It signifies "lord." (See BAAL.)

Bela

A thing swallowed. (1.) A city on the shore of the Dead Sea, not far from Sodom, called also Zoar. It was the only one of the five cities that was spared at Lot's intercession (Genesis 19:20, Genesis 19:23). It is first mentioned in Genesis 14:2, Genesis 14:8.

(2.) The eldest son of Benjamin (Numbers 26:38; "Belah," Genesis 46:21).

(3.) The son of Beor, and a king of Edom (Genesis 36:32, Genesis 36:33; 1_Chronicles 1:43) (4.) A son of Azaz (1_Chronicles 5:8).

Belial

Worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper name. It is first used in Deuteronomy 13:13. In the New Testament it is found only in 2_Corinthians 6:15, where it is used as a name of Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated "wicked" in Deuteronomy 15:9; Psalms 41:8 (R.V. marg.); Psalms 101:3; Proverbs 6:12, etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply a worthless, lawless person (Judges 19:22; Judges 20:13; 1_Samuel 1:16; 1_Samuel 2:12).

Bell

The bells first mentioned in Scripture are the small golden bells attached to the hem of the high priest's ephod (Exodus 28:33, Exodus 28:34, Exodus 28:35). The "bells of the horses" mentioned by Zechariah (Zechariah 14:20) were attached to the bridles or belts round the necks of horses trained for war, so as to accustom them to noise and tumult.

Bellows

Occurs only in Jeremiah 6:29, in relation to the casting of metal. Probably they consisted of leather bags similar to those common in Egypt.

Belly

The seat of the carnal affections (Titus 1:12; Philippians 3:19; Romans 16:18). The word is used symbolically for the heart (Proverbs 18:8; Proverbs 20:27; Proverbs 22:18, marg.). The "belly of hell" signifies the grave or underworld (Jonah 2:2).

Belshazzar

Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Daniel 5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his "father" (Daniel 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from the temple in Jerusalem, and he and his princes drank out of them. In the midst of their mad revelry a hand was seen by the king tracing on the wall the announcement of God's judgment, which that night fell upon him. At the instance of the queen (i.e., his mother) Daniel was brought in, and he interpreted the writing. That night the kingdom of the Chaldeans came to an end, and the king was slain (Daniel 5:30). (See NERGAL-SHAREZER.)

The absence of the name of Belshazzar on the monuments was long regarded as an argument against the genuineness of the Book of Daniel. In 1854 Sir Henry Rawlinson found an inscription of Nabonidus which referred to his eldest son. Quite recently, however, the side of a ravine undermined by heavy rains fell at Hillah, a suburb of Babylon. A number of huge, coarse earthenware vases were laid bare. These were filled with tablets, the receipts and contracts of a firm of Babylonian bankers, which showed that Belshazzar had a household, with secretaries and stewards. One was dated in the third year of the king Marduk-sar-uzur. As Marduk-sar-uzar was another name for Baal, this Marduk-sar-uzur was found to be the Belshazzar of Scripture. In one of these contract tablets, dated in the July after the defeat of the army of Nabonidus, we find him paying tithes for his sister to the temple of the sun-god at Sippara.

Belteshazzar

Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel by Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 1:7).

Benaiah

Built up by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jehoiada, chief priest (1_Chronicles 27:5). He was set by David over his body-guard of Cherethites and Pelethites (2_Samuel 8:18; 1_Kings 1:32; 1_Chronicles 18:17). His exploits are enumerated in 2_Samuel 23:20, 2_Samuel 23:21, 2_Samuel 23:22; 1_Chronicles 11:22. He remained faithful to Solomon (1_Kings 1:8, 1_Kings 1:10, 1_Kings 1:26), by whom he was raised to the rank of commander-in-chief (1_Kings 2:25, 1_Kings 2:29, 1_Kings 2:30, 1_Kings 2:34, 1_Kings 2:35; 1_Kings 4:4).

(2.) 2_Samuel 23:30; 1_Chronicles 11:31.

(3.) A musical Levite (1_Chronicles 15:18, 1_Chronicles 15:20).

(4.) A priest (1_Chronicles 15:24; 1_Chronicles 16:6).

(5.) The son of Jeiel (2_Chronicles 20:14).

Ben-ammi

Son of my kindred; i.e., "born of incest", the son of Lot by his youngest daughter (Genesis 19:38).

Bench

Deck of a Tyrian ship, described by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 27:6) as overlaid with box-wood.

Bene-jaakan

Children of Jaakan (Numbers 33:31, Numbers 33:32), the same as Beeroth.

Ben-hadad

The standing title of the Syrian kings, meaning "the son of Hadad." (See HADADEZER.) (1.) The king of Syria whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to invade Israel (1_Kings 15:18).

(2.) Son of the preceding, also king of Syria. He was long engaged in war against Israel. He was murdered probably by Hazael, by whom he was succeeded (2_Kings 8:7), after a reign of some thirty years.

(3.) King of Damascus, and successor of his father Hazael on the throne of Syria (2_Kings 13:3, 2_Kings 13:4). His misfortunes in war are noticed by Amos (Amos 1:4).

Benjamin

son of my right hand. (1.) The younger son of Jacob by Rachel (Genesis 35:18). His birth took place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a short distance from the latter place. His mother died in giving him birth, and with her last breath named him Ben-oni, son of my pain, a name which was changed by his father into Benjamin. His posterity are called Benjamites (Genesis 49:27; Deuteronomy 33:12; Joshua 18:21). (2.) The tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus was the smallest but one (Numbers 1:36, Numbers 1:37; Psalms 68:27). During the march its place was along with Manasseh and Ephraim on the west of the tabernacle. At the entrance into Canaan it counted 45,600 warriors. It has been inferred by some from the words of Jacob (Genesis 49:27) that the figure of a wolf was on the tribal standard. This tribe is mentioned in Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5. (3.) The inheritance of this tribe lay immediately to the south of that of Ephraim, and was about 26 miles in length and 12 in breadth. Its eastern boundary was the Jordan. Dan intervened between it and the Philistines. Its chief towns are named in Joshua 18:21. (4.) The history of the tribe contains a sad record of a desolating civil war in which they were engaged with the other eleven tribes. By it they were almost exterminated (Judges 20:20, Judges 20:21; Judges 21:10). (See GIBEAH.) The first king of the Jews was Saul, a Benjamite. A close alliance was formed between this tribe and that of Judah in the time of David (2_Samuel 19:16, 2_Samuel 19:17), which continued after his death (1_Kings 11:13; 1_Kings 12:20). After the Exile these two tribes formed the great body of the Jewish nation (Ezra 1:5; Ezra 10:9).

The tribe of Benjamin was famous for its archers (1_Samuel 20:20, 1_Samuel 20:36; 2_Samuel 1:22; 1_Chronicles 8:40; 1_Chronicles 12:2) and slingers (Judges 20:6). (5.) The gate of Benjamin, on the north side of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 37:13; Jeremiah 38:7; Zechariah 14:10), was so called because it led in the direction of the territory of the tribe of Benjamin. It is called by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 20:2) "the high gate of Benjamin;" also "the gate of the children of the people" (Jeremiah 17:19). (Compare 2_Kings 14:13.)

Beor

A torch. (1.) The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom (Genesis 36:32).

(2.) The father of Balaam (Numbers 22:5; Numbers 24:3, Numbers 24:15; Numbers 31:8). In 2_Peter 2:15 he is called Bosor.

Bera

Gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion of the four kings under Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:2, Genesis 14:8, Genesis 14:17, Genesis 14:21).

Berachah

Blessing. (1.) A valley not far from Engedi, where Jehoshaphat overthrew the Moabites and Ammonites (2_Chronicles 20:26). It has been identified with the valley of Bereikut. (R.V., "Beracah.")

(2.) One of the Benjamite warriors, Saul's brethren, who joined David when at Ziklag (1_Chronicles 12:3).

Berea

A city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went when persecuted at Thessalonica (Acts 17:10, Acts 17:13), and from which also he was compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the sea-coast and thence sailed to Athens (Acts 17:14, Acts 17:15). Sopater, one of Paul's companions belonged to this city, and his conversion probably took place at this time (Acts 20:4). It is now called Verria.

Berechiah

blessed by Jehovah. (1.) Son of Shimea, and father of Asaph the musician (1_Chronicles 6:39; 1_Chronicles 15:17).

(2.) One of the seven Ephraimite chieftains, son of Meshillemoth (2_Chronicles 28:12).

(3.) The fourth of the five sons of Zerubbabel, of the royal family of Judah (1_Chronicles 3:20).

(4.) The father of the prophet Zechariah (Zechariah 1:1, Zechariah 1:7).

Bered

hail. (1.) A town in the south of Palestine (Genesis 16:14), in the desert of Shur, near Lahai-roi.

(2.) A son of Shuthelah, and grandson of Ephraim (1_Chronicles 7:20).

Beriah

A gift, or in evil. (1.) One of Asher's four sons, and father of Heber (Genesis 46:17).

(2.)A son of Ephraim (1_Chronicles 7:20), born after the slaughter of his brothers, and so called by his father "because it went evil with his house" at that time.

(3.)A Benjamite who with his brother Shema founded Ajalon and expelled the Gittites (1_Chronicles 8:13).

Bernice

Bearer of victory, the eldest daughter of Agrippa I., the Herod Agrippa of Acts 12:20. After the early death of her first husband she was married to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis. After his death (A.D. 40) she lived in incestuous connection with her brother Agrippa II. (Acts 25:13, Acts 25:23; Acts 26:30). They joined the Romans at the outbreak of the final war between them and the Jews, and lived afterwards at Rome.

Berodach-baladan

The king of Babylon who sent a friendly deputation to Hezekiah (2_Kings 20:12). In Isaiah 39:1 he is called Merodach-baladan (q.v.).

Beryl

The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word tarshish, a precious stone; probably so called as being brought from Tarshish. It was one of the stones on the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus 28:20; R.V. marg., "chalcedony;" Exodus 39:13). The colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's vision was as the colour of a beryl stone (Ezekiel 1:16; Ezekiel 10:9; R.V., "stone of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in Song_of_Solomon 5:14; Daniel 10:6; Revelation 21:20. In Ezekiel 28:13 the LXX. render the word by "chrysolite," which the Jewish historian Josephus regards as its proper translation. This also is the rendering given in the Authorized Version in the margin. That was a gold-coloured gem the topaz of ancient authors.

Besom

The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in Isaiah 14:23, of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon.

Besor

Cold, a ravine or brook in the extreme south-west of Judah, where 200 of David's men stayed behind because they were faint, while the other 400 pursued the Amalekites (1_Samuel 30:9, 1_Samuel 30:10, 1_Samuel 30:21). Probably the Wady Sheriah, south of Gaza.

Bestead

The rendering in Isaiah 8:21, where alone it occurs, of a Hebrew word meaning to oppress, or be in circumstances of hardship.

Betah

Confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which yielded much spoil of brass to David (2_Samuel 8:8). In 1_Chronicles 18:8 it is called Tibhath.

Beth

Occurs frequently as the appellation for a house, or dwelling-place, in such compounds as the words immediately following: Bethabara - house of the ford Beth-anath - house of response Beth-anoth - house of answers Bethany - house of dates Beth-arabah - house of the desert Beth-aram - house of the height Beth-arbel - house of God's court Beth-aven - house of nothingness Beth-barah - house of crossing Beth-car - sheep house Beth-dagon - house of Dagon Beth-diblathaim - house of two cakes of figs Bethel - house of God Bethesda - house of mercy Beth-gamul - camel house Beth-gilgal - house of Gilgal Beth-haccerem - house of a vineyard Beth-horon - house of the hollow, or of the cavern Beth-jeshimoth - house of wastes, or deserts Bethlehem - house of bread Beth-le-Aphrah - house of dust Beth-peor - house of Peor Beth-phage - house of the unripe fig Bethsaida - house of fish Beth-shean - house of security or rest Beth-shemesh - house of the sun Beth-tappuah - house of apples Bethuel - man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God Bethzur - house of rock

Bethabara

House of the ford, a place on the east bank of the Jordan, where John was baptizing (Gospel of John 1:28). It may be identical with Bethbarah, the ancient ford of Jordan of which the men of Ephraim took possession (Judges 7:24). The Revised Version reads "Bethany beyond Jordan." It was the great ford, and still bears the name of "the ford," Makhadhet 'Abarah , "the ford of crossing over," about 25 miles from Nazareth. (See BETH-BARAH.)

Beth-anath

House of response, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Joshua 19:38). It is perhaps identical with the modern village 'Ainata , 6 miles west of Kedesh.

Beth-anoth

House of answers, a city in the mountainous district of Judah (Joshua 15:59). It has been identified with the modern Beit-'Anun , about 3 miles northeast of Hebron.

Bethany

House of dates. (1.) The Revised Version in Gospel of John 1:28 has this word instead of Bethabara, on the authority of the oldest manuscripts. It appears to have been the name of a place on the east of Jordan.

(2.) A village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives (Gospel of Mark 11:1), about 2 miles east of Jerusalem, on the road to Jericho. It derived its name from the number of palm-trees which grew there. It was the residence of Lazarus and his sisters. It is frequently mentioned in connection with memorable incidents in the life of our Lord (Gospel of Matthew 21:17; Gospel of Matthew 26:6; Gospel of Mark 11:11, Gospel of Mark 11:12; Gospel of Mark 14:3; Gospel of Luke 24:50; Gospel of John 11:1; Gospel of John 12:1). It is now known by the name of el-Azariyeh, i.e., "place of Lazarus," or simply Lazariyeh. Seen from a distance, the village has been described as "remarkably beautiful, the perfection of retirement and repose, of seclusion and lovely peace." Now a mean village, containing about twenty families.

Beth-arabah

House of the desert, one of the six cities of Judah, situated in the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea (Joshua 18:22). In Joshua 15:61 it is said to have been "in the wilderness." It was afterwards included in the towns of Benjamin. It is called Arabah (Joshua 18:18).

Beth-aram

House of the height; i.e., "mountain-house", one of the towns of Gad, 3 miles east of Jordan, opposite Jericho (Joshua 13:27). Probably the same as Beth-haran in Numbers 32:36. It was called by king Herod, Julias, or Livias, after Livia, the wife of Augustus. It is now called Beit-haran.

Beth-arbel

House of God's court, a place alluded to by Hosea (Hosea 10:14) as the scene of some great military exploit, but not otherwise mentioned in Scripture. The Shalman here named was probably Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria (2_Kings 17:3).

Beth-aven

House of nothingness; i.e., "of idols", a place in the mountains of Benjamin, east of Bethel (Joshua 7:2; Joshua 18:12; 1_Samuel 13:5). In Hosea 4:15; Hosea 5:8; Hosea 10:5 it stands for "Bethel" (q.v.), and it is so called because it was no longer the "house of God," but "the house of idols," referring to the calves there worshipped.

Beth-barah

House of crossing, a place south of the scene of Gideon's victory (Judges 7:24). It was probably the chief ford of the Jordan in that district, and may have been that by which Jacob crossed when he returned from Mesopotamia, near the Jabbok (Genesis 32:22), and at which Jephthah slew the Ephraimites (Judges 12:4). Nothing, however, is certainly known of it. (See BETHABARA.)

Beth-car

Sheep-house, a place to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines west from Mizpeh (1_Samuel 7:11).

Beth-dagon

House of Dagon. (1.) A city in the low country or plain of Judah, near Philistia (Joshua 15:41); the modern Beit Degan, about 5 miles from Lydda.

(2.) A city near the south-east border of Asher (Joshua 19:27). It was a Philistine colony. It is identical with the modern ruined village of Tell D'auk .

Beth-diblathaim

House of two cakes of figs, a city of Moab, upon which Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:22) denounced destruction. It is called also Almon-diblathaim (Numbers 33:46) and Diblath (Ezekiel 6:14). (R.V., "Diblah.")

Bethel

House of God. (1.) A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai. It was originally the royal Canaanite city of Luz (Genesis 28:19). The name Bethel was at first apparently given to the sanctuary in the neighbourhood of Luz, and was not given to the city itself till after its conquest by the tribe of Ephraim. When Abram entered Canaan he formed his second encampment between Bethel and Hai (Genesis 12:8); and on his return from Egypt he came back to it, and again "called upon the name of the Lord" (Genesis 13:4). Here Jacob, on his way from Beersheba to Haran, had a vision of the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached unto heaven (Genesis 28:10, Genesis 28:19); and on his return he again visited this place, "where God talked with him" (Genesis 35:1), and there he "built an altar, and called the place El-beth-el" (q.v.). To this second occasion of God's speaking with Jacob at Bethel, Hosea (Genesis 12:4, Genesis 12:5) makes reference. In troublous times the people went to Bethel to ask counsel of God (Judges 20:18, Judges 20:31; Judges 21:2). Here the ark of the covenant was kept for a long time under the care of Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron (Judges 20:26). Here also Samuel held in rotation his court of justice (1_Samuel 7:16). It was included in Israel after the kingdom was divided, and it became one of the seats of the worship of the golden calf (1_Kings 12:28; 1_Kings 13:1). Hence the prophet Hosea (Hosea 4:15; Hosea 5:8; Hosea 10:5, Hosea 10:8) calls it in contempt Beth-aven, i.e., "house of idols." Bethel remained an abode of priests even after the kingdom of Israel was desolated by the king of Assyria (2_Kings 17:28, 2_Kings 17:29). At length all traces of the idolatries were extirpated by Josiah, king of Judah (2_Kings 23:15); and the place was still in existence after the Captivity (Ezra 2:28; Nehemiah 7:32). It has been identified with the ruins of Beitin, a small village amid extensive ruins some 9 miles south of Shiloh.

(2.) Mount Bethel was a hilly district near Bethel (Joshua 16:1; 1_Samuel 13:2).

(3.) A town in the south of Judah (Joshua 8:17; Joshua 12:16).

Bethelite

A designation of Hiel (q.v.), who rebuilt Jericho and experienced the curse pronounced long before (1_Kings 16:34).

Bether

Dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in Song_of_Solomon 2:17; probably near Lebanon.

Bethesda

House of mercy, a reservoir (Gr. kolumbethra , "a swimming bath") with five porches, close to the sheep-gate or market (Nehemiah 3:1; Gospel of John 5:2). Eusebius the historian (A.D. 330) calls it "the sheep-pool." It is also called "Bethsaida" and "Beth-zatha" (Gospel of John 5:2, R.V. marg.). Under these "porches" or colonnades were usually a large number of infirm people waiting for the "troubling of the water." It is usually identified with the modern so-called Fountain of the Virgin, in the valley of the Kidron, and not far from the Pool of Siloam (q.v.); and also with the Birket Israel, a pool near the mouth of the valley which runs into the Kidron south of "St. Stephen's Gate." Others again identify it with the twin pools called the "Souterrains," under the convent of the Sisters of Zion, situated in what must have been the rock-hewn ditch between Bezetha and the fortress of Antonia. But quite recently Schick has discovered a large tank, as sketched here, situated about 100 feet north-west of St. Anne's Church, which is, as he contends, very probably the Pool of Bethesda. No certainty as to its identification, however, has as yet been arrived at. (See FOUNTAIN; GIHON.)

Beth-gamul

Camel-house, a city in the "plain country" of Moab denounced by the prophet (Jeremiah 48:23); probably the modern Um-el-Jemal, near Bozrah, one of the deserted cities of the Hauran.

Beth-gilgal

House of Gilgal, a place from which the inhabitants gathered for the purpose of celebrating the rebuilding of the walls on the return exile (Nehemiah 12:29). (See GILGAL.)

Beth-haccerem

House of a vineyard, a place in the tribe of Judah (Nehemiah 3:14) where the Benjamites were to set up a beacon when they heard the trumpet against the invading army of the Babylonians (Jeremiah 6:1). It is probable that this place is the modern 'Ain Karim , or "well of the vineyards," near which there is a ridge on which are cairns which may have served as beacons of old, one of which is 40 feet high and 130 in diameter.

Beth-horon

House of the hollow, or of the cavern, the name of two towns or villages (2_Chronicles 8:5; 1_Chronicles 7:24) in the territory of Ephraim, on the way from Jerusalem to Joppa. They are distinguished as Bethhoron "the upper" and Beth-horon "the nether." They are about 2 miles apart, the former being about 10 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Between the two places was the ascent and descent of Beth-horon, leading from Gibeon down to the western plain (Joshua 10:10, Joshua 10:11; Joshua 18:13, Joshua 18:14), down which the five kings of the Amorites were driven by Joshua in that great battle, the most important in which the Hebrews had been as yet engaged, being their first conflict with their enemies in the open field. Jehovah interposed in behalf of Israel by a terrific hailstorm, which caused more deaths among the Canaanites than did the swords of the Israelites. Beth-horon is mentioned as having been taken by Shishak, 945 B.C., in the list of his conquests, and the pass was the scene of a victory of Judas Maccabeus. (Compare Exodus 9:19, Exodus 9:25; Job 38:22, Job 38:23; Psalms 18:12; Isaiah 30:30.) The modern name of these places is Beit-ur, distinguished by el-Foka, "the upper," and el-Tahta, "the nether." The lower was at the foot of the pass, and the upper, 500 feet higher, at the top, west of Gibeon. (See GIBEON.)

Beth-jeshimoth

House of wastes, or deserts, a town near Abel-shittim, east of Jordan, in the desert of Moab, where the Israelites encamped not long before crossing the Jordan (Numbers 33:49; A.V., "Bethjesimoth"). It was within the territory of Sihon, king of the Amorites (Joshua 12:3).

Bethlehem

House of bread. (1.) A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It was originally called Ephrath (Genesis 35:16, Genesis 35:19; Genesis 48:7; Ruth 4:11). It was also called Beth-lehem Ephratah (Micah 5:2), Beth-lehem-judah (1_Samuel 17:12), and "the city of David" (Gospel of Luke 2:4). It is first noticed in Scripture as the place where Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to the north of the city (Genesis 48:7). The valley to the east was the scene of the story of Ruth the Moabitess. There are the fields in which she gleaned, and the path by which she and Naomi returned to the town. Here was David's birth-place, and here also, in after years, he was anointed as king by Samuel (1_Samuel 16:4); and it was from the well of Bethlehem that three of his heroes brought water for him at the risk of their lives when he was in the cave of Adullam (2_Samuel 23:13). But it was distinguished above every other city as the birth-place of "Him whose goings forth have been of old" (Gospel of Matthew 2:6; compare Micah 5:2). Afterwards Herod, "when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men," sent and slew "all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" (Gospel of Matthew 2:16, Gospel of Matthew 2:18; Jeremiah 31:15). Bethlehem bears the modern name of Beit-Lahm, i.e., "house of flesh." It is about 5 miles south of Jerusalem, standing at an elevation of about 2,550 feet above the sea, thus 100 feet higher than Jerusalem. There is a church still existing, built by Constantine the Great (A.D. 330), called the "Church of the Nativity," over a grotto or cave called the "holy crypt," and said to be the "stable" in which Jesus was born. This is perhaps the oldest existing Christian church in the world. Close to it is another grotto, where Jerome the Latin father is said to have spent thirty years of his life in translating the Scriptures into Latin. (See VERSIONS.)

(2.) A city of Zebulun, mentioned only in Joshua 19:15. Now Beit-Lahm, a ruined village about 6 miles west-north-west of Nazareth.

Beth-le-Aphrah

(R.V. Micah 1:10), house of dust. The Authorized Version reads "in the house of Aphrah." This is probably the name of a town in the Shephelah, or "low country," between Joppa and Gaza.

Beth-peor

House of Peor; i.e., "temple of Baal-peor", a place in Moab, on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho. It was in the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 13:20; Deuteronomy 3:29; Deuteronomy 4:46). In the "ravine" or valley over against Beth-peor Moses was probably buried (Deuteronomy 34:6).

Beth-phage

House of the unripe fig, a village on the Mount of Olives, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho (Gospel of Matthew 21:1; Gospel of Mark 11:1; Gospel of Luke 19:29), and very close to Bethany. It was the limit of a Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem, i.e., 2,000 cubits. It has been identified with the modern Kefr-et-Tur.

Bethsaida

House of fish. (1.) A town in Galilee, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias, in the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted to by Jesus (Gospel of Mark 6:45; Gospel of John 1:44; Gospel of John 12:21). It is supposed to have been at the modern 'Ain Tabighah , a bay to the north of Gennesaret.

(2.) A city near which Christ fed 5,000 (Gospel of Luke 9:10; compare Gospel of John 6:17; Gospel of Matthew 14:15), and where the blind man had his sight restored (Gospel of Mark 8:22), on the east side of the lake, two miles up the Jordan. It stood within the region of Gaulonitis, and was enlarged by Philip the tetrarch, who called it "Julias," after the emperor's daughter. Or, as some have supposed, there may have been but one Bethsaida built on both sides of the lake, near where the Jordan enters it. Now the ruins et-Tel.

Beth-shean

House of security or rest, a city which belonged to Manasseh (1_Chronicles 7:29), on the west of Jordan. The bodies of Saul and his sons were fastened to its walls. In Solomon's time it gave its name to a district (1_Kings 4:12). The name is found in an abridged form, Bethshan, in 1_Samuel 31:10, 1_Samuel 31:12 and 2_Samuel 21:12. It is on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus, about 5 miles from the Jordan, and 14 from the south end of the Lake of Gennesaret. After the Captivity it was called Scythopolis, i.e., "the city of the Scythians," who about 640 B.C. came down from the steppes of Southern Russia and settled in different places in Syria. It is now called Beisan.

Beth-shemesh

House of the sun. (1.) A sacerdotal city in the tribe of Dan (Joshua 21:16; 1_Samuel 6:15), on the north border of Judah (Joshua 15:10). It was the scene of an encounter between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of Judah, in which the latter was made prisoner (2_Kings 14:11, 2_Kings 14:13). It was afterwards taken by the Philistines (2_Chronicles 28:18). It is the modern ruined Arabic village 'Ain-shems , on the north-west slopes of the mountains of Judah, 14 miles west of Jerusalem.

(2.) A city between Dothan and the Jordan, near the southern border of Issachar (Joshua 19:22), 7 1/2 miles south of Beth-shean. It is the modern Ain-esh-Shemsiyeh.

(3.) One of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Joshua 19:38), between Mount Tabor and the Jordan. Now Khurbet Shema, 3 miles west of Safed. But perhaps the same as No. 2.

(4.) An idol sanctuary in Egypt (Jeremiah 43:13); called by the Greeks Heliopolis, and by the Egyptians On (q.v.), Genesis 41:45.

Beth-tappuah

House of apples, a town of Judah, now Tuffuh, 5 miles west of Hebron (Joshua 15:53).

Bethuel

Man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God. (1.) The son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Genesis 22:22, Genesis 22:23; Genesis 24:15, Genesis 24:24, Genesis 24:47). He appears in person only once (Genesis 24:50).

(2.) A southern city of Judah (1_Chronicles 4:30); called also Bethul (Joshua 19:4) and Bethel (Joshua 12:16; 1_Samuel 30:27).

Bethzur

House of rock, a town in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:58), about 4 miles to the north of Hebron. It was built by Rehoboam for the defense of his kingdom (2_Chronicles 11:7). It stood near the modern ed-Dirweh. Its ruins are still seen on a hill which bears the name of Beit-Sur, and which commands the road from Beer-sheba and Hebron to Jerusalem from the south.

Betroth

To promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was betrothed (Deuteronomy 28:30; Judges 14:2, Judges 14:8; Gospel of Matthew 1:18). The term is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God and his people (Hosea 2:19, Hosea 2:20).

Beulah

Married, is used in Isaiah 62:4 metaphorically as the name of Judea: "Thy land shall be married," i.e., favoured and blessed of the Lord.

Bewray

To reveal or disclose; an old English word equivalent to "betray" (Proverbs 27:16; Proverbs 29:24, R.V., "uttereth;" Isaiah 16:3; Gospel of Matthew 26:73).

Beyond

When used with reference to Jordan, signifies in the writings of Moses the west side of the river, as he wrote on the east bank (Genesis 50:10, Genesis 50:11; Deuteronomy 1:1, Deuteronomy 1:5; Deuteronomy 3:8, Deuteronomy 3:20; Deuteronomy 4:46); but in the writings of Joshua, after he had crossed the river, it means the east side (Joshua 5:1; Joshua 12:7; Joshua 22:7).

Bezaleel

In the shadow of God; i.e., "under his protection", the artificer who executed the work of art in connection with the tabernacle in the wilderness (Exodus 31:2; Exodus 35:30). He was engaged principally in works of metal, wood, and stone; while Aholiab, who was associated with him and subordinate to him, had the charge of the textile fabrics (Exodus 36:1, Exodus 36:2; Exodus 38:22). He was of the tribe of Judah, the son of Uri, and grandson of Hur (Exodus 31:2). Mention is made in Ezra 10:30 of another of the same name.

Bezek

Lightning. (1.) The residence of Adoni-bezek, in the lot of Judah (Judges 1:5). It was in the mountains, not far from Jerusalem. Probably the modern Bezkah, 6 miles south-east of Lydda.

(2.) The place where Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah (1_Samuel 11:8); somewhere in the centre of the country, near the Jordan valley. Probably the modern Ibzik, 13 miles north-east of Shechem.

Bezer

Ore of gold or silver. (1.) A city of the Reubenites; one of the three cities of refuge on the east of Jordan (Deuteronomy 4:43; Joshua 20:8). It has been identified with the modern ruined village of Burazin, some 12 miles north of Heshbon; also with Kasur-el-Besheir, 2 miles south-west of Dibon.

(2.) A descendant of Asher (1_Chronicles 7:37).

Bible

The English form of the Greek name Biblia , meaning "books," the name which in the fifth century began to be given to the entire collection of sacred books, the "Library of Divine Revelation." The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came gradually into use in our English language. The Bible consists of sixty-six different books, composed by many different writers, in three different languages, under different circumstances; writers of almost every social rank, statesmen and peasants, kings, herdsmen, fishermen, priests, tax-gatherers, tentmakers; educated and uneducated, Jews and Gentiles; most of them unknown to each other, and writing at various periods during the space of about 1600 years: and yet, after all, it is only one book dealing with only one subject in its numberless aspects and relations, the subject of man's redemption.

It is divided into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine books, and the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books. The names given to the Old in the writings of the New are "the scriptures" (Gospel of Matthew 21:42), "scripture" (2_Peter 1:20), "the holy scriptures" (Romans 1:2), "the law" (Gospel of John 12:34), "the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (Gospel of Luke 24:44), "the law and the prophets" (Gospel of Matthew 5:17), "the old covenant" (2_Corinthians 3:14, R.V.). There is a break of 400 years between the Old Testament and the New. (See APOCRYPHA.)

The Old Testament is divided into three parts: (1.) The Law (Torah), consisting of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses. (2.) The Prophets, consisting of (a.) the former, namely, Joshua, Judges, the Books of Samuel, and the Books of Kings; (b.) the latter, namely, the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets. (3.)The Hagiographa, or holy writings, including the rest of the books. These were ranked in three divisions:, (a.) The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, distinguished by the Hebrew name, a word formed of the initial letters of these books, emeth, meaning truth. (b.) Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, called the five rolls, as being written for the synagogue use on five separate rolls. (c.) Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles. Between the Old and the New Testament no addition was made to the revelation God had already given. The period of New Testament revelation, extending over a century, began with the appearance of John the Baptist. The New Testament consists of (1.) the historical books, viz., the Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles; (2.) the Epistles; and (3.) the book of prophecy, the Revelation. The division of the Bible into chapters and verses is altogether of human invention, designed to facilitate reference to it.

The ancient Jews divided the Old Testament into certain sections for use in the synagogue service, and then at a later period, in the ninth century A.D., into verses. Our modern system of chapters for all the books of the Bible was introduced by Cardinal Hugo about the middle of the thirteenth century (he died 1263).

The system of verses for the New Testament was introduced by Stephens in 1551, and generally adopted, although neither Tyndale's nor Coverdale's English translation of the Bible has verses. The division is not always wisely made, yet it is very useful. (See VERSIONS.)

Bier

The frame on which dead bodies were conveyed to the grave (Gospel of Luke 7:14).

Bigtha

Garden, or gift of fortune, one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains who had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10).

Bigthan

One of the eunuchs who "kept the door" in the court of Ahasuerus. With Teresh he conspired against the king's life. Mordecai detected the conspiracy, and the culprits were hanged (Esther 2:21; Esther 6:1).

Bildad

Son of contention, one of Job's friends. He is called "the Shuhite," probably as belonging to Shuah, a district in Arabia, in which Shuah, the sixth son of Abraham by Keturah, settled (Genesis 25:2). He took part in each of the three controversies into which Job's friends entered with him (Job 8:1; Job 18:1; Job 25:1), and delivered three speeches, very severe and stern in their tone, although less violent than those of Zophar, but more so than those of Eliphaz.

Bilgah

Cheerful. (1.)The head of the fifteenth sacerdotal course for the temple service (1_Chronicles 24:14). (2.) A priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:5, Nehemiah 12:18).

Bilhah

Faltering; bashful, Rachel's handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob (Genesis 29:29). She was the mother of Dan and Naphtali (Genesis 30:3). Reuben was cursed by his father for committing adultery with her (Genesis 35:22; Genesis 49:4). He was deprived of the birth-right, which was given to the sons of Joseph.

Bilshan

Son of the tongue; i.e., "eloquent", a man of some note who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7).

Bird

Birds are divided in the Mosaic law into two classes, (1.) the clean (Leviticus 1:14; Leviticus 5:7; Leviticus 14:4), which were offered in sacrifice; and (2.) the unclean (Leviticus 11:13). When offered in sacrifice, they were not divided as other victims were (Genesis 15:10). They are mentioned also as an article of food (Deuteronomy 14:11). The art of snaring wild birds is referred to (Psalms 124:7; Proverbs 1:17; Proverbs 7:23; Jeremiah 5:27). Singing birds are mentioned in Psalms 104:12; Ecclesiastes 12:4. Their timidity is alluded to (Hosea 11:11). The reference in Psalms 84:3 to the swallow and the sparrow may be only a comparison equivalent to, "What her house is to the sparrow, and her nest to the swallow, that thine altars are to my soul."

Birsha

Son of wickedness, a king of Gomorrah whom Abraham succoured in the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:2).

Birth

As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt (Ezekiel 16:4), and then swathed with bandages (Job 38:9; Gospel of Luke 2:7, Gospel of Luke 2:12). A Hebrew mother remained forty days in seclusion after the birth of a son, and after the birth of a daughter double that number of days. At the close of that period she entered into the tabernacle or temple and offered up a sacrifice of purification (Leviticus 12:1; Gospel of Luke 2:22). A son was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth, being thereby consecrated to God (Genesis 17:10; compare Romans 4:11). Seasons of misfortune are likened to the pains of a woman in travail, and seasons of prosperity to the joy that succeeds child-birth (Isaiah 13:8; Jeremiah 4:31; Gospel of John 16:21, Gospel of John 16:22). The natural birth is referred to as the emblem of the new birth (Gospel of John 3:3; Galatians 6:15; Titus 3:5, etc.).

Birth-day

The observance of birth-days was common in early times (Job 1:4, Job 1:13, Job 1:18). They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt (Genesis 40:20). There is no recorded instance in Scripture of the celebration of birth-days among the Jews. On the occasion of Herod's birth-day John the Baptist was beheaded (Gospel of Matthew 14:6).

Birthright

(1.) This word denotes the special privileges and advantages belonging to the first-born son among the Jews. He became the priest of the family. Thus Reuben was the first-born of the patriarchs, and so the priesthood of the tribes belonged to him. That honour was, however, transferred by God from Reuben to Levi (Numbers 3:12, Numbers 3:13; Numbers 8:18).

(2.) The first-born son had allotted to him also a double portion of the paternal inheritance (Deuteronomy 21:15). Reuben was, because of his undutiful conduct, deprived of his birth-right (Genesis 49:4; 1_Chronicles 5:1). Esau transferred his birth-right to Jacob (Genesis 25:33).

(3.) The first-born inherited the judicial authority of his father, whatever it might be (2_Chronicles 21:3). By divine appointment, however, David excluded Adonijah in favour of Solomon.

(4.) The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of "first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah (Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:18; Hebrews 1:4). As first-born he has an inheritance superior to his brethren, and is the alone true priest.

Bishop

An overseer. In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was no difference as to order between bishops and elders or presbyters (Acts 20:17; 1_Peter 5:1, 1_Peter 5:2; Philippians 1:1; 1 Tim. 3). The term bishop is never once used to denote a different office from that of elder or presbyter. These different names are simply titles of the same office, "bishop" designating the function, namely, that of oversight, and "presbyter" the dignity appertaining to the office. Christ is figuratively called "the bishop [episcopos] of souls" (1_Peter 2:25).

Bit

The curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The Hebrew word (metheg) so rendered in Psalms 32:9 is elsewhere translated "bridle" (2_Kings 19:28; Proverbs 26:3; Isaiah 37:29). Bits were generally made of bronze or iron, but sometimes also of gold or silver. In James 3:3 the Authorized Version translates the Greek word by "bits," but the Revised Version by "bridles."

Bith-ron

The broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan valley, on the east of the river (2_Samuel 2:29). It was probably the designation of the region in general, which is broken and intersected by ravines.

Bithynia

A province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early time (1_Peter 1:1). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from entering this province (Acts 16:7). It is noted in church history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul, who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the numerous Christians brought before his tribunal on account of their profession of Christianity and their conduct, and wrote to Trajan, the emperor, for instructions (A.D. 107).

Bitter

Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude (Exodus 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jeremiah 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the "bitter and hasty nation" (Habakkuk 1:6).

The "gall of bitterness" expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A "root of bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Hebrews 12:15). The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" (Exodus 12:8; Numbers 9:11). The kind of herbs so designated is not known. Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and time when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the severity of the servitude under which the people groaned; and have been regarded also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.

Bittern

Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isaiah 14:23; Isaiah 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages noted the kippod is associated with birds, with pools of water, and with solitude and desolation. This favours the idea that not the "porcupine" but the "bittern" is really intended by the word.

Bitumen

Genesis 11:3, R.V., margin, rendered in the A.V. "slime"), a mineral pitch. With this the ark was pitched (Genesis 6:14. See also Exodus 2:3.) (See SLIME.)

Black

Properly the absence of all colour. In Proverbs 7:9 the Hebrew word means, as in the margin of the Revised Version, "the pupil of the eye." It is translated "apple" of the eye in Deuteronomy 32:10; Psalms 17:8; Proverbs 7:2. It is a different word which is rendered "black" in Leviticus 13:31, Leviticus 13:37; Song_of_Solomon 1:5; Song_of_Solomon 5:11; and Zechariah 6:2, Zechariah 6:6. It is uncertain what the "black marble" of Esther 1:6 was which formed a part of the mosaic pavement.

Blade

Applied to the glittering point of a spear (Job 39:23) or sword (Nahum 3:3), the blade of a dagger (Judges 3:22); the "shoulder blade" (Job 31:22); the "blade" of cereals (Gospel of Matthew 13:26).

Blains

Occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt (Exodus 9:9, Exodus 9:10). In Deuteronomy 28:27, Deuteronomy 28:35, it is called "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the fearful disease of black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcers.

Blasphemy

In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psalms 74:18; Isaiah 52:5; Romans 2:24; Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:6; Revelation 16:9, Revelation 16:11, Revelation 16:21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1_Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45; Acts 18:6, etc.). Our Lord was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Gospel of Matthew 26:65; compare Gospel of Matthew 9:3; Gospel of Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (Gospel of Luke 22:65; Gospel of John 10:36).

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost (Gospel of Matthew 12:31, Gospel of Matthew 12:32; Gospel of Mark 3:28, Gospel of Mark 3:29; Gospel of Luke 12:10) is regarded by some as a continued and obstinate rejection of the gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin, simply because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard the expression as designating the sin of attributing to the power of Satan those miracles which Christ performed, or generally those works which are the result of the Spirit's agency.

Blastus

Chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20). Such persons generally had great influence with their masters.

Blemish

Imperfection or bodily deformity excluding men from the priesthood, and rendering animals unfit to be offered in sacrifice (Leviticus 21:17; Leviticus 22:19). The Christian church, as justified in Christ, is "without blemish" (Ephesians 5:27). Christ offered himself a sacrifice "without blemish," acceptable to God (1_Peter 1:19).

Bless

(1.) God blesses his people when he bestows on them some gift temporal or spiritual (Genesis 1:22; Genesis 24:35; Job 42:12; Psalms 45:2; Psalms 104:24, Psalms 104:35).

(2.) We bless God when we thank him for his mercies (Psalms 103:1, Psalms 103:2; Psalms 145:1, Psalms 145:2).

(3.) A man blesses himself when he invokes God's blessing (Isaiah 65:16), or rejoices in God's goodness to him (Deuteronomy 29:19; Psalms 49:18).

(4.) One blesses another when he expresses good wishes or offers prayer to God for his welfare (Genesis 24:60; Genesis 31:55; 1_Samuel 2:20). Sometimes blessings were uttered under divine inspiration, as in the case of Noah, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses (Genesis 9:26, Genesis 9:27; Genesis 27:28, Genesis 27:29, Genesis 27:40; Genesis 48:15; 49:1-28; Deut. 33). The priests were divinely authorized to bless the people (Deuteronomy 10:8; Numbers 6:22). We have many examples of apostolic benediction (2_Corinthians 13:14; Ephesians 6:23, Ephesians 6:24; 2_Thessalonians 3:16, 2_Thessalonians 3:18; Hebrews 13:20, Hebrews 13:21; 1_Peter 5:10, 1_Peter 5:11).

(5.) Among the Jews in their thank-offerings the master of the feast took a cup of wine in his hand, and after having blessed God for it and for other mercies then enjoyed, handed it to his guests, who all partook of it. Psalms 116:13 refers to this custom. It is also alluded to in 1_Corinthians 10:16, where the apostle speaks of the "cup of blessing."

Blind

Blind beggars are frequently mentioned (Gospel of Matthew 9:27; Gospel of Matthew 12:22; Gospel of Matthew 20:30; Gospel of John 5:3). The blind are to be treated with compassion (Leviticus 19:14; Deuteronomy 27:18). Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience (1_Samuel 11:2; Jeremiah 39:7), sometimes the effect of old age (Genesis 27:1; 1_Kings 14:4; 1_Samuel 4:15). Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives (2_Kings 25:7; 1_Samuel 11:2). Blindness denotes ignorance as to spiritual things (Isaiah 6:10; Isaiah 42:18, Isaiah 42:19; Gospel of Matthew 15:14; Ephesians 4:18). The opening of the eyes of the blind is peculiar to the Messiah (Isaiah 29:18). Elymas was smitten with blindness at Paul's word (Acts 13:11).

Blood

(1.) As food, prohibited in Genesis 9:4, where the use of animal food is first allowed. Compare Deuteronomy 12:23; Leviticus 3:17; Leviticus 7:26; Leviticus 17:10. The injunction to abstain from blood is renewed in the decree of the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:29). It has been held by some, and we think correctly, that this law of prohibition was only ceremonial and temporary; while others regard it as still binding on all. Blood was eaten by the Israelites after the battle of Gilboa (1_Samuel 14:32).

(2.) The blood of sacrifices was caught by the priest in a basin, and then sprinkled seven times on the altar; that of the passover on the door posts and lintels of the houses (Ex. 12; Leviticus 4:5; Leviticus 16:14). At the giving of the law (Exodus 24:8) the blood of the sacrifices was sprinkled on the people as well as on the altar, and thus the people were consecrated to God, or entered into covenant with him, hence the blood of the covenant (Gospel of Matthew 26:28; Hebrews 9:19, Hebrews 9:20; Hebrews 10:29; Hebrews 13:20).

(3.) Human blood. The murderer was to be punished (Genesis 9:5). The blood of the murdered "crieth for vengeance" (Genesis 4:10). The "avenger of blood" was the nearest relative of the murdered, and he was required to avenge his death (Numbers 35:24, Numbers 35:27). No satisfaction could be made for the guilt of murder (Numbers 35:31).

(4.) Blood used metaphorically to denote race (Acts 17:26), and as a symbol of slaughter (Isaiah 34:3). To "wash the feet in blood" means to gain a great victory (Psalms 58:10). Wine, from its red colour, is called "the blood of the grape" (Genesis 49:11). Blood and water issued from our Saviour's side when it was pierced by the Roman soldier (Gospel of John 19:34). This has led pathologists to the conclusion that the proper cause of Christ's death was rupture of the heart. (Compare Psalms 69:20.)

Bloody Sweat

The sign and token of our Lord's great agony (Gospel of Luke 22:44).

Blot

A stain or reproach (Job 31:7; Proverbs 9:7). To blot out sin is to forgive it (Psalms 51:1, Psalms 51:9; Isaiah 44:22; Acts 3:19). Christ's blotting out the handwriting of ordinances was his fulfilling the law in our behalf (Colossians 2:14).

Blue

Generally associated with purple (Exodus 25:4; Exodus 26:1, Exodus 26:31, Exodus 26:36, etc.). It is supposed to have been obtained from a shellfish of the Mediterranean, the Helix ianthina of Linnaeus. The robe of the high priest's ephod was to be all of this colour (Exodus 28:31), also the loops of the curtains (Exodus 26:4) and the ribbon of the breastplate (Exodus 28:28). Blue cloths were also made for various sacred purposes (Numbers 4:6, Numbers 4:7, Numbers 4:9, Numbers 4:11, Numbers 4:12). (See COLOURS.)

Boanerges

Sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John (Gospel of Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper (Gospel of Luke 9:54).

Boar

Occurs only in Psalms 80:13. The same Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered "swine" (Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8; Proverbs 11:22; Isaiah 65:4; Isaiah 66:3, Isaiah 66:17). The Hebrews abhorred swine's flesh, and accordingly none of these animals were reared, except in the district beyond the Sea of Galilee. In the psalm quoted above the powers that destroyed the Jewish nation are compared to wild boars and wild beasts of the field.

Boaz

Alacrity. (1.) The husband of Ruth, a wealthy Bethlehemite. By the "levirate law" the duty devolved on him of marrying Ruth the Moabitess (Ruth 4:1). He was a kinsman of Mahlon, her first husband.

(2.) The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two (the other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the court of the temple (1_Kings 7:21; 2_Chronicles 3:17). These pillars were broken up and carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.

Bochim

Weepers, a place where the angel of the Lord reproved the Israelites for entering into a league with the people of the land. This caused them bitterly to weep, and hence the name of the place (Judges 2:1, Judges 2:5). It lay probably at the head of one of the valleys between Gilgal and Shiloh.

Boil

(rendered "botch" in Deuteronomy 28:27, Deuteronomy 28:35), an aggravated ulcer, as in the case of Hezekiah (2_Kings 20:7; Isaiah 38:21) or of the Egyptians (Exodus 9:9, Exodus 9:10, Exodus 9:11; Deuteronomy 28:27, Deuteronomy 28:35). It designates the disease of Job (Job 2:7), which was probably the black leprosy.

Bolled

(Exodus 9:31), meaning "swollen or podded for seed," was adopted in the Authorized Version from the version of Coverdale (1535). The Revised Version has in the margin "was in bloom," which is the more probable rendering of the Hebrew word. It is the fact that in Egypt when barley is in ear (about February) flax is blossoming.

Bolster

The Hebrew word kebir, rendered "pillow" in 1_Samuel 19:13, 1_Samuel 19:16, but in Revised Version marg. "quilt" or "network," probably means some counterpane or veil intended to protect the head of the sleeper. A different Hebrew word ( meraashoth' ) is used for "bolster" (1_Samuel 26:7, 1_Samuel 26:11, 1_Samuel 26:16). It is rightly rendered in Revised Version "at his head." In Genesis 28:11, Genesis 28:18 the Authorized Version renders it "for his pillows," and the Revised Version "under his head." In Ezekiel 13:18, Ezekiel 13:20 another Hebrew word (kesathoth) is used, properly denoting "cushions" or "pillows," as so rendered both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.

Bond

An obligation of any kind (Numbers 30:2, Numbers 30:4, Numbers 30:12). The word means also oppression or affliction (Psalms 116:16; Philippians 1:7). Christian love is the "bond of perfectness" (Colossians 3:14), and the influences of the Spirit are the "bond of peace" (Ephesians 4:3).

Bondage

Of Israel in Egypt (Exodus 2:23, Exodus 2:25; 5), which is called the "house of bondage" (Exodus 13:3; Exodus 20:2). This word is used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon (Isaiah 14:3), and the oppression of the Persian king (Ezra 9:8, Ezra 9:9).

Bonnet

(Heb. peer ), Exodus 39:28 (R.V., "head-tires"); Ezekiel 44:18 (R.V., "tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isaiah 3:20 (R.V., "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in Isaiah 61:10 (R.V., "garland"), and in Ezekiel 24:17, Ezekiel 24:23 "tire" (R.V., "head-tire"). It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted about the head. In Exodus 28:40; Exodus 29:9 it is the translation of a different Hebrew word ( migba'ah ), which denotes the turban (R.V., "head-tire") of the common priest as distinguished from the mitre of the high priest. (See MITRE.)

Book

This word has a comprehensive meaning in Scripture. In the Old Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word sepher, which properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" (Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 28:58; Deuteronomy 29:20; Job 19:23) or "roll of a book" (Jeremiah 36:2, Jeremiah 36:4).

Books were originally written on skins, on linen or cotton cloth, and on Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The leaves of the book were generally written in columns, designated by a Hebrew word properly meaning "doors" and "valves" (Jeremiah 36:23, R.V., marg. "columns").

Among the Hebrews books were generally rolled up like our maps, or if very long they were rolled from both ends, forming two rolls (Gospel of Luke 4:17). Thus they were arranged when the writing was on flexible materials; but if the writing was on tablets of wood or brass or lead, then the several tablets were bound together by rings through which a rod was passed.

A sealed book is one whose contents are secret (Isaiah 29:11; Revelation 5:1). To "eat" a book (Jeremiah 15:16; Ezekiel 2:8; Ezekiel 3:1; Revelation 10:9) is to study its contents carefully.

The book of judgment (Daniel 7:10) refers to the method of human courts of justice as illustrating the proceedings which will take place at the day of God's final judgment.

The book of the wars of the Lord (Numbers 21:14), the book of Jasher (Joshua 10:13), and the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel (2_Chronicles 25:26), were probably ancient documents known to the Hebrews, but not forming a part of the canon.

The book of life (Psalms 69:28) suggests the idea that as the redeemed form a community or citizenship (Philippians 3:20; Philippians 4:3), a catalogue of the citizens' names is preserved (Gospel of Luke 10:20; Revelation 20:15).

Their names are registered in heaven (Gospel of Luke 10:20; Revelation 3:5). The book of the covenant (Exodus 24:7), containing Ex. 20:22-23:33, is the first book actually mentioned as a part of the written word. It contains a series of laws, civil, social, and religious, given to Moses at Sinai immediately after the delivery of the decalogue. These were written in this "book."

Booth

A hut made of the branches of a tree. In such tabernacles Jacob sojourned for a season at a place named from this circumstance Succoth (Genesis 33:17). Booths were erected also at the feast of Tabernacles (q.v.), Leviticus 23:42, Leviticus 23:43, which commemorated the abode of the Israelites in the wilderness.

Booty

Captives or cattle or objects of value taken in war. In Canaan all that breathed were to be destroyed (Deuteronomy 20:16). The "pictures and images" of the Canaanites were to be destroyed also (Numbers 33:52). The law of booty as to its division is laid down in Num. 31:26-47. David afterwards introduced a regulation that the baggage-guard should share the booty equally with the soldiers engaged in battle. He also devoted of the spoils of war for the temple (1_Samuel 30:24; 2_Samuel 8:11; 1_Chronicles 26:27).

Borrow

The Israelites "borrowed" from the Egyptians (Exodus 12:35, R.V., "asked") in accordance with a divine command (Exodus 3:22; Exodus 11:2). But the word ( sha'al ) so rendered here means simply and always to "request" or "demand." The Hebrew had another word which is properly translated "borrow" in Deuteronomy 28:12; Psalms 37:21. It was well known that the parting was final. The Egyptians were so anxious to get the Israelites away out of their land that "they let them have what they asked" (Exodus 12:36, R.V.), or literally "made them to ask," urged them to take whatever they desired and depart. (See LOAN.)

Bosom

In the East objects are carried in the bosom which Europeans carry in the pocket. To have in one's bosom indicates kindness, secrecy, or intimacy (Genesis 16:5; 2_Samuel 12:8). Christ is said to have been in "the bosom of the Father," i.e., he had the most perfect knowledge of the Father, had the closest intimacy with him (Gospel of John 1:18). John (Gospel of John 13:23) was "leaning on Jesus' bosom" at the last supper. Our Lord carries his lambs in his bosom, i.e., has a tender, watchful care over them (Isaiah 40:11).

Bosses

The projecting parts of a shield (Job 15:26). The Hebrew word thus rendered means anything convex or arched, and hence the back, as of animals.

Bosor

The Chaldee or Aramaic form of the name Beor, the father of Balaam (2_Peter 2:15).

Botch

The name given in Deuteronomy 28:27, Deuteronomy 28:35 to one of the Egyptian plagues (Exodus 9:9). The word so translated is usually rendered "boil" (q.v.).

Bottle

A vessel made of skins for holding wine (Joshua 9:4, Joshua 9:13; 1_Samuel 16:20; Gospel of Matthew 9:17; Gospel of Mark 2:22; Gospel of Luke 5:37, Gospel of Luke 5:38), or milk (Judges 4:19), or water (Genesis 21:14, Genesis 21:15, Genesis 21:19), or strong drink (Habakkuk 2:15).

Earthenware vessels were also similarly used (Jeremiah 19:1; 1_Kings 14:3; Isaiah 30:14). In Job 32:19 (compare Gospel of Matthew 9:17; Gospel of Luke 5:37, Gospel of Luke 5:38; Gospel of Mark 2:22) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to burst through the fermentation of the wine. "Bottles of wine" in the Authorized Version of Hosea 7:5 is properly rendered in the Revised Version by "the heat of wine," i.e., the fever of wine, its intoxicating strength.

The clouds are figuratively called the "bottles of heaven" (Job 38:37). A bottle blackened or shriveled by smoke is referred to in Psalms 119:83 as an image to which the psalmist likens himself.

Bow

The bow was in use in early times both in war and in the chase (Genesis 21:20; Genesis 27:3; Genesis 48:22). The tribe of Benjamin were famous for the use of the bow (1_Chronicles 8:40; 1_Chronicles 12:2; 2_Chronicles 14:8; 2_Chronicles 17:17); so also were the Elamites (Isaiah 22:6) and the Lydians (Jeremiah 46:9).

The Hebrew word commonly used for bow means properly to tread (1_Chronicles 5:18; 1_Chronicles 8:40), and hence it is concluded that the foot was employed in bending the bow. Bows of steel (correctly "copper") are mentioned (2_Samuel 22:35; Psalms 18:34).

The arrows were carried in a quiver (Genesis 27:3; Isaiah 22:6; Isaiah 49:2; Psalms 127:5). They were apparently sometimes shot with some burning material attached to them (Psalms 120:4). The bow is a symbol of victory (Psalms 7:12). It denotes also falsehood, deceit (Psalms 64:3, Psalms 64:4; Hosea 7:16; Jeremiah 9:3). "The use of the bow" in 2_Samuel 1:18 (A.V.) ought to be "the song of the bow," as in the Revised Version.

Bowels

Philippians 1:8; Philippians 2:1; Colossians 3:12), compassionate feelings; R.V., "tender mercies."

Bowing

A mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the land" (Genesis 23:7); so Jacob to Esau (Genesis 33:3); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land (Genesis 43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols (Joshua 23:7; 2_Kings 5:18; Judges 2:19; Isaiah 44:15), and to God (Joshua 5:14; Psalms 22:29; Psalms 72:9; Micah 6:6; Psalms 95:6; Ephesians 3:14).

Bowl

The sockets of the lamps of the golden candlestick of the tabernacle are called bowls (Exodus 25:31, Exodus 25:33, Exodus 25:34; Exodus 37:17, Exodus 37:19, Exodus 37:20); the same word so rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" (Genesis 44:2, Genesis 44:12, Genesis 44:16), and wine "pot" (Jeremiah 35:5). The reservoir for oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's vision of the candlestick, is called also by this name (Zechariah 4:2, Zechariah 4:3); so also are the vessels used for libations (Exodus 25:29; Exodus 37:16).

Box

For holding oil or perfumery (Gospel of Mark 14:3). It was of the form of a flask or bottle. The Hebrew word (pak) used for it is more appropriately rendered "vial" in 1_Samuel 10:1, and should also be so rendered in 2_Kings 9:1, where alone else it occurs.

Box-tree

(Heb. teashshur ), mentioned in Isaiah 60:13; Isaiah 41:19, was, according to some, a species of cedar growing in Lebanon. The words of Ezekiel 27:6 literally translated are, "Thy benches they have made of ivory, the daughter of the ashur tree," i.e., inlaid with ashur wood. The ashur is the box-tree, and accordingly the Revised Version rightly reads "inlaid in box wood." This is the Buxus sempervirens of botanists. It is remarkable for the beauty of its evergreen foliage and for the utility of its hard and durable wood.

Bozrah

Enclosure; fortress. (1.) The city of Jobab, one of the early Edomite kings (Genesis 36:33). This place is mentioned by the prophets in later times (Isaiah 34:6; Jeremiah 49:13; Amos 1:12; Micah 2:12). Its modern representative is el-Busseireh. It lies in the mountain district of Petra, 20 miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea.

(2.) A Moabite city in the "plain country" (Jeremiah 48:24), i.e., on the high level down on the east of the Dead Sea. It is probably the modern Buzrah.

Bracelet

(1.) Anklets (Numbers 31:50; 2_Samuel 1:10), and with reference to men.

(2.) The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning fasteners, found in Genesis 24:22, Genesis 24:30, Genesis 24:47.

(3.) In Isaiah 3:19, the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning chains, i.e., twisted or chain-like bracelets.

(4.) In Exodus 35:22 it designates properly a clasp for fastening the dress of females. Some interpret it as a nose-ring.

(5.) In Genesis 38:18, Genesis 38:25, the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "thread," and may denote the ornamental cord with which the signet was suspended from the neck of the wearer. Bracelets were worn by men as well as by women (Song_of_Solomon 5:14, R.V.). They were of many various forms. The weight of those presented by Eliezer to Rebekah was ten shekels (Genesis 24:22).

Bramble

(1.) Hebrew atad, Judges 9:14; rendered "thorn," Psalms 58:9. The LXX. and Vulgate render by rhamnus, a thorny shrub common in Palestine, resembling the hawthorn.

(2.) Hebrew hoah, Isaiah 34:13 (R.V. "thistles"); "thickets" in 1_Samuel 13:6; "thistles" in 2_Kings 14:9, 2_Chronicles 25:18, Job 31:40; "thorns" in 2_Chronicles 33:11, Song_of_Solomon 2:2, Hosea 9:6. The word may be regarded as denoting the common thistle, of which there are many species which encumber the cornfields of Oalestine. (See THORNS.)

Branch

A symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors (Ezekiel 17:3, Ezekiel 17:10; Daniel 11:7); of prosperity (Job 8:16); of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isaiah 11:1), the "beautiful branch" (Isaiah 4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jeremiah 23:5), "the Branch" (Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12).

Disciples are branches of the true vine (Gospel of John 15:5, Gospel of John 15:6). "The branch of the terrible ones" (Isaiah 25:5) is rightly translated in the Revised Version "the song of the terrible ones," i.e., the song of victory shall be brought low by the destruction of Babylon and the return of the Jews from captivity.

The "abominable branch" is a tree on which a malefactor has been hanged (Isaiah 14:19). The "highest branch" in Ezekiel 17:3 represents Jehoiakim the king.

Brass

Which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is properly copper (Deuteronomy 8:9). It was used for fetters (Judges 16:21; 2_Kings 25:7), for pieces of armour (1_Samuel 17:5, 1_Samuel 17:6), for musical instruments (1_Chronicles 15:19; 1_Corinthians 13:1), and for money (Gospel of Matthew 10:9).

It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isaiah 48:4; Jeremiah 6:28; Ezekiel 22:18), and of strength (Psalms 107:16; Micah 4:13).

The Macedonian empire is described as a kingdom of brass (Daniel 2:39). The "mountains of brass" Zechariah (Zechariah 6:1) speaks of have been supposed to represent the immutable decrees of God.

The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God (Numbers 21:4), and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen by all the people when wounded by the bite of the serpents that were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings against God and against Moses. It was afterwards carried by the Jews into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of Hezekiah, who caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to be viewed by the people with superstitious reverence (2_Kings 18:4). (See NEHUSHTAN.)

The brazen serpent is alluded to by our Lord in Gospel of John 3:14, Gospel of John 3:15. (See SERPENT.)

Bravery

(Isaiah 3:18), an old English word meaning comeliness or beauty.

Breach

An opening in a wall (1_Kings 11:27; 2_Kings 12:5); the fracture of a limb (Leviticus 24:20), and hence the expression, "Heal, etc." (Psalms 60:2). Judges 5:17, a bay or harbour; R.V., "by his creeks."

Bread

Among the Jews was generally made of wheat (Exodus 29:2; Judges 6:19), though also sometimes of other grains (Genesis 14:18; Judges 7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any other preparation (Ruth 2:14).

Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs" (Genesis 18:6; Exodus 12:34; Jeremiah 7:18). The dough was mixed with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at the Passover was always unleavened (Exodus 12:15; Deuteronomy 16:3). In the towns there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking bread; there were also bakers by trade (Hosea 7:4; Jeremiah 37:21). Their ovens were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire, and by covering it with the embers (1_Kings 19:6). This was probably the mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in Genesis 18:6.

In Lev. 2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread and cakes used by the Jews. (See BAKE.)

The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They were square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only by the priests in the court of the sanctuary (Exodus 25:30; Leviticus 24:8; 1_Samuel 21:1; Gospel of Matthew 12:4).

The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as "bread of sorrows" (Psalms 127:2), "bread of tears" (Psalms 80:5), i.e., sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they form so great a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" (Proverbs 4:17) and "of deceit" (Proverbs 20:17) denote in like manner that wickedness and deceit are a part of the daily life.

Breastplate

(1.) That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast. This word is used figuratively in Ephesians 6:14 and Isaiah 59:17. (See ARMOUR.)

(2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned in Exodus 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Exodus 28:15; Exodus 39:8). It was in size about ten inches square. The two upper corners were fastened to the ephod by blue ribbons. It was not to be "loosed from the ephod" (Exodus 28:28). The lower corners were fastened to the girdle of the priest. As it reminded the priest of his representative character, it was called the memorial (Exodus 28:29). It was also called the breastplate of judgment (Exodus 28:15). (See PRIEST.)

Breeches

(Exodus 28:42), rather linen drawers, reaching from the waist to a little above the knee, worn by the priests (Ezekiel 44:17, Ezekiel 44:18).

Bribe

None to be taken; "for the gift maketh open eyes blind, and perverteth the cause of the righteous" (Exodus 23:8, literally rendered).

Bricks

The making of, formed the chief labour of the Israelites in Egypt (Exodus 1:13, Exodus 1:14). Those found among the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are about a foot square and four inches thick. They were usually dried in the sun, though also sometimes in kilns (2_Samuel 12:31; Jeremiah 43:9; Nahum 3:14). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.)

The bricks used in the tower of Babel were burnt bricks, cemented in the building by bitumen (Genesis 11:3).

Bride

Frequently used in the ordinary sense (Isaiah 49:18; Isaiah 61:10, etc.). The relation between Christ and his church is set forth under the figure of that between a bridegroom and bride (Gospel of John 3:29). The church is called "the bride" (Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:17). Compare parable of the Ten Virgins (Gospel of Matthew 25:1).

Bridle

Three Hebrew words are thus rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.) Heb. mahsom signifies a muzzle or halter or bridle, by which the rider governs his horse (Psalms 39:1).

(2.) Metheg, rendered also "bit" in Psalms 32:9, which is its proper meaning. Found in 2_Kings 19:28, where the restraints of God's providence are metaphorically styled his "bridle" and "hook." God's placing a "bridle in the jaws of the people" (Isaiah 30:28; Isaiah 37:29) signifies his preventing the Assyrians from carrying out their purpose against Jerusalem.

(3.) Another word, resen, was employed to represent a halter or bridle-rein, as used Psalms 32:9; Isaiah 30:28. In Job 30:11 the restraints of law and humanity are called a bridle.

Brier

This word occurs frequently, and is the translation of several different terms. (1.) Micah 7:4, it denotes a species of thorn shrub used for hedges. In Proverbs 15:19 the word is rendered "thorn" (Heb. hedek , "stinging"), supposed by some to be what is called the "apple of Sodom" (q.v.).

(2.) Ezekiel 28:24, sallon, properly a "prickle," such as is found on the shoots of the palm tree.

(3.) Isaiah 55:13, probably simply a thorny bush. Some, following the Vulgate Version, regard it as the "nettle.&q

ot; (4.) Isaiah 5:6; Isaiah 7:23, etc., frequently used to denote thorny shrubs in general. In Isaiah 10:17; Isaiah 27:4, it means troublesome men.

(5.) In Hebrews 6:8 the Greek word ( tribolos ) so rendered means "three-pronged," and denotes the land caltrop, a low thorny shrub resembling in its spikes the military "crow-foot." Compare Gospel of Matthew 7:16, "thistle."

Brigandine

(Jeremiah 46:4; Jeremiah 51:3), an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light armed "brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."

Brimstone

An inflammable mineral substance found in quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Genesis 19:25). In Isaiah 34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment (Job 18:15; Isaiah 30:33; Isaiah 34:9; Psalms 11:6; Ezekiel 38:22). It is used to express the idea of excruciating torment in Revelation 14:10; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10.

Brook

A torrent. (1.) Applied to small streams, as the Arnon, Jabbok, etc. Isaiah (Isaiah 15:7) speaks of the "book of the willows," probably the Wady-el-Asha. (2.) It is also applied to winter torrents (Job 6:15; Numbers 34:5; Joshua 15:4, Joshua 15:47), and to the torrent-bed or wady as well as to the torrent itself (Numbers 13:23; 1_Kings 17:3). (3.) In Isaiah 19:7 the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised Version.

Brother

(1.) In the natural and common sense (Gospel of Matthew 1:2; Gospel of Luke 3:1, Gospel of Luke 3:19).

(2.) A near relation, a cousin (Genesis 13:8; Genesis 14:16; Gospel of Matthew 12:46; Gospel of John 7:3; Acts 1:14; Galatians 1:19).

(3.) Simply a fellow-countryman (Gospel of Matthew 5:47; Acts 3:22; Hebrews 7:5).

(4.) A disciple or follower (Gospel of Matthew 25:40; Hebrews 2:11, Hebrews 2:12).

(5.) One of the same faith (Amos 1:9; Acts 9:30; Acts 11:29; 1_Corinthians 5:11); whence the early disciples of our Lord were known to each other as brethren.

(6.) A colleague in office (Ezra 3:2; 1_Corinthians 1:1; 2_Corinthians 1:1).

(7.) A fellow-man (Genesis 9:5; Genesis 19:7; Gospel of Matthew 5:22, Gospel of Matthew 5:23, Gospel of Matthew 5:24; Gospel of Matthew 7:5; Hebrews 2:17).

(8.) One beloved or closely united with another in affection (2_Samuel 1:26; Acts 6:3; 1_Thessalonians 5:1). Brethren of Jesus (Gospel of Matthew 1:25; Gospel of Matthew 12:46, Gospel of Matthew 12:50; Gospel of Mark 3:31, Gospel of Mark 3:32; Galatians 1:19; 1_Corinthians 9:5, etc.) were probably the younger children of Joseph and Mary. Some have supposed that they may have been the children of Joseph by a former marriage, and others that they were the children of Mary, the Virgin's sister, and wife of Cleophas. The first interpretation, however, is the most natural.

Bruit

A rumour or report (Jeremiah 10:22, R.V. "rumour;" Nahum 3:19).

Bucket

A vessel to draw water with (Isaiah 40:15); used figuratively, probably, of a numerous issue (Numbers 24:7).

Buckler

(1.) A portable shield (2_Samuel 22:31; 1_Chronicles 5:18).

(2.) A shield surrounding the person; the targe or round form; used once figuratively (Psalms 91:4).

(3.) A large shield protecting the whole body (Psalms 35:2; Ezekiel 23:24; Ezekiel 26:8).

(4.) A lance or spear; improperly rendered "buckler" in the Authorized Version (1_Chronicles 12:8), but correctly in the Revised Version "spear." The leather of shields required oiling (2_Samuel 1:21; Isaiah 21:5), so as to prevent its being injured by moisture. Copper (= "brass") shields were also in use (1_Samuel 17:6; 1_Kings 14:27). Those spoken of in 1_Kings 10:16, etc.; 1_Kings 14:26, were probably of massive metal.

The shields David had taken from his enemies were suspended in the temple as mementos (2_Kings 11:10). (See ARMOUR, SHIELD.)

Building

Among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan (Deuteronomy 6:10; Numbers 13:19). Phoenician artists (2_Samuel 5:11; 1_Kings 5:6, 1_Kings 5:18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of the temple after the Exile (Ezra 3:7).

In Genesis 11:3, Genesis 11:9, we have the first recorded instance of the erection of buildings.

The cities of the plain of Shinar were founded by the descendants of Shem (Genesis 10:11, Genesis 10:12, Genesis 10:22). The Israelites were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents (Genesis 47:3); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine. Much building was carried on in Solomon's time. Besides the buildings he completed at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor (1_Kings 9:15, 1_Kings 9:24). Many of the kings of Israel and Judah were engaged in erecting various buildings.

Herod and his sons and successors restored the temple, and built fortifications and other structures of great magnificence in Jerusalem (Gospel of Luke 21:5).

The instruments used in building are mentioned as the plumb line (Amos 7:7), the measuring-reed (Ezekiel 40:3), and the saw (1_Kings 7:9).

Believers are "God's building" (1_Corinthians 3:9); and heaven is called "a building of God" (2_Corinthians 5:1). Christ is the only foundation of his church (1_Corinthians 3:10), of which he also is the builder (Gospel of Matthew 16:18).

Bul

Rainy, the eighth ecclesiastical month of the year (1_Kings 6:38), and the second month of the civil year; later called Marchesvan (q.v.). (See MONTH.)

Bullock

(1.) The translation of a word which is a generic name for horned cattle (Isaiah 65:25). It is also rendered "cow" (Ezekiel 4:15), "ox" (Genesis 12:16).

(2.) The translation of a word always meaning an animal of the ox kind, without distinction of age or sex (Hosea 12:11). It is rendered "cow" (Numbers 18:17) and "ox" (Leviticus 17:3).

(3.) Another word is rendered in the same way (Jeremiah 31:18). It is also translated "calf" (Leviticus 9:3; Micah 6:6). It is the same word used of the "molten calf" (Exodus 32:4, Exodus 32:8) and "the golden calf" (1_Kings 12:28).

(4.) In Judges 6:25; Isaiah 34:7, the Hebrew word is different. It is the customary word for bulls offered in sacrifice. In Hosea 14:2, the Authorized Version has "calves," the Revised Version "bullocks."

Bulrush

(1.) In Isaiah 58:5 the rendering of a word which denotes "belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil in which it grows (Isaiah 18:2). It was sometimes platted into ropes (Job 41:2; A.V., "hook," R.V., "rope," lit. "cord of rushes").

(2.) In Exodus 2:3, Isaiah 18:2 (R.V., "papyrus") this word is the translation of the Hebrew gome, which designates the plant as absorbing moisture. In Isaiah 35:7 and Job 8:11 it is rendered "rush." This was the Egyptian papyrus (papyrus Nilotica). It was anciently very abundant in Egypt. The Egyptians made garments and shoes and various utensils of it. It was used for the construction of the ark of Moses (Exodus 2:3, Exodus 2:5). The root portions of the stem were used for food. The inside bark was cut into strips, which were sewed together and dried in the sun, forming the papyrus used for writing. It is no longer found in Egypt, but grows luxuriantly in Palestine, in the marshes of the Huleh, and in the swamps at the north end of the Lake of Gennesaret. (See CANE.)

Bulwarks

Mural towers, bastions, were introduced by king Uzziah (2_Chronicles 26:15; Zephaniah 1:16; Psalms 48:13; Isaiah 26:1). There are five Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version, but the same word is also variously rendered.

Bunch

(1.) A bundle of twigs (Exodus 12:22). (2.) Bunch or cake of raisins (2_Samuel 16:1). (3.) The "bunch of a camel" (Isaiah 30:6).

Burden

(1.) A load of any kind (Exodus 23:5). (2.) A severe task (Exodus 2:11). (3.) A difficult duty, requiring effort (Exodus 18:22). (4.) A prophecy of a calamitous or disastrous nature (Isaiah 13:1; Isaiah 17:1; Habakkuk 1:1, etc.).

Burial

The first burial we have an account of is that of Sarah (Gen. 23). The first commercial transaction recorded is that of the purchase of a burial-place, for which Abraham weighed to Ephron "four hundred shekels of silver current money with the merchants." Thus the patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the only part he ever possessed. When he himself died, "his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah," beside Sarah his wife (Genesis 25:9).

Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried under Allon-bachuth, "the oak of weeping" (Genesis 35:8), near to Bethel. Rachel died, and was buried near Ephrath; "and Jacob set a pillar upon her grave" (Genesis 35:16). Isaac was buried at Hebron, where he had died (Genesis 35:27, Genesis 35:29). Jacob, when charging his sons to bury him in the cave of Machpelah, said, "There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah" (Genesis 49:31). In compliance with the oath which he made him swear unto him (Genesis 47:29), Joseph, assisted by his brethren, buried Jacob in the cave of Machpelah (Genesis 50:2, Genesis 50:13). At the Exodus, Moses "took the bones of Joseph with him," and they were buried in the "parcel of ground" which Jacob had bought of the sons of Hamor (Joshua 24:32), which became Joseph's inheritance (Genesis 48:22; 1_Chronicles 5:1; Gospel of John 4:5). Two burials are mentioned as having taken place in the wilderness. That of Miriam (Numbers 20:1), and that of Moses, "in the land of Moab" (Deuteronomy 34:5, Deuteronomy 34:6, Deuteronomy 34:8). There is no account of the actual burial of Aaron, which probably, however, took place on the summit of Mount Hor (Numbers 20:28, Numbers 20:29).

Joshua was buried "in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah" (Joshua 24:30).

In Job we find a reference to burying-places, which were probably the Pyramids (Job 3:14, Job 3:15). The Hebrew word for "waste places" here resembles in sound the Egyptian word for "pyramids.&q

ot; Samuel, like Moses, was honoured with a national burial (1_Samuel 25:1). Joab (1_Kings 2:34) "was buried in his own house in the wilderness.&q

ot; In connection with the burial of Saul and his three sons we meet for the first time with the practice of burning the dead (1_Samuel 31:11). The same practice is again referred to by Amos (Amos 6:10).

Absalom was buried "in the wood" where he was slain (2_Samuel 18:17, 2_Samuel 18:18). The raising of the heap of stones over his grave was intended to mark abhorrence of the person buried (compare Joshua 7:26; Joshua 8:29). There was no fixed royal burying-place for the Hebrew kings. We find several royal burials taking place, however, "in the city of David" (1_Kings 2:10; 1_Kings 11:43; 1_Kings 15:8; 2_Kings 14:19, 2_Kings 14:20; 2_Kings 15:38; 1_Kings 14:31; 1_Kings 22:50; 2_Chronicles 21:19, 2_Chronicles 21:20; 2_Chronicles 24:25, etc.). Hezekiah was buried in the mount of the sepulchres of the sons of David; "and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honour at his death" (2_Chronicles 32:33).

Little is said regarding the burial of the kings of Israel. Some of them were buried in Samaria, the capital of their kingdom (2_Kings 10:35; 2_Kings 13:9; 2_Kings 14:16).

Our Lord was buried in a new tomb, hewn out of the rock, which Joseph of Arimathea had prepared for himself (Gospel of Matthew 27:57; Gospel of Mark 15:46; Gospel of John 19:41, Gospel of John 19:42).

The grave of Lazarus was "a cave, and a stone lay on it" (Gospel of John 11:38). Graves were frequently either natural caverns or artificial excavations formed in the sides of rocks (Genesis 23:9; Gospel of Matthew 27:60); and coffins were seldom used, unless when the body was brought from a distance.

Burnt-offering

Hebrew olah; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel (Genesis 4:3, Genesis 4:4, here called minhah; i.e., "a gift"), Noah (Genesis 8:20), Abraham (Genesis 22:2, Genesis 22:7, Genesis 22:8, Genesis 22:13), and by the Hebrews in Egypt (Exodus 10:25). The law of Moses afterwards prescribed the occasions and the manner in which burnt sacrifices were to be offered. There were "the continual burnt offering" (Exodus 29:38; Leviticus 6:9), "the burnt offering of every sabbath," which was double the daily one (Numbers 28:9, Numbers 28:10), "the burnt offering of every month" (Numbers 28:11), the offerings at the Passover (Numbers 28:19), at Pentecost (Leviticus 23:16), the feast of Trumpets (Leviticus 23:23), and on the day of Atonement (Lev. 16). On other occasions special sacrifices were offered, as at the consecration of Aaron (Ex. 29) and the dedication of the temple (1_Kings 8:5, 1_Kings 8:62). Free-will burnt offerings were also permitted (Leviticus 1:13), and were offered at the accession of Solomon to the throne (1_Chronicles 29:21), and at the reformation brought about by Hezekiah (2_Chronicles 29:31). These offerings signified the complete dedication of the offerers unto God. This is referred to in Romans 12:1. (See ALTAR, SACRIFICE.)

Bush

In which Jehovah appeared to Moses in the wilderness (Exodus 3:2; Acts 7:30). It is difficult to say what particular kind of plant or bush is here meant. Probably it was the mimosa or acacia. The words "in the bush" in Gospel of Mark 12:26; Gospel of Luke 20:37, mean "in the passage or paragraph on the bush;" i.e., in Ex. 3.

Butler

Properly a servant in charge of the wine (Genesis 40:1; Genesis 41:9). The Hebrew word, mashkeh, thus translated is rendered also (plural) "cup-bearers" (1_Kings 10:5; 2_Chronicles 9:4). Nehemiah (Nehemiah 1:11) was cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes. It was a position of great responsibility and honour in royal households.

Butter

(Heb. hemah ), curdled milk (Genesis 18:8; Judges 5:25; 2_Samuel 17:29), or butter in the form of the skim of hot milk or cream, called by the Arabs kaimak, a semi-fluid (Job 20:17; Job 29:6; Deuteronomy 32:14). The words of Proverbs 30:33 have been rendered by some "the pressure [not churning] of milk bringeth forth cheese."

Buz

Contempt. (1.) The second son of Nahor and Milcah, and brother of Huz (Genesis 22:21). Elihu was one of his descendants (Job 32:2).

(2.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Gad (1_Chronicles 5:14).

(3.) A district in Arabia Petrea (Jeremiah 25:23).

Buzi

The father of the prophet Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:3).

By

In the expression "by myself" (A.V., 1_Corinthians 4:4), means, as rendered in the Revised Version, "against myself."

By and by

Immediately (Gospel of Matthew 13:21; R.V., "straightway;" Gospel of Luke 21:9).

By-ways

Only in Judges 5:6 and Psalms 125:5; literally "winding or twisted roads." The margin has "crooked ways."

By-word

Hebrew millah (Job 30:9), a word or speech, and hence object to talk; Hebrew mashal (Psalms 44:14), a proverb or parable. When it denotes a sharp word of derision, as in Deuteronomy 28:37, 1_Kings 9:7, 2_Chronicles 7:20, the Hebrew sheninah is used. In Jeremiah 24:9 it is rendered "taunt."

Cab

Hollow (R.V., "kab"), occurs only in 2_Kings 6:25; a dry measure, the sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth part of an ephah, equal to about two English quarts.

Cabins

Only in Jeremiah 37:16 (R.V., "cells"), arched vaults or recesses off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of prisoners.

Cabul

How little! as nothing. (1.) A town on the eastern border of Asher (Joshua 19:27), probably one of the towns given by Solomon to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some 8 miles east of Accho, on the very borders of Galilee.

(2.) A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre, containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the temple (1_Kings 9:13), and as payment of the six score talents of gold he had borrowed from him. Hiram gave the cities this name because he was not pleased with the gift, the name signifying "good for nothing." Hiram seems afterwards to have restored these cities to Solomon (2_Chronicles 8:2).

Caesar

The title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive proper names (Gospel of John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Gospel of Matthew 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Gospel of Luke 2:1), Tiberius (Gospel of Luke 3:1; Gospel of Luke 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Philippians 4:22).

Caesarea

(Palestinae), a city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon. It was built by Herod the Great (10 B.C.), who named it after Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos = "Augustus"), on the site of an old town called "Strato's Tower." It was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea, the seat of the governors or procurators, and the headquarters of the Roman troops. It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings of great splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the West. Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the instrumentality of Peter (Acts 10:1, Acts 10:24), and thus for the first time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles. Philip the evangelist resided here with his four daughters (Acts 21:8). From this place Saul sailed for his native Tarsus when forced to flee from Jerusalem (Acts 9:30), and here he landed when returning from his second missionary journey (Acts 18:22). He remained as a prisoner here for two years before his voyage to Rome (Acts 24:27; Acts 25:1, Acts 25:4, Acts 25:6, Acts 25:13). Here on a "set day," when games were celebrated in the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa I. appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an angel, and carried out a dying man. He was "eaten of worms" (Acts 12:19), thus perishing by the same loathsome disease as his granfather, Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient name Kaiseriyeh, but is now desolate. "The present inhabitants of the ruins are snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals." It is described as the most desolate city of all Palestine.

Caesara Philippi

A city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the "upper source" of the Jordan, and near the base of Mount Hermon. It is mentioned in Gospel of Matthew 16:13 and Gospel of Mark 8:27 as the northern limit of our Lord's public ministry. According to some its original name was Baal-Gad (Joshua 11:17), or Baal-Hermon (Judges 3:3; 1_Chronicles 5:23), when it was a Canaanite sanctuary of Baal. It was afterwards called Panium or Paneas, from a deep cavern full of water near the town. This name was given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were always associated with the worship of their god Pan. Its modern name is Banias. Here Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar. This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar. It is thus distinguished from the Caesarea of Palestine. (See JORDAN.)

Cage

(Heb. kelub' , Jeremiah 5:27, marg. "coop;" rendered "basket" in Amos 8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after being caught. In Revelation 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek phulake , properly a prison or place of confinement.

Caiaphas

The Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Gospel of Luke 3:2), and also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Gospel of Matthew 26:3, Gospel of Matthew 26:57; Gospel of John 11:49; Gospel of John 18:13, Gospel of John 18:14). He held this office during the whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan ) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), and was a member of the council when he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death "for the people, and that the whole nation perish not" (Gospel of John 11:50). In these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like Saul, he was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the sentence against him (Gospel of Matthew 27:2; Gospel of John 18:28). At a later period his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See ANNAS.)

Cain

A possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, selfwilled, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably on the Sabbath, that the two brothers presented their offerings to the Lord. Abel's offering was of the "firstlings of his flock and of the fat," while Cain's was "of the fruit of the ground." Abel's sacrifice was "more excellent" (Hebrews 11:4) than Cain's, and was accepted by God. On this account Cain was "very wroth," and cherished feelings of murderous hatred against his brother, and was at length guilty of the desperate outrage of putting him to death (1_John 3:12). For this crime he was expelled from Eden, and henceforth led the life of an exile, bearing upon him some mark which God had set upon him in answer to his own cry for mercy, so that thereby he might be protected from the wrath of his fellow-men; or it may be that God only gave him some sign to assure him that he would not be slain (Genesis 4:15). Doomed to be a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth, he went forth into the "land of Nod", i.e., the land of "exile", which is said to have been in the "east of Eden," and there he builded a city, the first we read of, and called it after his son's name, Enoch. His descendants are enumerated to the sixth generation. They gradually degenerated in their moral and spiritual condition till they became wholly corrupt before God. This corruption prevailed, and at length the Deluge was sent by God to prevent the final triumph of evil. (See ABEL.)

(2.) A town of the Kenites, a branch of the Midianites (Joshua 15:57), on the east edge of the mountain above Engedi; probably the "nest in a rock" mentioned by Balaam (Numbers 24:21). It is identified with the modern Yekin, 3 miles south-east of Hebron.

Cainan

Possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Genesis 5:9), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called Kenan (1_Chronicles 1:2).

(2.) The son of Arphaxad (Gospel of Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in the Old Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."

Cake

Cakes made of wheat or barley were offered in the temple. They were salted, but unleavened (Exodus 29:2; Leviticus 2:4). In idolatrous worship thin cakes or wafers were offered "to the queen of heaven" (Jeremiah 7:18; Jeremiah 44:19).

Pancakes are described in 2_Samuel 13:8, 2_Samuel 13:9. Cakes mingled with oil and baked in the oven are mentioned in Leviticus 2:4, and "wafers unleavened anointed with oil," in Exodus 29:2; Leviticus 8:26; 1_Chronicles 23:29. "Cracknels," a kind of crisp cakes, were among the things Jeroboam directed his wife to take with her when she went to consult Ahijah the prophet at Shiloh (1_Kings 14:3). Such hard cakes were carried by the Gibeonites when they came to Joshua (Joshua 9:5, Joshua 9:12). They described their bread as "mouldy;" but the Hebrew word nikuddim, here used, ought rather to be rendered "hard as biscuit." It is rendered "cracknels" in 1_Kings 14:3. The ordinary bread, when kept for a few days, became dry and excessively hard. The Gibeonites pointed to this hardness of their bread as an evidence that they had come a long journey.

We read also of honey-cakes (Exodus 16:31), "cakes of figs" (1_Samuel 25:18), "cake" as denoting a whole piece of bread (1_Kings 17:12), and "a [round] cake of barley bread" (Judges 7:13). In Lev. 2 is a list of the different kinds of bread and cakes which were fit for offerings.

Calah

One of the most ancient cities of Assyria. "Out of that land he [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and builded Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Genesis 10:11, R.V.). Its site is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of the Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are second only in size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite Mosul. This city was at one time the capital of the empire, and was the residence of Sardanapalus and his successors down to the time of Sargon, who built a new capital, the modern Khorsabad. It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned in Genesis 10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh (q.v.).

Calamus

The Latin for cane, Hebrew Kaneh , mentioned (Exodus 30:23) as one of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil, one of the sweet scents (Song_of_Solomon 4:14), and among the articles sold in the markets of Tyre (Ezekiel 27:19). The word designates an Oriental plant called the "sweet flag," the Acorus calamus of Linnaeus. It is elsewhere called "sweet cane" (Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20). It has an aromatic smell, and when its knotted stalk is cut and dried and reduced to powder, it forms an ingredient in the most precious perfumes. It was not a native of Palestine, but was imported from Arabia Felix or from India. It was probably that which is now known in India by the name of "lemon grass" or "ginger grass," the Andropogon schoenanthus. (See CANE.)

Calcol

(1_Chronicles 2:6), sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol (1_Kings 4:31), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom; for "he was wiser than all men."

Caleb

A dog. (1.) One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. He is also called Chelubai (1_Chronicles 2:9). His descendants are enumerated (1_Chronicles 2:18, 1_Chronicles 2:42).

(2.) A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" (1_Chronicles 2:50). Some would read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list in 1_Chronicles 2:42] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc." Thus Hur would be the name of the son and not the father of Caleb (1_Chronicles 2:19).

(3.) The son of Jephunneh (Numbers 13:6; Numbers 32:12; Joshua 14:6, Joshua 14:14). He was one of those whom Moses sent to search the land in the second year after the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of the tribe of Judah. He and Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the whole number who encouraged the people to go up and possess the land, and they alone were spared when a plague broke out in which the other ten spies perished (Num. 13; 14). All the people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward, perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we have of Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he came to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had gained possession of the land, and reminded him of the promise Moses had made to him, by virtue of which he claimed a certain portion of the land of Kirjatharba as his inheritance (Joshua 14:6; Joshua 15:13; Joshua 21:10; 1_Samuel 25:2, 1_Samuel 25:3; 1_Samuel 30:14). He is called a "Kenezite" in Joshua 14:6, Joshua 14:14. This may simply mean "son of Kenez" (Numbers 32:12). Some, however, read "Jephunneh, the son of Kenez," who was a descendant of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a grandson of Judah (1_Chronicles 2:5). This Caleb may possibly be identical with (2).

(4.) Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south country (1_Samuel 30:14) of Judah, the district between Hebron and Carmel, which had been assigned to him. When he gave up the city of Hebron to the priests as a city of refuge, he retained possession of the surrounding country (Joshua 21:11, Joshua 21:12; compare 1_Samuel 25:3).

Calf

Calves were commonly made use of in sacrifices, and are therefore frequently mentioned in Scripture. The "fatted calf" was regarded as the choicest of animal food; it was frequently also offered as a special sacrifice (1_Samuel 28:24; Amos 6:4; Gospel of Luke 15:23). The words used in Jeremiah 34:18, Jeremiah 34:19, "cut the calf in twain," allude to the custom of dividing a sacrifice into two parts, between which the parties ratifying a covenant passed (Genesis 15:9, Genesis 15:10, Genesis 15:17, Genesis 15:18).

The sacrifice of the lips, i.e., priase, is called "the calves of our lips" (Hosea 14:2, R.V., "as bullocks the offering of our lips." Compare Hebrews 13:15; Psalms 116:7; Jeremiah 33:11). The golden calf which Aaron made (Exodus 32:4) was probably a copy of the god Moloch rather than of the god Apis, the sacred ox or calf of Egypt. The Jews showed all through their history a tendency toward the Babylonian and Canaanitish idolatry rather than toward that of Egypt.

Ages after this, Jeroboam, king of Israel, set up two idol calves, one at Dan, and the other at Bethel, that he might thus prevent the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusalem for worship (1_Kings 12:28). These calves continued to be a snare to the people till teh time of their captivity. The calf at Dan was carried away in the reign of Pekah by Tiglath-pileser, and that at Bethel ten years later, in the reign of Hoshea, by Shalmaneser (2_Kings 15:29; 2_Kings 17:33). This sin of Jeroboam is almost always mentioned along with his name (2_Kings 15:28 etc.).

Calkers

Workmen skilled in stopping the seams of the deck or sides of vessels. The inhabitants of Gebel were employed in such work on Tyrian vessels (Ezekiel 27:9, Ezekiel 27:27; marg., "strengtheners" or "stoppers of chinks").

Call

(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Genesis 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21; Acts 7:59; Acts 9:14; Romans 10:12; 1_Corinthians 1:2).

(2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office (Exodus 31:2; Isaiah 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace (Gospel of Matthew 9:13; Gospel of Matthew 11:28; Gospel of Matthew 22:4).

In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men, to Jews and Gentiles alike (Gospel of Matthew 28:19; Gospel of Mark 16:15; Romans 9:24, Romans 9:25). But this universal call is not inseparably connected with salvation, although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable if they reject it (Gospel of John 3:14; Gospel of Matthew 22:14).

An effectual call is something more than the outward message of the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of the enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit (Gospel of John 16:14; Acts 26:18; Gospel of John 6:44), effectually drawing men to Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth (Gospel of John 6:45; Acts 16:14; Ephesians 1:17).

Calling

A profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1_Corinthians 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Ephesians 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.

Calneh

Fort, one of the four cities founded by Nimrod (Genesis 10:10). It is the modern Niffer, a lofty mound of earth and rubbish situated in the marshes on the left, i.e., the east, bank of the Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and about 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon. It is mentioned as one of the towns with which Tyre carried on trade. It was finally taken and probably destroyed by one of the Assyrian kings (Amos 6:2). It is called Calno (Isaiah 10:9) and Canneh (Ezekiel 27:23).

Calvary

Only in Gospel of Luke 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria , which was used as a translation of the Greek word Kranion , by which the Hebrew word Gulgoleth was interpreted, "the place of a skull." It probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull. It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of our Lord took place outside the city walls (Hebrews 13:11) and near the public thoroughfare. "This thing was not done in a corner." (See GOLGOTHA.)

Camel

From the Hebrew gamal, "to repay" or "requite," as the camel does the care of its master. There are two distinct species of camels, having, however, the common characteristics of being "ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and extensile, the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by claws, the limbs long, the abdomen drawn up, while the neck, long and slender, is bent up and down, the reverse of that of a horse, which is arched." (1.) The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a native of the high table-lands of Central Asia.

(2.) The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek dromos , "a runner" (Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 2:23), has but one hump, and is a native of Western Asia or Africa. The camel was early used both for riding and as a beast of burden (Genesis 24:64; Genesis 37:25), and in war (1_Samuel 30:17; Isaiah 21:7). Mention is made of the camel among the cattle given by Pharaoh to Abraham (Genesis 12:16). Its flesh was not to be eaten, as it was ranked among unclean animals (Leviticus 11:4; Deuteronomy 14:7). Abraham's servant rode on a camel when he went to fetch a wife for Isaac (Genesis 24:10, Genesis 24:11). Jacob had camels as a portion of his wealth (Genesis 30:43), as Abraham also had (Genesis 24:35). He sent a present of thirty milch camels to his brother Esau (Genesis 32:15). It appears to have been little in use among the Jews after the conquest. It is, however, mentioned in the history of David (1_Chronicles 27:30), and after the Exile (Ezra 2:67; Nehemiah 7:69). Camels were much in use among other nations in the East.

The queen of Sheba came with a caravan of camels when she came to see the wisdom of Solomon (1_Kings 10:2; 2_Chronicles 9:1). Benhadad of Damascus also sent a present to Elisha, "forty camels' burden" (2_Kings 8:9). To show the difficulty in the way of a rich man's entering into the kingdom, our Lord uses the proverbial expression that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle (Gospel of Matthew 19:24). To strain at (rather, out) a gnat and swallow a camel was also a proverbial expression (Gospel of Matthew 23:24), used with reference to those who were careful to avoid small faults, and yet did not hesitate to commit the greatest sins. The Jews carefully filtered their wine before drinking it, for fear of swallowing along with it some insect forbidden in the law as unclean, and yet they omitted openly the "weightier matters" of the law. The raiment worn by John the Baptist was made of camel's hair (Gospel of Matthew 3:4; Gospel of Mark 1:6), by which he was distinguished from those who resided in royal palaces and wore soft raiment. This was also the case with Elijah (2_Kings 1:8), who is called "a hairy man," from his wearing such raiment. "This is one of the most admirable materials for clothing; it keeps out the heat, cold, and rain." The "sackcloth" so often alluded to (2_Kings 1:8; Isaiah 15:3; Zechariah 13:4, etc.) was probably made of camel's hair.

Camon

Full of stalks, a place (Judges 10:5) where Jair was buried. It has usually been supposed to have been a city of Gilead, on the east of Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern Tell-el-Kaimun, on the southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of Carmel (Joshua 12:22; 1_Kings 4:12), since it is not at all unlikely that after he became judge, Jair might find it more convenient to live on the west side of Jordan; and that he was buried where he had lived.

Camp

During their journeys across the wilderness, the twelve tribes formed encampments at the different places where they halted (Exodus 16:13; Numbers 2:3). The diagram here given shows the position of the different tribes and the form of the encampment during the wanderings, according to Numbers 1:53; 2:2-31; Numbers 3:29, Numbers 3:35, Numbers 3:38; 10:13-28.

The area of the camp would be in all about 3 square miles. After the Hebrews entered Palestine, the camps then spoken of were exclusively warlike (Joshua 11:5, Joshua 11:7; Judges 5:19, Judges 5:21; Judges 7:1; 1_Samuel 29:1; 1_Samuel 30:9, etc.). Arrangement of the Tribal Camps Dan 62,700 Asher 41,500 Naphtali 53,400 Benjamin 35,400 Judah 74,600 Merarites 3,200 North Manasseh 32,200 Gershonites 2,630 Tabernacle Tent of Meeting Moses-Aaron and Priests Issachar 54,400 Kohathites 2,750 Ephraim 40,500 Zebulun 57,400 Gad 45,650 Simeon 59,300 Reuben 46,500

Camphire

(Heb. copher ), mentioned in Song_of_Solomon 1:14 (R.V., "henna-flowers"); Song_of_Solomon 4:13 (R.V., "henna"), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum. From its leaves is made the peculiar auburn dye with which Eastern women stain their nails and the palms of their hands. It is found only at Engedi, on the shore of the Dead Sea. It is known to botanists by the name Lawsonia alba or inermis, a kind of privet, which grows 6 or 8 feet high. The margin of the Authorized Version of the passages above referred to has "or cypress," not with reference to the conifer so called, but to the circumstance that one of the most highly appreciated species of this plant grew in the island of Cyprus.

Cana

Reedy, a town of Galilee, near Capernaum. Here our Lord wrought his first miracle, the turning of water into wine (Gospel of John 2:1; Gospel of John 4:46). It is also mentioned as the birth-place of Nathanael (Gospel of John 21:2). It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It has been identified with the modern Kana el-Jelil, also called Khurbet Kana, a place 8 or 9 miles north of Nazareth. Others have identified it with Kefr Kenna, which lies on the direct road to the Sea of Galilee, about 5 miles north-east of Nazareth, and 12 in a direct course from Tiberias. It is called "Cana of Galilee," to distinguish it from Cana of Asher (Joshua 19:28).

Canaan

(1.) The fourth son of Ham (Genesis 10:6). His descendants were under a curse in consequence of the transgression of his father (Genesis 9:22). His eldest son, Zidon, was the father of the Sidonians and Phoenicians. He had eleven sons, who were the founders of as many tribes (Genesis 10:15).

(2.) The country which derived its name from the preceding. The name as first used by the Phoenicians denoted only the maritime plain on which Sidon was built. But in the time of Moses and Joshua it denoted the whole country to the west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea (Deuteronomy 11:30). In Joshua 5:12 the LXX. read, "land of the Phoenicians," instead of "land of Canaan." The name signifies "the lowlands," as distinguished from the land of Gilead on the east of Jordan, which was a mountainous district. The extent and boundaries of Canaan are fully set forth in different parts of Scripture (Genesis 10:19; Genesis 17:8; Numbers 13:29; Numbers 34:8). (See CANAANITES, PALESTINE.)

Canaan, The Language of

Mentioned in Isaiah 19:18, denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of the Phoenician language which still survive, which show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the language of the "Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babylon, as well as the Babylonian language, was taught in the Canaanitish schools, and the clay tablets of Babylonian literature were stored in the Canaanitish libraries. Even the Babylonian divinities were borrowed by the Canaanites.

Canaanites

The descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and to have there so-journed for some time. They thence "spread to the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of Taurus. This group was very numerous, and broken up into a great many peoples, as we can judge from the list of nations (Gen. 10), the 'sons of Canaan.'" Six different tribes are mentioned in Exodus 3:8, Exodus 3:17; Exodus 23:23; Exodus 33:2; Exodus 34:11. In Exodus 13:5 the "Perizzites" are omitted.

The "Girgashites" are mentioned in addition to the foregoing in Deuteronomy 7:1; Joshua 3:10. The "Canaanites," as distinguished from the Amalekites, the Anakim, and the Rephaim, were "dwellers in the lowlands" (Numbers 13:29), the great plains and valleys, the richest and most important parts of Palestine. Tyre and Sidon, their famous cities, were the centres of great commercial activity; and hence the name "Canaanite" came to signify a "trader" or "merchant" (Job 41:6; Proverbs 31:24, lit. "Canaanites;" compare Zephaniah 1:11; Ezekiel 17:4).

The name "Canaanite" is also sometimes used to designate the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land in general (Genesis 12:6; Numbers 21:3; Judges 1:10). The Israelites, when they were led to the Promised Land, were commanded utterly to destroy the descendants of Canaan then possessing it (Exodus 23:23; Numbers 33:52, Numbers 33:53; Deuteronomy 20:16, Deuteronomy 20:17). This was to be done "by little and little," lest the beasts of the field should increase (Exodus 23:29; Deuteronomy 7:22, Deuteronomy 7:23). The history of these wars of conquest is given in the Book of Joshua. The extermination of these tribes, however, was never fully carried out. Jerusalem was not taken till the time of David (2_Samuel 5:6, 2_Samuel 5:7).

In the days of Solomon bond-service was exacted from the fragments of the tribes still remaining in the land (1_Kings 9:20, 1_Kings 9:21). Even after the return from captivity survivors of five of the Canaanitish tribes were still found in the land. In the Tell-el-Amarna tablets Canaan is found under the forms of Kinakhna and Kinakhkhi. Under the name of Kanana the Canaanites appear on Egyptian monuments, wearing a coat of mail and helmet, and distinguished by the use of spear and javelin and the battle-axe. They were called Phoenicians by the Greeks and Poeni by the Romans. By race the Canaanites were Semitic. They were famous as merchants and seamen, as well as for their artistic skill. The chief object of their worship was the sun-god, who was addressed by the general name of Baal, "lord." Each locality had its special Baal, and the various local Baals were summed up under the name of Baalim, "lords."

Canaanite

A name given to the apostle Simon (Gospel of Matthew 10:4; Gospel of Mark 3:18). The word here does not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is a translation, or rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac word Kanenyeh (R.V. rendered "Cananaen"), which designates the Jewish sect of the Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere (Gospel of Luke 6:15) "Simon Zelotes;" i.e., Simon of the sect of the Zealots. (See SIMON.)

Candace

The queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isaiah 45:14).

It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare "Pharaoh," "Ptolemy," "Caesar") being a title common to several successive queens. It is probable that Judaism had taken root in Ethiopia at this time, and hence the visit of the queen's treasurer to Jerusalem to keep the feast. There is a tradition that Candace was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia. It is said that he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where he suffered martyrdom. (See PHILIP.)

Candle

Heb. ner , Job 18:6; Job 29:3; Psalms 18:28; Proverbs 24:20, in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Proverbs 20:27), of a Christian example (Gospel of Matthew 5:14, Gospel of Matthew 5:15), and of prosperity (Job 21:17; Proverbs 13:9).

Candlestick

The lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exodus 25:31; Exodus 37:17, and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight.

The tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial light was needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which, however, served also as a symbol of the church or people of God, who are "the light of the world." The light which "symbolizes the knowledge of God is not the sun or any natural light, but an artificial light supplied with a specially prepared oil; for the knowledge of God is in truth not natural nor common to all men, but furnished over and above nature.&q

ot; This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy Place, opposite the table of shewbread (Exodus 27:21; Exodus 30:7, Exodus 30:8; Leviticus 24:3; 1_Samuel 3:3). It was lighted every evening, and was extinguished in the morning. In the morning the priests trimmed the seven lamps, borne by the seven branches, with golden snuffers, carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Exodus 25:38), and supplying the lamps at the same time with fresh oil. What ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown.

In Solomon's temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place (1_Kings 7:49; 2_Chronicles 4:7). Their structure is not mentioned. They were carried away to Babylon (Jeremiah 52:19).

In the temple erected after the Exile there was again but one candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455). It was recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533), and carried to Constantinople and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally disappeared.

Cane

A tall sedgy plant with a hollow stem, growing in moist places. In Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20, the Hebrew word Kaneh is thus rendered, giving its name to the plant. It is rendered "reed" in 1_Kings 14:15; Job 40:21; Isaiah 19:6; Isaiah 35:7. In Psalms 68:30 the expression "company of spearmen" is in the margin and the Revised Version "beasts of the reeds," referring probably to the crocodile or the hippopotamus as a symbol of Egypt. In 2_Kings 18:21; Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 29:6, Ezekiel 29:7, the reference is to the weak, fragile nature of the reed. (See CALAMUS.)

Canker

A gangrene or mortification which gradually spreads over the whole body (2_Timothy 2:17). In James 5:3 "cankered" means "rusted" (R.V.) or tarnished.

Cankerworm

Heb. yelek ), "the licking locust," which licks up the grass of the field; probably the locust at a certain stage of its growth, just as it emerges from the caterpillar state (Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25). The word is rendered "caterpillar" in Psalms 105:34; Jeremiah 51:14, Jeremiah 51:17 (but R.V. "canker-worm"). "It spoileth and fleeth away" (Nahum 3:16), or as some read the passage, "The cankerworm putteth off [i.e., the envelope of its wings], and fleeth away."

Canneh

Mentioned only in Ezekiel 27:23. (See CALNEH.)

Canon

This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a reed or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to keep straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or measured. It came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote that they contained the authoritative rule of faith and practice, the standard of doctrine and duty. A book is said to be of canonical authority when it has a right to take a place with the other books which contain a revelation of the Divine will. Such a right does not arise from any ecclesiastical authority, but from the evidence of the inspired authorship of the book. The canonical (i.e., the inspired) books of the Old and New Testaments, are a complete rule, and the only rule, of faith and practice. They contain the whole supernatural revelation of God to men. The New Testament Canon was formed gradually under divine guidance. The different books as they were written came into the possession of the Christian associations which began to be formed soon after the day of Pentecost; and thus slowly the canon increased till all the books were gathered together into one collection containing the whole of the twenty-seven New Testament inspired books. Historical evidence shows that from about the middle of the second century this New Testament collection was substantially such as we now possess. Each book contained in it is proved to have, on its own ground, a right to its place; and thus the whole is of divine authority.

The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament writers. Their evidence is conclusive. The quotations in the New from the Old are very numerous, and the references are much more numerous. These quotations and references by our Lord and the apostles most clearly imply the existence at that time of a well-known and publicly acknowledged collection of Hebrew writings under the designation of "The Scriptures;" "The Law and the Prophets and the Psalms;" "Moses and the Prophets," etc. The appeals to these books, moreover, show that they were regarded as of divine authority, finally deciding all questions of which they treat; and that the whole collection so recognized consisted only of the thirty-nine books which we now posses. Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic the canon of the Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint Version (q.v.) also contained every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. As to the time at which the Old Testament canon was closed, there are many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah, immediately after the return from Babylonian exile. (See BIBLE, EZRA, QUOTATIONS.)

Capernaum

Nahum's town, a Galilean city frequently mentioned in the history of our Lord. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. After our Lord's expulsion from Nazareth (Gospel of Matthew 4:13; Luke 4:16-31), Capernaum became his "own city." It was the scene of many acts and incidents of his life (Gospel of Matthew 8:5, Gospel of Matthew 8:14, Gospel of Matthew 8:15; Gospel of Matthew 9:2, Gospel of Matthew 9:10; 15:1-20; Gospel of Mark 1:32, etc.). The impenitence and unbelief of its inhabitants after the many evidences our Lord gave among them of the truth of his mission, brought down upon them a heavy denunciation of judgement (Gospel of Matthew 11:23).

It stood on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The "land of Gennesaret," near, if not in, which it was situated, was one of the most prosperous and crowded districts of Palestine. This city lay on the great highway from Damascus to Acco and Tyre. It has been identified with Tell Hum, about two miles south-west of where the Jordan flows into the lake. Here are extensive ruins of walls and foundations, and also the remains of what must have been a beautiful synagogue, which it is conjectured may have been the one built by the centurion (Gospel of Luke 7:5), in which our Lord frequently taught (Gospel of John 6:59; Gospel of Mark 1:21; Gospel of Luke 4:33). Others have conjectured that the ruins of the city are to be found at Khan Minyeh, some three miles further to the south on the shore of the lake. "If Tell Hum be Capernaum, the remains spoken of are without doubt the ruins of the synagogue built by the Roman centurion, and one of the most sacred places on earth. It was in this building that our Lord gave the well-known discourse in John 6; and it was not without a certain strange feeling that on turning over a large block we found the pot of manna engraved on its face, and remembered the words, 'I am that bread of life: your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.'" The Recovery of Jerusalem.

Caphtor

A chaplet, the original seat of the Philistines (Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7). The name is found written in hieroglyphics in the temple of Kom Ombos in Upper Egypt. But the exact situation of Caphtor is unknown, though it is supposed to be Crete, since the Philistines seem to be meant by the "Cherethites" in 1_Samuel 30:14 (see also 2_Samuel 8:18). It may, however, have been a part of Egypt, the Caphtur in the north Delta, since the Caphtorim were of the same race as the Mizraite people (Genesis 10:14; 1_Chronicles 1:12).

Cappadocia

The easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor. Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1_Peter 1:1). On the day of Pentecost there were Cappadocians at Jerusalem (Acts 2:9).

Captain

(1.) Heb. sar (1_Samuel 22:2; 2_Samuel 23:19). Rendered "chief," Genesis 40:2; Genesis 41:9; rendered also "prince," Daniel 1:7; "ruler," Judges 9:30; "governor," 1_Kings 22:26. This same Hebrew word denotes a military captain (Exodus 18:21; 2_Kings 1:9; Deuteronomy 1:15; 1_Samuel 18:13, etc.), the "captain of the body-guard" (Genesis 37:36; Genesis 39:1; Genesis 41:10; Jeremiah 40:1), or, as the word may be rendered, "chief of the executioners" (marg.).

The officers of the king's body-guard frequently acted as executioners. Nebuzar-adan (Jeremiah 39:13) and Arioch (Daniel 2:14) held this office in Babylon. The "captain of the guard" mentioned in Acts 28:16 was the Praetorian prefect, the commander of the Praetorian troops.

(2.) Another word (Heb. katsin ) so translated denotes sometimes a military (Joshua 10:24; Judges 11:6, Judges 11:11; Isaiah 22:3 "rulers;" Daniel 11:18) and sometimes a civil command, a judge, magistrate, Arab. kady , (Isaiah 1:10; Isaiah 3:6; Micah 3:1, Micah 3:9).

(3.) It is also the rendering of a Hebrew word ( shalish ) meaning "a third man," or "one of three." The LXX. render in plural by tristatai ; i.e., "soldiers fighting from chariots," so called because each war-chariot contained three men, one of whom acted as charioteer while the other two fought (Exodus 14:7; Exodus 15:4; 1_Kings 9:22; compare 2_Kings 9:25). This word is used also to denote the king's body-guard (2_Kings 10:25; 1_Chronicles 12:18; 2_Chronicles 11:11) or aides-de-camp.

(4.) The "captain of the temple" mentioned in Acts 4:1; Acts 5:24 was not a military officer, but superintendent of the guard of priests and Levites who kept watch in the temple by night. (Compare "the ruler of the house of God," 1_Chronicles 9:11; 2_Chronicles 31:13; Nehemiah 11:11.)

(5.) The Captain of our salvation is a name given to our Lord (Hebrews 2:10), because he is the author and source of our salvation, the head of his people, whom he is conducting to glory. The "captain of the Lord's host" (Joshua 5:14, Joshua 5:15) is the name given to that mysterious person who manifested himself to Abraham (Genesis 12:7), and to Moses in the bush (Exodus 3:2, Exodus 3:6, etc.) the Angel of the covenant. (See ANGEL.)

Captive

One taken in war. Captives were often treated with great cruelty and indignity (1_Kings 20:32; Joshua 10:24; Judges 1:7; 2_Samuel 4:12; Judges 8:7; 2_Samuel 12:31; 1_Chronicles 20:3). When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isaiah 20:1; Isaiah 47:3; 2_Chronicles 28:9; Psalms 44:12; Joel 3:3), and exposed to the most cruel treatment (Nahum 3:10; Zechariah 14:2; Esther 3:13; 2_Kings 8:12; Isaiah 13:16, Isaiah 13:18). Captives were sometimes carried away into foreign countries, as was the case with the Jews (Jeremiah 20:5; Jeremiah 39:9, Jeremiah 39:10; Jeremiah 40:7).

Captivity

(1.) Of Israel. The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively invaded by several Assyrian kings. Pul (q.v.) imposed a tribute on Menahem of a thousand talents of silver (2_Kings 15:19, 2_Kings 15:20; 1_Chronicles 5:26) (762 B.C.), and Tiglath-pileser, in the days of Pekah (738 B.C.), carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the inhabitants of Galilee into Assyria (2_Kings 15:29; Isaiah 9:1). Subsequently Shalmaneser invaded Israel and laid siege to Samaria, the capital of the kingdom. During the siege he died, and was succeeded by Sargon, who took the city, and transported the great mass of the people into Assyria (721 B.C.), placing them in Halah and in Habor, and in the cities of the Medes (2_Kings 17:3, 2_Kings 17:5). Samaria was never again inhabited by the Israelites. The families thus removed were carried to distant cities, many of them not far from the Caspian Sea, and their place was supplied by colonists from Babylon and Cuthah, etc. (2_Kings 17:24). Thus terminated the kingdom of the ten tribes, after a separate duration of two hundred and fifty-five years (975-721 B.C.).

Many speculations have been indulged in with reference to these ten tribes. But we believe that all, except the number that probably allied themselves with Judah and shared in their restoration under Cyrus, are finally lost. "Like the dew on the mountain, Like the foam on the river, Like the bubble on the fountain, They are gone, and for ever." (2.) Of Judah. In the third year of Jehoiachim, the eighteenth king of Judah (605 B.C.), Nebuchadnezzar having overcome the Egyptians at Carchemish, advanced to Jerusalem with a great army. After a brief siege he took that city, and carried away the vessels of the sanctuary to Babylon, and dedicated them in the Temple of Belus (2_Kings 24:1; 2_Chronicles 36:6, 2_Chronicles 36:7; Daniel 1:1, Daniel 1:2). He also carried away the treasures of the king, whom he made his vassal. At this time, from which is dated the "seventy years" of captivity (Jer. 25; Daniel 9:1, Daniel 9:2), Daniel and his companions were carried to Babylon, there to be brought up at the court and trained in all the learning of the Chaldeans. After this, in the fifth year of Jehoiakim, a great national fast was appointed (Jeremiah 36:9), during which the king, to show his defiance, cut up the leaves of the book of Jeremiah's prophecies as they were read to him in his winter palace, and threw them into the fire. In the same spirit he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar (2_Kings 24:1), who again a second time (598 B.C.) marched against Jerusalem, and put Jehoiachim to death, placing his son Jehoiachin on the throne in his stead. But Jehoiachin's counsellors displeasing Nebuchadnezzar, he again a third time turned his army against Jerusalem, and carried away to Babylon a second detachment of Jews as captives, to the number of 10,000 (2_Kings 24:13; Jeremiah 24:1; 2_Chronicles 36:10), among whom were the king, with his mother and all his princes and officers, also Ezekiel, who with many of his companions were settled on the banks of the river Chebar (q.v.). He also carried away all the remaining treasures of the temple and the palace, and the golden vessels of the sanctuary.

Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin, was now made king over what remained of the kingdom of Judah, under the name of Zedekiah (2_Kings 24:17; 2_Chronicles 36:10). After a troubled reign of eleven years his kingdom came to an end (2_Chronicles 36:11). Nebuchadnezzar, with a powerful army, besieged Jerusalem, and Zedekiah became a prisoner in Babylon. His eyes were put out, and he was kept in close confinement till his death (2_Kings 25:7). The city was spoiled of all that was of value, and then given up to the flames. The temple and palaces were consumed, and the walls of the city were levelled with the ground (586 B.C.), and all that remained of the people, except a number of the poorest class who were left to till the ground and dress the vineyards, were carried away captives to Babylon. This was the third and last deportation of Jewish captives. The land was now utterly desolate, and was abondoned to anarchy.

In the first year of his reign as king of Babylon (536 B.C.), Cyrus issued a decree liberating the Jewish captives, and permitting them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the city and the temple (2_Chronicles 36:22, 2_Chronicles 36:23; Ezra 1:1; 2). The number of the people forming the first caravan, under Zerubbabel, amounted in all to 42,360 (Ezra 2:64, Ezra 2:65), besides 7,337 men-servants and maid-servants. A considerable number, 12,000 probably, from the ten tribes who had been carried away into Assyria no doubt combined with this band of liberated captives.

At a later period other bands of the Jews returned (1) under Ezra (Ezra 7:7) (458 B.C.), and (2) Nehemiah (Nehemiah 7:66) (445 B.C.). But the great mass of the people remained still in the land to which they had been carried, and became a portion of the Jews of the "dispersion" (Gospel of John 7:35; 1_Peter 1:1). The whole number of the exiles that chose to remain was probably about six times the number of those who returned.

Carbuncle

(Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10; Ezekiel 28:13). Heb. barkath ; LXX. smaragdos ; Vulgate, smaragdus ; Revised Version, marg., " emerald ." The Hebrew word is from a root meaning "to glitter," "lighten," "flash." When held up to the sun, this gem shines like a burning coal, a dark-red glowing coal, and hence is called "carbunculus", i.e., a little coal. It was one of the jewels in the first row of the high priest's breastplate. It has been conjectured by some that the garnet is meant. In Isaiah 54:12 the Hebrew word is 'ekdah , used in the prophetic description of the glory and beauty of the mansions above. Next to the diamond it is the hardest and most costly of all precious stones.

Carcase

Contact with a, made an Israelite ceremonially unclean, and made whatever he touched also unclean, according to the Mosaic law (Haggai 2:13; compare Numbers 19:16, Numbers 19:22; Leviticus 11:39).

Carchemish

Fortress of Chemosh, a city on the west bank of the Euphrates (Jeremiah 46:2; 2_Chronicles 35:20), not, as was once supposed, the Circesium at the confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates, but a city considerably higher up the river, and commanding the ordinary passage of the Euphrates; probably identical with Hierapolis. It was the capital of the kingdom of the northern Hittites. The Babylonian army, under Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, here met and conquered the army of Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt (607 B.C.). It is mentioned in monuments in 1600 B.C. and down to 717 B.C..

Carmel

A park; generally with the article, "the park." (1.) A prominent headland of Central Palestine, consisting of several connected hills extending from the plain of Esdraelon to the sea, a distance of some 12 miles or more. At the east end, in its highest part, it is 1,728 feet high, and at the west end it forms a promontory to the bay of Acre about 600 feet above the sea. It lay within the tribe of Asher. It was here, at the east end of the ridge, at a place called el-Mukhrakah (i.e., the place of burning), that Elijah brought back the people to their allegiance to God, and slew the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18). Here were consumed the "fifties" of the royal guard; and here also Elisha received the visit of the bereaved mother whose son was restored by him to life (2_Kings 4:25). "No mountain in or around Palestine retains its ancient beauty so much as Carmel. Two or three villages and some scattered cottages are found on it; its groves are few but luxuriant; it is no place for crags and precipices or rocks of wild goats; but its surface is covered with a rich and constant verdure." "The whole mountain-side is dressed with blossom, and flowering shrubs, and fragrant herbs." The western extremity of the ridge is, however, more rocky and bleak than the eastern. The head of the bride in Song_of_Solomon 7:5 is compared to Carmel. It is ranked with Bashan on account of its rich pastures (Isaiah 33:9; Jeremiah 50:19; Amos 1:2). The whole ridge is deeply furrowed with rocky ravines filled with dense jungle. There are many caves in its sides, which at one time were inhabited by swarms of monks. These caves are referred to in Amos 9:3. To them Elijah and Elisha often resorted (1_Kings 18:19, 1_Kings 18:42; 2_Kings 2:25). On its north-west summit there is an ancient establishment of Carmelite monks. Vineyards have recently been planted on the mount by the German colonists of Haifa. The modern Arabic name of the mount is Kurmul , but more commonly Jebel Mar Elyas, i.e., Mount St. Elias, from the Convent of Elias.

(2.) A town in the hill country of Judah (Joshua 15:55), the residence of Nabal (1_Samuel 25:2, 1_Samuel 25:5, 1_Samuel 25:7, 1_Samuel 25:40), and the native place of Abigail, who became David's wife (1_Samuel 27:3). Here king Uzziah had his vineyards (2_Chronicles 26:10). The ruins of this town still remain under the name of Kurmul, about 10 miles south-south-east of Hebron, close to those of Maon.

Carmi

Vine-dresser. (1.) The last named of the four sons of Reuben (Genesis 46:9).

(2.) A descendant of Judah (1_Chronicles 4:1). He is elsewhere (1_Chronicles 2:18) called Caleb (q.v.).

(3.) The son of Zimri, and the father of Achan (Joshua 7:1), "the troubler of Israel."

Carnal

Unconverted men are so called (1_Corinthians 3:3). They are represented as of a "carnal mind, which is enmity against God" (Romans 8:6, Romans 8:7). Enjoyments that minister to the wants and desires of man's animal nature are so called (Romans 15:27; 1_Corinthians 9:11). The ceremonial of the Mosaic law is spoken of as "carnal," because it related to things outward, the bodies of men and of animals, and the purification of the flesh (Hebrews 7:16; Hebrews 9:10). The weapons of Christian warfare are "not carnal", that is, they are not of man's device, nor are wielded by human power (2_Corinthians 10:4).

Carpenter

An artificer in stone, iron, and copper, as well as in wood (2_Samuel 5:11; 1_Chronicles 14:1; Gospel of Mark 6:3). The tools used by carpenters are mentioned in 1_Samuel 13:19, 1_Samuel 13:20; Judges 4:21; Isaiah 10:15; Isaiah 44:13. It was said of our Lord, "Is not this the carpenter's son?" (Gospel of Matthew 13:55); also, "Is not this the carpenter?" (Gospel of Mark 6:3). Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some handicraft: Paul was a tentmaker. "In the cities the carpenters would be Greeks, and skilled workmen; the carpenter of a provincial village could only have held a very humble position, and secured a very moderate competence."

Carriage

In the Authorized Version this word is found as the rendering of many different words. In Judges 18:21 it means valuables, wealth, or booty. In Isaiah 46:1 (R.V., "the things that ye carried about") the word means a load for a beast of burden. In 1_Samuel 17:22 and Isaiah 10:28 it is the rendering of a word ("stuff" in 1_Samuel 10:22) meaning implements, equipments, baggage. The phrase in Acts 21:15, "We took up our carriages," means properly, "We packed up our baggage," as in the Revised Version.

Cart

A vehicle moving on wheels, and usually drawn by oxen (2_Samuel 6:3). The Hebrew word thus rendered, 'agalah (1_Samuel 6:7, 1_Samuel 6:8), is also rendered "wagon" (Genesis 45:19). It is used also to denote a war-chariot (Psalms 46:9). Carts were used for the removal of the ark and its sacred utensils (Numbers 7:3, Numbers 7:6). After retaining the ark amongst them for seven months, the Philistines sent it back to the Israelites. On this occasion they set it in a new cart, probably a rude construction, with solid wooden wheels like that still used in Western Asia, which was drawn by two milch cows, which conveyed it straight to Beth-shemesh. A "cart rope," for the purpose of fastening loads on carts, is used (Isaiah 5:18) as a symbol of the power of sinful pleasures or habits over him who indulges them. (See CORD.) In Syria and Palestine wheel-carriages for any other purpose than the conveyance of agricultural produce are almost unknown.

Carve

The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the Jews. They were practised in connection with the construction of the tabernacle and the temple (Exodus 31:2, Exodus 31:5; Exodus 35:33; 1_Kings 6:18, 1_Kings 6:35; Psalms 74:6), as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses (Ex. 28:9-36; Zechariah 3:9; 2_Chronicles 2:7, 2_Chronicles 2:14). Isaiah (Isaiah 44:13) gives a minute description of the process of carying idols of wood.

Casement

A barrier of open-work placed before windows (Proverbs 7:6). In Judges 5:28 the Hebrew word is rendered "lattice," in the LXX. "network," an opening through which cool air is admitted.

Casiphia

Silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo resided (Ezra 8:17); otherwise unknown.

Casluhim

Fortified, a people descended from Mizraim (Genesis 10:14; 1_Chronicles 1:12). Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Palestine.

Cassia

(1.) Hebrew kiddah' , i.e., "split." One of the principal spices of the holy anointing oil (Exodus 30:24), and an article of commerce (Ezekiel 27:19). It is the inner bark of a tree resembling the cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of botanists, and was probably imported from India.

(2.) Hebrew pl. ketzi'oth (Psalms 45:8). Mentioned in connection with myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garments. It was probably prepared from the peeled bark, as the Hebrew word suggests, of some kind of cinnamon.

Castaway

Gr. adokimos , (1_Corinthians 9:27), one regarded as unworthy (R.V., "rejected"); elsewhere rendered "reprobate" (2_Timothy 3:8, etc.); "rejected" (Hebrews 6:8, etc.).

Castle

A military fortress (1_Chronicles 11:7), also probably a kind of tower used by the priests for making known anything discovered at a distance (1_Chronicles 6:54). Castles are also mentioned (Genesis 25:16) as a kind of watch-tower, from which shepherds kept watch over their flocks by night. The "castle" into which the chief captain commanded Paul to be brought was the quarters of the Roman soldiers in the fortress of Antonia (so called by Herod after his patron Mark Antony), which was close to the north-west corner of the temple (Acts 21:34), which it commanded.

Castor and Pollux

The "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the constellation Gemini.

Caterpillar

The consumer. Used in the Old Testament (1_Kings 8:37; 2_Chronicles 6:28; Psalms 78:46; Isaiah 33:4) as the translation of a word (hasil) the root of which means "to devour" or "consume," and which is used also with reference to the locust in Deuteronomy 28:38. It may have been a species of locust, or the name of one of the transformations through which the locust passes, locust-grub. It is also found (Psalms 105:34; Jeremiah 51:14, Jeremiah 51:27; R.V., "cankerworm") as the rendering of a different Hebrew word, yelek, a word elsewhere rendered "cankerworm" (q.v.), Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25. (See LOCUST.)

Catholic Epistles

The epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular.

Cattle

Abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them the inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves (Deuteronomy 8:13; Deuteronomy 12:21; 1_Samuel 11:5; 1_Samuel 12:3; Psalms 144:14; Jeremiah 3:24). They may be classified as (1.) Neat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed in sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in Bashan, beyond Jordan (Numbers 32:4). Large herds also pastured on the wide fertile plains of Sharon. They were yoked to the plough (1_Kings 19:19), and were employed for carrying burdens (1_Chronicles 12:40). They were driven with a pointed rod (Judges 3:31) or goad (q.v.).

According to the Mosaic law, the mouths of cattle employed for the threshing-floor were not to be muzzled, so as to prevent them from eating of the provender over which they trampled (Deuteronomy 25:4). Whosoever stole and sold or slaughtered an ox must give five in satisfaction (Exodus 22:1); but if it was found alive in the possession of him who stole it, he was required to make double restitution only (Exodus 22:4). If an ox went astray, whoever found it was required to bring it back to its owner (Exodus 23:4; Deuteronomy 22:1, Deuteronomy 22:4). An ox and an ass could not be yoked together in the plough (Deuteronomy 22:10).

(2.) Small cattle. Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed the most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of Palestine (Genesis 12:16; Genesis 13:5; Genesis 26:14; Genesis 21:27; Genesis 29:2, Genesis 29:3). They are frequently mentioned among the booty taken in war (Numbers 31:32; Joshua 6:21; 1_Samuel 14:32; 1_Samuel 15:3). There were many who were owners of large flocks (1_Samuel 25:2; 2_Samuel 12:2, compare Job 1:3). Kings also had shepherds "over their flocks" (1_Chronicles 27:31), from which they derived a large portion of their revenue (2_Samuel 17:29; 1_Chronicles 12:40). The districts most famous for their flocks of sheep were the plain of Sharon (Isaiah 65:10), Mount Carmel (Micah 7:14), Bashan and Gilead (Micah 7:14). In patriarchal times the flocks of sheep were sometimes tended by the daughters of the owners. Thus Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept her father's sheep (Genesis 29:9); as also Zipporah and her six sisters had charge of their father Jethro's flocks (Exodus 2:16). Sometimes they were kept by hired shepherds (Gospel of John 10:12), and sometimes by the sons of the family (1_Samuel 16:11; 1_Samuel 17:15). The keepers so familiarized their sheep with their voices that they knew them, and followed them at their call. Sheep, but more especially rams and lambs, were frequently offered in sacrifice. The shearing of sheep was a great festive occasion (1_Samuel 25:4; 2_Samuel 13:23). They were folded at night, and guarded by their keepers against the attacks of the lion (Micah 5:8), the bear (1_Samuel 17:34), and the wolf (Gospel of Matthew 10:16; Gospel of John 10:12). They were liable to wander over the wide pastures and go astray (Psalms 119:176; Isaiah 53:6; Hosea 4:16; Gospel of Matthew 18:12).

Goats also formed a part of the pastoral wealth of Palestine (Genesis 15:9; Genesis 32:14; Genesis 37:31). They were used both for sacrifice and for food (Deuteronomy 14:4), especially the young males (Genesis 27:9, Genesis 27:14, Genesis 27:17; Judges 6:19; Judges 13:15; 1_Samuel 16:20). Goat's hair was used for making tent cloth (Exodus 26:7; Exodus 36:14), and for mattresses and bedding (1_Samuel 19:13, 1_Samuel 19:16). (See GOAT.)

Caul

(Heb. yothe'reth ; i.e., "something redundant"), the membrane which covers the upper part of the liver (Exodus 29:13, Exodus 29:22; Leviticus 3:4, Leviticus 3:10, Leviticus 3:15; Leviticus 4:9; Leviticus 7:4; marg., "midriff"). In Hosea 13:8 (Heb. seghor ; i.e., "an enclosure") the pericardium, or parts about the heart, is meant.

Cauls

In Isaiah 3:18 this word (Heb. shebisim ), in the marg. "networks," denotes network caps to contain the hair, worn by females. Others explain it as meaning "wreaths worn round the forehead, reaching from one ear to the other."

Causeway

A raised way, an ascent by steps, or a raised slope between Zion and the temple (1_Chronicles 26:16, 1_Chronicles 26:18). In 2_Chronicles 9:11 the same word is translated "terrace."

Cave

There are numerous natural caves among the limestone rocks of Syria, many of which have been artificially enlarged for various purposes.

The first notice of a cave occurs in the history of Lot (Genesis 19:30).

The next we read of is the cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth (Genesis 25:9, Genesis 25:10). It was the burying-place of Sarah and of Abraham himself, also of Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob (Genesis 49:31; Genesis 50:13).

The cave of Makkedah, into which the five Amorite kings retired after their defeat by Joshua (Joshua 10:16, Joshua 10:27).

The cave of Adullam (q.v.), an immense natural cavern, where David hid himself from Saul (1_Samuel 22:1, 1_Samuel 22:2).

The cave of Engedi (q.v.), now called 'Ain Jidy , i.e., the "Fountain of the Kid", where David cut off the skirt of Saul's robe (1_Samuel 24:4). Here he also found a shelter for himself and his followers to the number of 600 (1_Samuel 23:29; 1_Samuel 24:1). "On all sides the country is full of caverns which might serve as lurking-places for David and his men, as they do for outlaws at the present day.&q

ot; The cave in which Obadiah hid the prophets (1_Kings 18:4) was probably in the north, but it cannot be identified.

The cave of Elijah (1_Kings 19:9), and the "cleft" of Moses on Horeb (Exodus 33:22), cannot be determined.

In the time of Gideon the Israelites took refuge from the Midianites in dens and caves, such as abounded in the mountain regions of Manasseh (Judges 6:2).

Caves were frequently used as dwelling-places (Numbers 24:21; Song_of_Solomon 2:14; Jeremiah 49:16; Obadiah 1:3). "The excavations at Deir Dubban, on the south side of the wady leading to Santa Hanneh, are probably the dwellings of the Horites," the ancient inhabitants of Idumea Proper. The pits or cavities in rocks were also sometimes used as prisons (Isaiah 24:22; Isaiah 51:14; Zechariah 9:11). Those which had niches in their sides were occupied as burying-places (Ezekiel 32:23; Gospel of John 11:38).

Cedar

(Heb. e'rez , Gr. kedros , Lat. cedrus ), a tree very frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was stately (Ezekiel 31:3), long-branched (Psalms 80:10; Psalms 92:12; Ezekiel 31:6), odoriferous (Song_of_Solomon 4:11; Hosea 14:6), durable, and therefore much used for boards, pillars, and ceilings (1_Kings 6:9, 1_Kings 6:10; 1_Kings 7:2; Jeremiah 22:14), for masts (Ezekiel 27:5), and for carved images (Isaiah 44:14).

It grew very abundantly in Palestine, and particularly on Lebanon, of which it was "the glory" (Isaiah 35:2; Isaiah 60:13). Hiram supplied Solomon with cedar trees from Lebanon for various purposes connected with the construction of the temple and the king's palace (2_Samuel 5:11; 2_Samuel 7:2, 2_Samuel 7:7; 1_Kings 5:6, 1_Kings 5:8, 1_Kings 5:10; 1_Kings 6:9, 1_Kings 6:10, 1_Kings 6:15, 1_Kings 6:16, 1_Kings 6:18, 1_Kings 6:20; 1_Kings 7:2, 1_Kings 7:3, 1_Kings 7:7, 1_Kings 7:11, 1_Kings 7:12; 1_Kings 9:11, etc.). Cedars were used also in the building of the second temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:7).

Of the ancient cedars of Lebanon there remain now only some seven or eight. They are not standing together. But beside them there are found between three hundred and four hundred of younger growth. They stand in an amphitheatre fronting the west, about 6,400 feet above the level of the sea.

The cedar is often figuratively alluded to in the sacred Scriptures. "The mighty conquerors of olden days, the despots of Assyria and the Pharaohs of Egypt, the proud and idolatrous monarchs of Judah, the Hebrew commonwealth itself, the warlike Ammonites of patriarchal times, and the moral majesty of the Messianic age, are all compared to the towering cedar, in its royal loftiness and supremacy (Isaiah 2:13; Ezekiel 17:3, Ezekiel 17:22, Ezekiel 17:23, Ezekiel 31:3; Amos 2:9; Zechariah 11:1, Zechariah 11:2; Job 40:17; Psalms 29:5; Psalms 80:10; Psalms 92:12, etc).", Groser's Scrip. Nat. Hist. (See BOX-TREE.)

Cedron

The black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem (Gospel of John 18:1). (See KIDRON.)

Ceiling

The covering (1_Kings 7:3, 1_Kings 7:7) of the inside roof and walls of a house with planks of wood (2_Chronicles 3:5; Jeremiah 22:14). Ceilings were sometimes adorned with various ornaments in stucco, gold, silver, gems, and ivory. The ceilings of the temple and of Solomon's palace are described 1_Kings 6:9, 1_Kings 6:15; 1_Kings 7:3; 2_Chronicles 3:5, 2_Chronicles 3:9.

Cellar

A subterranean vault (1_Chronicles 27:28), a storehouse. The word is also used to denote the treasury of the temple (1_Kings 7:51) and of the king (1_Kings 14:26). The Hebrew word is rendered "garner" in Joel 1:17, and "armoury" in Jeremiah 50:25.

Cenchrea

Millet, the eastern harbour of Corinth, from which it was distant about 9 miles east, and the outlet for its trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean. When Paul returned from his second missionary journey to Syria, he sailed from this port (Acts 18:18). In Romans 16:1 he speaks as if there were at the time of his writing that epistle an organized church there. The western harbour of Corinth was Lechaeum, about a mile and a half from the city. It was the channel of its trade with Italy and the west.

Censer

The vessel in which incense was presented on "the golden altar" before the Lord in the temple (Exodus 30:1). The priest filled the censer with live coal from the sacred fire on the altar of burnt-offering, and having carried it into the sanctuary, there threw upon the burning coals the sweet incense (Leviticus 16:12, Leviticus 16:13), which sent up a cloud of smoke, filling the apartment with fragrance. The censers in daily use were of brass (Numbers 16:39), and were designated by a different Hebrew name, miktereth (2_Chronicles 26:19; Ezekiel 8:11): while those used on the day of Atonement were of gold, and were denoted by a word (mahtah) meaning "something to take fire with;" LXX. pureion = a fire-pan. Solomon prepared for the temple censers of pure gold (1_Kings 7:50; 2_Chronicles 4:22). The angel in the Apocalypse is represented with a golden censer (Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:5). Paul speaks of the golden censer as belonging to the tabernacle (Hebrews 9:4).

The Greek word thumiaterion , here rendered "censer," may more appropriately denote, as in the margin of Revised Version, "the altar of incense." Paul does not here say that the thumiaterion was in the holiest, for it was in the holy place, but that the holiest had it, i.e., that it belonged to the holiest (1_Kings 6:22). It was intimately connected with the high priest's service in the holiest. The manner in which the censer is to be used is described in Numbers 4:14; Leviticus 16:12.

Census

There are five instances of a census of the Jewish people having been taken. (1.) In the fourth month after the Exodus, when the people were encamped at Sinai. The number of men from twenty years old and upward was then 603,550 (Exodus 38:26). (2.) Another census was made just before the entrance into Canaan, when the number was found to be 601,730, showing thus a small decrease (Numbers 26:51). (3.) The next census was in the time of David, when the number, exclusive of the tribes of Levi and Benjamin, was found to be 1,300,000 (2_Samuel 24:9; 1_Chronicles 21:5). (4.) Solomon made a census of the foreigners in the land, and found 153,600 ablebodied workmen (2_Chronicles 2:17, 2_Chronicles 2:18). (5.) After the return from Exile the whole congregation of Israel was numbered,and found to amount to 42,360 (Ezra 2:64). A census was made by the Roman government in the time of our Lord (Gospel of Luke 2:1). (See TAXING.)

Centurion

A Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Gospel of Mark 15:39, Gospel of Mark 15:44, Gospel of Mark 15:45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts 10:1, Acts 10:22). Other centurions are mentioned in Gospel of Matthew 8:5, Gospel of Matthew 8:8, Gospel of Matthew 8:13; Gospel of Luke 7:2, Gospel of Luke 7:6; Acts 21:32; Acts 22:25, Acts 22:26; Acts 23:17, Acts 23:23; Acts 24:23; Acts 27:1, Acts 27:6, Acts 27:11, Acts 27:31, Acts 27:43; Acts 28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our Lord (Gospel of Matthew 27:54; Gospel of Luke 23:47), and when he saw the wonders attending it, exclaimed, "Truly this man was the Son of God." "The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly spoken of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the Acts. It is interesting to compare this with the statement of Polybius (vi. 24), that the centurions were chosen by merit, and so were men remarkable not so much for their daring courage as for their deliberation, constancy, and strength of mind.", Dr. Maclear's N. T. Hist.

Cephas

A Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon (Gospel of John 1:42), meaning "rock." The Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by Petrus.

Cesarea

See CAESAREA.

Chaff

The refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned (Exodus 15:7; Isaiah 5:24; Gospel of Matthew 3:12). This word sometimes, however, means dried grass or hay (Isaiah 5:24; Isaiah 33:11). Chaff is used as a figure of abortive wickedness (Psalms 1:4; Gospel of Matthew 3:12). False doctrines are also called chaff (Jeremiah 23:28), or more correctly rendered "chopped straw." The destruction of the wicked, and their powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of chaff by the wind (Isaiah 17:13; Hosea 13:3; Zephaniah 2:2).

Chain

(1.) A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was placed about Joseph's neck (Genesis 41:42); and one was promised to Daniel (Daniel 5:7). It is used as a symbol of sovereignty (Ezekiel 16:11). The breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the ephod by golden chains (Exodus 39:17, Exodus 39:21).

(2.) It was used as an ornament (Proverbs 1:9; Song_of_Solomon 1:10). The Midianites adorned the necks of their camels with chains (Judges 8:21, Judges 8:26).

(3.) Chains were also used as fetters wherewith prisoners were bound (Judges 16:21; 2_Samuel 3:34; 2_Kings 25:7; Jeremiah 39:7). Paul was in this manner bound to a Roman soldier (Acts 28; 20; Ephesians 6:20; 2_Timothy 1:16). Sometimes, for the sake of greater security, the prisoner was attached by two chains to two soldiers, as in the case of Peter (Acts 12:6).

Chalcedony

Mentioned only in Revelation 21:19, as one of the precious stones in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew nophekh, translated "emerald" (Exodus 28:18; Exodus 39:11; Ezekiel 27:16; Ezekiel 28:13). It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX., and "carbunculus" in the Vulgate. (See CARBUNCLE.)

Chaldea

The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. The Hebrew name is Kasdim, which is usually rendered "Chaldeans" (Jeremiah 50:10; Jeremiah 51:24, Jeremiah 51:35).

The country so named is a vast plain formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending to about 400 miles along the course of these rivers, and about 100 miles in average breadth. "In former days the vast plains of Babylon were nourished by a complicated system of canals and water-courses, which spread over the surface of the country like a network. The wants of a teeming population were supplied by a rich soil, not less bountiful than that on the banks of the Egyptian Nile. Like islands rising from a golden sea of waving corn stood frequent groves of palmtrees and pleasant gardens, affording to the idler or traveller their grateful and highly-valued shade. Crowds of passengers hurried along the dusty roads to and from the busy city. The land was rich in corn and wine.&q

ot; Recent discoveries, more especially in Babylonia, have thrown much light on the history of the Hebrew patriarchs, and have illustrated or confirmed the Biblical narrative in many points. The ancestor of the Hebrew people, Abram, was, we are told, born at "Ur of the Chaldees." "Chaldees" is a mistranslation of the Hebrew Kasdim, Kasdim being the Old Testament name of the Babylonians, while the Chaldees were a tribe who lived on the shores of the Persian Gulf, and did not become a part of the Babylonian population till the time of Hezekiah. Ur was one of the oldest and most famous of the Babylonian cities. Its site is now called Mugheir, or Mugayyar, on the western bank of the Euphrates, in Southern Babylonia. About a century before the birth of Abram it was ruled by a powerful dynasty of kings. Their conquests extended to Elam on the one side, and to the Lebanon on the other. They were followed by a dynasty of princes whose capital was Babylon, and who seem to have been of South Arabian origin. The founder of the dynasty was Sumu-abi ("Shem is my father"). But soon afterwards Babylonia fell under Elamite dominion. The kings of Babylon were compelled to acknowledge the supremacy of Elam, and a rival kingdom to that of Babylon, and governed by Elamites, sprang up at Larsa, not far from Ur, but on the opposite bank of the river. In the time of Abram the king of Larsa was Eri-Aku, the son of an Elamite prince, and Eri-Aku, as has long been recognized, is the Biblical "Arioch king of Ellasar" (Genesis 14:1). The contemporaneous king of Babylon in the north, in the country termed Shinar in Scripture, was Khammu-rabi. (See BABYLON; ABRAHAM; AMRAPHEL.)

Chaldee Language

Employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old Testament, viz., Daniel 2:4, Daniel 2:28; Ezra 4:8-6:18; Ezra 7:12; Genesis 31:46; Jeremiah 10:11. It is the Aramaic dialect, as it is sometimes called, as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect. It was the language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia, and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular language of Palestine. It is called "Syrian" in 2_Kings 18:26. Some isolated words in this language are preserved in the New Testament (Gospel of Matthew 5:22; Gospel of Matthew 6:24; Gospel of Matthew 16:17; Gospel of Matthew 27:46; Gospel of Mark 3:17; Gospel of Mark 5:41; Gospel of Mark 7:34; Gospel of Mark 14:36; Acts 1:19; 1_Corinthians 16:22). These are specimens of the vernacular language of Palestine at that period. The term "Hebrew" was also sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had become the language of the Hebrews (Gospel of John 5:2; Gospel of John 19:20).

Chaldees

Or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon was the capital. They were so called till the time of the Captivity (2 Kings 25; Isaiah 13:19; Isaiah 23:13), when, particularly in the Book of Daniel (Daniel 5:30; Daniel 9:1), the name began to be used with special reference to a class of learned men ranked with the magicians and astronomers. These men cultivated the ancient Cushite language of the original inhabitants of the land, for they had a "learning" and a "tongue" (Daniel 1:4) of their own. The common language of the country at that time had become assimilated to the Semitic dialect, especially through the influence of the Assyrians, and was the language that was used for all civil purposes. The Chaldeans were the learned class, interesting themselves in science and religion, which consisted, like that of the ancient Arabians and Syrians, in the worship of the heavenly bodies. There are representations of this priestly class, of magi and diviners, on the walls of the Assyrian palaces.

Chamber

"On the wall," which the Shunammite prepared for the prophet Elisha (2_Kings 4:10), was an upper chamber over the porch through the hall toward the street. This was the "guest chamber" where entertainments were prepared (Gospel of Mark 14:14). There were also "chambers within chambers" (1_Kings 22:25; 2_Kings 9:2). To enter into a chamber is used metaphorically of prayer and communion with God (Isaiah 26:20). The "chambers of the south" (Job 9:9) are probably the constelations of the southern hemisphere. The "chambers of imagery", i.e., chambers painted with images, as used by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 8:12), is an expression denoting the vision the prophet had of the abominations practised by the Jews in Jerusalem.

Chambering

(Romans 13:13), wantonness, impurity.

Chamberlain

A confidential servant of the king (Genesis 37:36; Genesis 39:1). In Romans 16:23 mention is made of "Erastus the chamberlain." Here the word denotes the treasurer of the city, or the qucestor, as the Romans styled him. He is almost the only convert from the higher ranks of whom mention is made (compare Acts 17:34). Blastus, Herod's "chamberlain" (Acts 12:20), was his personal attendant or valet-de-chambre. The Hebrew word saris, thus translated in Esther 1:10, Esther 1:15; Esther 2:3, Esther 2:14, Esther 2:21, etc., properly means an eunuch (as in the marg.), as it is rendered in Isaiah 39:7; Isaiah 56:3.

Chameleon

A species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Leviticus 11:30, where the Hebrew word so translated is coah (R.V., "land crocodile"). In the same verse the Hebrew tanshemeth, rendered in Authorized Version "mole" is in Revised Version "chameleon," which is the correct rendering. This animal is very common in Egypt and in the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan valley.

Chamois

Only in Deuteronomy 14:5 (Heb. zemer ), an animal of the deer or gazelle species. It bears this Hebrew name from its leaping or springing. The animal intended is probably the wild sheep (Ovis tragelephus), which is still found in Sinai and in the broken ridges of Stony Arabia. The LXX. and Vulgate render the word by camelopardus, i.e., the giraffe; but this is an animal of Central Africa, and is not at all known in Syria.

Champion

(1_Samuel 17:4, 1_Samuel 17:23), properly "the man between the two," denoting the position of Goliath between the two camps. Single combats of this kind at the head of armies were common in ancient times. In 1_Samuel 17:51 this word is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and properly denotes "a mighty man."

Chance

(Gospel of Luke 10:31). "It was not by chance that the priest came down by that road at that time, but by a specific arrangement and in exact fulfilment of a plan; not the plan of the priest, nor the plan of the wounded traveller, but the plan of God. By coincidence (Gr. sungkuria ) the priest came down, that is, by the conjunction of two things, in fact, which were previously constituted a pair in the providence of God. In the result they fell together according to the omniscient Designer's plan. This is the true theory of the divine government." Compare the meeting of Philip with the Ethiopian (Acts 8:26, Acts 8:27). There is no "chance" in God's empire. "Chance" is only another word for our want of knowledge as to the way in which one event falls in with another (1_Samuel 6:9; Ecclesiastes 9:11).

Chancellor

One who has judicial authority, literally, a "lord of judgement;" a title given to the Persian governor of Samaria (Ezra 4:8, Ezra 4:9, Ezra 4:17).

Changes of Raiment

Were reckoned among the treasures of rich men (Genesis 45:22; Judges 14:12, Judges 14:13; 2_Kings 5:22, 2_Kings 5:23).

Channel

(1.) The bed of the sea or of a river (Psalms 18:15; Isaiah 8:7).

(2.) The "chanelbone" (Job 31:22 marg.), properly "tube" or "shaft," an old term for the collar-bone.

Chapel

A holy place or sanctuary, occurs only in Amos 7:13, where one of the idol priests calls Bethel "the king's chapel."

Chapiter

The ornamental head or capital of a pillar. Three Hebrew words are so rendered. (1.) Cothereth (1_Kings 7:16; 2_Kings 25:17; 2_Chronicles 4:12), meaning a "diadem" or "crown." (2.) Tzepheth (2_Chronicles 3:15). (3.) Rosh (Exodus 36:38; Exodus 38:17, Exodus 38:19, Exodus 38:28), properly a "head" or "top."

Chapter

The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an early time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by the ancient Hebrews into 54 parshioth or sections, one of which was read in the synagogue every Sabbath day (Acts 13:15). These sections were afterwards divided into 669 sidrim or orders of unequal length. The Prophets were divided in somewhat the same manner into haphtaroth or passages.

In the early Latin and Greek versions of the Bible, similar divisions of the several books were made. The New Testament books were also divided into portions of various lengths under different names, such as titles and heads or chapters.

In modern times this ancient example was imitated, and many attempts of the kind were made before the existing division into chapters was fixed. The Latin Bible published by Cardinal Hugo of St. Cher in A.D. 1240 is generally regarded as the first Bible that was divided into our present chapters, although it appears that some of the chapters were fixed as early as A.D. 1059. This division into chapters came gradually to be adopted in the published editions of the Hebrew, with some few variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other versions.

Charashim

Craftsmen, a valleynamed in 1_Chronicles 4:14. In Nehemiah 11:35 the Hebrew word is rendered "valley of craftsmen" (R.V. marg., Geha-rashim). Nothing is known of it.

Charger

A bowl or deep dish. The silver vessels given by the heads of the tribes for the services of the tabernacle are so named (Numbers 7:13, etc.). The "charger" in which the Baptist's head was presented was a platter or flat wooden trencher (Gospel of Matthew 14:8, Gospel of Matthew 14:11; Gospel of Mark 6:25, Gospel of Mark 6:28). The chargers of gold and silver of Ezra 1:9 were probably basins for receiving the blood of sacrifices.

Chariot

A vehicle generally used for warlike purposes. Sometimes, though but rarely, it is spoken of as used for peaceful purposes.

The first mention of the chariot is when Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh's second state chariot (Genesis 41:43); and the next, when he went out in his own chariot to meet his father Jacob (Genesis 46:29). Chariots formed part of the funeral procession of Jacob (Genesis 50:9). When Pharaoh pursued the Israelites he took 600 war-chariots with him (Exodus 14:7). The Canaanites in the valleys of Palestine had chariots of iron (Joshua 17:18; Judges 1:19). Jabin, the king of Canaan, had 900 chariots (Judges 4:3); and in Saul's time the Philistines had 30,000. In his wars with the king of Zobah and with the Syrians, David took many chariots among the spoils (2_Samuel 8:4; 2_Samuel 10:18). Solomon maintained as part of his army 1,400 chariots (1_Kings 10:26), which were chiefly imported from Egypt (1_Kings 10:29). From this time forward they formed part of the armies of Israel (1_Kings 22:34; 2_Kings 9:16, 2_Kings 9:21; 2_Kings 13:7, 2_Kings 13:14; 2_Kings 18:24; 2_Kings 23:30).

In the New Testament we have only one historical reference to the use of chariots, in the case of the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:28, Acts 8:29, Acts 8:38).

This word is sometimes used figuratively for hosts (Psalms 68:17; 2_Kings 6:17). Elijah, by his prayers and his counsel, was "the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof." The rapid agency of God in the phenomena of nature is also spoken of under the similitude of a chariot (Psalms 104:3; Isaiah 66:15; Habakkuk 3:8).

Chariot of the cherubim (1_Chronicles 28:18), the chariot formed by the two cherubs on the mercy-seat on which the Lord rides.

Chariot cities were set apart for storing the war-chariots in time of peace (2_Chronicles 1:14).

Chariot horses were such as were peculiarly fitted for service in chariots (2_Kings 7:14).

Chariots of war are described in Exodus 14:7; 1_Samuel 13:5; 2_Samuel 8:4; 1_Chronicles 18:4; Joshua 11:4; Judges 4:3, Judges 4:13. They were not used by the Israelites till the time of David. Elijah was translated in a "chariot of fire" (2_Kings 2:11). Compare 2_Kings 6:17. This vision would be to Elisha a source of strength and encouragement, for now he could say, "They that be with us are more than they that be with them."

Charity

(1_Corinthians 13:1), the rendering in the Authorized Version of the word which properly denotes love, and is frequently so rendered (always so in the Revised Version). It is spoken of as the greatest of the three Christian graces (1 Cor. 12:31-13:13).

Charmer

One who practises serpent-charming (Psalms 58:5; Jeremiah 8:17; Ecclesiastes 10:11). It was an early and universal opinion that the most venomous reptiles could be made harmless by certain charms or by sweet sounds. It is well known that there are jugglers in India and in other Eastern lands who practise this art at the present day.

In Isaiah 19:3 the word "charmers" is the rendering of the Hebrew 'ittim , meaning, properly, necromancers (R.V. marg., "whisperers"). In Deuteronomy 18:11 the word "charmer" means a dealer in spells, especially one who, by binding certain knots, was supposed thereby to bind a curse or a blessing on its object. In Isaiah 3:3 the words "eloquent orator" should be, as in the Revised Version, "skilful enchanter."

Charran

Another form (Acts 7:2, Acts 7:4) of Haran (q.v.).

Chebar

Length, a river in the "land of the Chaldeans" (Ezekiel 1:3), on the banks of which were located some of the Jews of the Captivity (Ezekiel 1:1; Ezekiel 3:15, Ezekiel 3:23; Ezekiel 10:15, Ezekiel 10:20, Ezekiel 10:22). It has been supposed to be identical with the river Habor, the Chaboras, or modern Khabour, which falls into the Euphrates at Circesium. To the banks of this river some of the Israelites were removed by the Assyrians (2_Kings 17:6). An opinion that has much to support it is that the "Chebar" was the royal canal of Nebuchadnezzar, the Nahr Malcha, the greatest in Mesopotamia, which connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, in the excavation of which the Jewish captives were probably employed.

Chedorlaomer

(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Palestine. The kings of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once South Arabic and Hebrew. The most famous king of the dynasty was Khammu-rabi, who united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne, the country was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku ("the servant of the moongod"), the son of an Elamite prince, KudurMabug, who is entitled "the father of the land of the Amorites." A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar ("the servant of the goddess Lagamar") or Chedorlaomer, Eri-Aku or Arioch, and Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia. Assur-bani-pal, the last of the Assyrian conquerors, mentions in two inscriptions that he took Susa 1635 years after Kedor-nakhunta, king of Elam, had conquered Babylonia. It was in the year 660 B.C. that Assur-bani-pal took Susa.

Cheek

Smiting on the cheek was accounted a grievous injury and insult (Job 16:10; Lamentations 3:30; Micah 5:1). The admonition (Gospel of Luke 6:29), "Unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other," means simply, "Resist not evil" (Gospel of Matthew 5:39; 1_Peter 2:19). Psalms 3:7 = that God had deprived his enemies of the power of doing him injury.

Cheese

(A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (1.) 1_Samuel 17:18, "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd. (2.) 2_Samuel 17:29, "cheese of kine" = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The Vulgate version reads "fat calves." Job 10:10, curdled milk is meant by the word. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (a.) 1_Samuel 17:18, "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd. (b.) 2_Samuel 17:29, "cheese of kine" = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The Vulgate version reads "fat calves." (c.) Job 10:10, curdled milk is meant by the word.

Chemarim

Black, (Zephaniah 1:4; rendered "idolatrous priests" in 2_Kings 23:5, and "priests" in Hosea 10:5). Some derive this word from the Assyrian Kamaru, meaning "to throw down," and interpret it as describing the idolatrous priests who prostrate themselves before the idols. Others regard it as meaning "those who go about in black." or "ascetics."

Chemosh

The destroyer, subduer, or fishgod, the god of the Moabites (Numbers 21:29; Jeremiah 48:7, Jeremiah 48:13, Jeremiah 48:46). The worship of this god, "the abomination of Moab," was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon (1_Kings 11:7), but was abolished by Josiah (2_Kings 23:13). On the "Moabite Stone" (q.v.), Mesha (2_Kings 3:5) ascribes his victories over the king of Israel to this god, "And Chemosh drove him before my sight."

Chenaanah

Merchant. (1.) A Benjamite (1_Chronicles 7:10). (2.) The father of Zedekiah (1_Kings 22:11, 1_Kings 22:24).

Chenaiah

Whom Jehovah hath made, "chief of the Levites," probably a Kohathite (1_Chronicles 15:22), and therefore not the same as mentioned in 1_Chronicles 26:29.

Chephirah

Village, one of the four cities of the Gibeonitish Hivites with whom Joshua made a league (1_Chronicles 9:17). It belonged to Benjamin. It has been identified with the modern Kefireh, on the west confines of Benjamin, about 2 miles west of Ajalon and 11 from Jerusalem.

Cherethim

(Ezekiel 25:16), more frequently Cherethites, the inhabitants of Southern Philistia, the Philistines (Zephaniah 2:5). The Cherethites and the Pelethites were David's life-guards (1_Samuel 30:14; 2_Samuel 8:18; 2_Samuel 20:7, 2_Samuel 20:23; 2_Samuel 23:23). This name is by some interpreted as meaning "Cretans," and by others "executioners," who were ready to execute the king's sentence of death (Genesis 37:36, marg.; 1_Kings 2:25).

Cherith

A cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream, a "brook," in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three years' drought (1_Kings 17:3, 1_Kings 17:5). It has by some been identified as the Wady el-Kelt behind Jericho, which is formed by the junction of many streams flowing from the mountains west of Jericho. It is dry in summer. Travellers have described it as one of the wildest ravines of this wild region, and peculiarly fitted to afford a secure asylum to the persecuted. But if the prophet's interview with Ahab was in Samaria, and he thence journeyed toward the east, it is probable that he crossed Jordan and found refuge in some of the ravines of Gilead. The "brook" is said to have been "before Jordan," which probably means that it opened toward that river, into which it flowed. This description would apply to the east as well as to the west of Jordan. Thus Elijah's hiding-place may have been the Jermuk, in the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh.

Cherub

Plural cherubim, the name of certain symbolical figures frequently mentioned in Scripture. They are first mentioned in connection with the expulsion of our first parents from Eden (Genesis 3:24). There is no intimation given of their shape or form. They are next mentioned when Moses was commanded to provide furniture for the tabernacle (Exodus 25:17; Exodus 26:1, Exodus 26:31). God promised to commune with Moses "from between the cherubim" (Exodus 25:22). This expression was afterwards used to denote the Divine abode and presence (Numbers 7:89; 1_Samuel 4:4; Isaiah 37:16; Psalms 80:1; Psalms 99:1). In Ezekiel's vision (Ezek. 10:1-20) they appear as living creatures supporting the throne of God. From Ezekiel's description of them (Ezek. 1; 10; Ezekiel 41:18, Ezekiel 41:19), they appear to have been compound figures, unlike any real object in nature; artificial images possessing the features and properties of several animals. Two cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of the ark; two of colossal size overshadowed it in Solomon's temple. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:4) speaks of four; and this number of "living creatures" is mentioned in Revelation 4:6. Those on the ark are called the "cherubim of glory" (Hebrews 9:5), i.e., of the Shechinah, or cloud of glory, for on them the visible glory of God rested.

They were placed one at each end of the mercy-seat, with wings stretched upward, and their faces "toward each other and toward the mercy-seat." They were anointed with holy oil, like the ark itself and the other sacred furniture. The cherubim were symbolical. They were intended to represent spiritual existences in immediate contact with Jehovah. Some have regarded them as symbolical of the chief ruling power by which God carries on his operations in providence (Psalms 18:10). Others interpret them as having reference to the redemption of men, and as symbolizing the great rulers or ministers of the church. Many other opinions have been held regarding them which need not be referred to here. On the whole, it seems to be most satisfactory to regard the interpretation of the symbol to be variable, as is the symbol itself.

Their office was, (1.) on the expulsion of our first parents from Eden, to prevent all access to the tree of life; and (2.) to form the throne and chariot of Jehovah in his manifestation of himself on earth. He dwelleth between and sitteth on the cherubim (1_Samuel 4:4; Psalms 80:1; Ezekiel 1:26, Ezekiel 1:28).

Chesalon

Strength; confidence, a place on the border of Judah, on the side of Mount Jearim (Joshua 15:10); probably identified with the modern village of Kesla, on the western mountains of Judah.

Chesed

Gain, the son of Nahor (Genesis 22:22).

Chesil

Ungodly, a town in the south of Judah (Joshua 15:30); probably the same as Bethul (Joshua 19:4) and Bethuel (1_Chronicles 4:30); now Khelasa.

Chest

(Heb. 'aron , generally rendered "ark"), the coffer into which the contributions for the repair of the temple were put (2_Kings 12:9, 2_Kings 12:10; 2_Chronicles 24:8, 2_Chronicles 24:10, 2_Chronicles 24:11). In Genesis 50:26 it is rendered "coffin." In Ezekiel 27:24 a different Hebrew word, genazim (plur.), is used. It there means "treasure-chests."

Chestnut Tree

(Heb. 'armon ; i.e., "naked"), mentioned in connection with Jacob's artifice regarding the cattle (Genesis 30:37). It is one of the trees of which, because of its strength and beauty, the Assyrian empire is likened (Ezekiel 31:8; R.V., "plane trees"). It is probably the Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis) that is intended. It is a characteristic of this tree that it annually sheds its outer bark, becomes "naked." The chestnut tree proper is not a native of Palestine.

Chesulloth

Fertile places; the loins, a town of Issachar, on the slopes of some mountain between Jezreel and Shunem (Joshua 19:18). It has been identified with Chisloth-tabor, 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor, and north of Jezreel; now Iksal.

Chezib

Deceitful, a town where Shelah, the son of Judah, was born (Genesis 38:5). Probably the same as Achzib (q.v.).

Chidon

Dart, the name of the threshing-floor at which the death of Uzzah took place (1_Chronicles 13:9). In the parallel passage in Samuel (2_Samuel 6:6) it is called "Nachon's threshing-floor." It was a place not far north-west from Jerusalem.

Chiefs of Asia

Asiarchs," the title given to certain wealthy persons annually appointed to preside over the religious festivals and games in the various cities of proconsular Asia (Acts 19:31). Some of these officials appear to have been Paul's friends.

Chief of the Three

A title given to Adino the Eznite, one of David's greatest heroes (2_Samuel 23:8); also called Jashobeam (1_Chronicles 11:11).

Chief Priest

See PRIEST.

Child

This word has considerable latitude of meaning in Scripture. Thus Joseph is called a child at the time when he was probably about sixteen years of age (Genesis 37:3); and Benjamin is so called when he was above thirty years (Genesis 44:20). Solomon called himself a little child when he came to the kingdom (1_Kings 3:7).

The descendants of a man, however remote, are called his children; as, "the children of Edom," "the children of Moab," "the children of Israel.&q

ot; In the earliest times mothers did not wean their children till they were from thirty months to three years old; and the day on which they were weaned was kept as a festival day (Genesis 21:8; Exodus 2:7, Exodus 2:9; 1_Samuel 1:22; Gospel of Matthew 21:16). At the age of five, children began to learn the arts and duties of life under the care of their fathers (Deuteronomy 6:20; Deuteronomy 11:19).

To have a numerous family was regarded as a mark of divine favour (Genesis 11:30; Genesis 30:1; 1_Samuel 2:5; 2_Samuel 6:23; Psalms 127:3; Psalms 128:3).

Figuratively the name is used for those who are ignorant or narrow-minded (Gospel of Matthew 11:16; Gospel of Luke 7:32; 1_Corinthians 13:11). "When I was a child, I spake as a child." "Brethren, be not children in understanding" (1_Corinthians 14:20). "That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro" (Ephesians 4:14).

Children are also spoken of as representing simplicity and humility (Gospel of Matthew 19:13; Gospel of Mark 10:13; Gospel of Luke 18:15). Believers are "children of light" (Gospel of Luke 16:8; 1_Thessalonians 5:5) and "children of obedience" (1_Peter 1:14).

Chileab

Protected by the father, David's second son by Abigail (2_Samuel 3:3); called also Daniel (1_Chronicles 3:1). He seems to have died when young.

Chilion

The pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and husband of Orpah, Ruth's sister (Ruth 1:2; Ruth 4:9).

Chilmad

A place or country unknown which, along with Sheba and Asshur, traded with Tyre (Ezekiel 27:23).

Chimham

Pining, probably the youngest son of Barzillai the Gileadite (2_Samuel 19:37). The "habitation of Chimham" (Jeremiah 41:17) was probably an inn or khan, which is the proper meaning of the Hebrew geruth, rendered "habitation", established in later times in his possession at Bethlehem, which David gave to him as a reward for his loyalty in accompanying him to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom (1_Kings 2:7). It has been supposed that, considering the stationary character of Eastern institutions, it was in the stable of this inn or caravanserai that our Saviour was born (Gospel of Luke 2:7).

Chinnereth

Lyre, the singular form of the word (Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 19:35), which is also used in the plural form, Chinneroth, the name of a fenced city which stood near the shore of the lake of Galilee, a little to the south of Tiberias. The town seems to have given its name to a district, as appears from 1_Kings 15:20, where the plural form of the word is used.

The Sea of Chinnereth (Numbers 34:11; Joshua 13:27), or of Chinneroth (Joshua 12:3), was the "lake of Gennesaret" or "sea of Tiberias" (Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 11:2). Chinnereth was probably an ancient Canaanitish name adopted by the Israelites into their language.

Chios

Mentioned in Acts 20:15, an island in the Egean Sea, about 5 miles distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the shelter of which Paul and his companions anchored for a night when on his third missionary return journey. It is now called Scio.

Chisleu

The name adopted from the Babylonians by the Jews after the Captivity for the third civil, or ninth ecclesiastical, month (Nehemiah 1:1; Zechariah 7:1). It corresponds nearly with the moon in November.

Chittim

Or Kittim, a plural form (Genesis 10:4), the name of a branch of the descendants of Javan, the "son" of Japheth. Balaam foretold (Numbers 24:24) "that ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and afflict Eber." Daniel prophesied (Daniel 11:30) that the ships of Chittim would come against the king of the north. It probably denotes Cyprus, whose ancient capital was called Kition by the Greeks.

The references elsewhere made to Chittim (Isaiah 23:1, Isaiah 23:12; Jeremiah 2:10; Ezekiel 27:6) are to be explained on the ground that while the name originally designated the Phoenicians only, it came latterly to be used of all the islands and various settlements on the sea-coasts which they had occupied, and then of the people who succeeded them when the Phoenician power decayed. Hence it designates generally the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean and the races that inhabit them.

Chiun

Occurs only in Amos 5:26 (R.V. marg., "shrine"). The LXX. translated the word by Rhephan, which became corrupted into Remphan, as used by Stephen (Acts 7:43; but R.V., "Rephan"). Probably the planet Saturn is intended by the name. Astrologers represented this planet as baleful in its influences, and hence the Phoenicians offered to it human sacrifices, especially children.

Chloe

Verdure, a female Christian (1_Corinthians 1:11), some of whose household had informed Paul of the divided state of the Corinthian church. Nothing is known of her.

Chor-ashan

Smoking furnace, one of the places where "David himself and his men were wont to haunt" (1_Samuel 30:30, 1_Samuel 30:31). It is probably identical with Ashan (Joshua 15:42; Joshua 19:7), a Simeonite city in the Negeb, i.e., the south, belonging to Judah. The word ought, according to another reading, to be "Bor-ashan."

Chorazin

Named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in which our Lord's "mighty works" were done, and which was doomed to woe because of signal privileges neglected (Gospel of Matthew 11:21; Gospel of Luke 10:13). It has been identified by general consent with the modern Kerazeh, about 2 1/2 miles up the Wady Kerazeh from Capernaum; i.e., Tell Hum.

Chosen

Spoken of warriors (Exodus 15:4; Judges 20:16), of the Hebrew nation (Psalms 105:43; Deuteronomy 7:7), of Jerusalem as the seat of the temple (1_Kings 11:13). Christ is the "chosen" of God (Isaiah 42:1); and the apostles are "chosen" for their work (Acts 10:41). It is said with regard to those who do not profit by their opportunities that "many are called, but few are chosen" (Gospel of Matthew 20:16). (See ELECTION.)

Chozeba

(1_Chronicles 4:22), the same as Chezib and Achzib, a place in the lowlands of Judah (Genesis 38:5; Joshua 15:44).

Christ

Anointed, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word rendered "Messiah" (q.v.), the official title of our Lord, occurring five hundred and fourteen times in the New Testament. It denotes that he was anointed or consecrated to his great redemptive work as Prophet, Priest, and King of his people. He is Jesus the Christ (Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5; Gospel of Matthew 22:42), the Anointed One. He is thus spoken of by Isaiah (Isaiah 61:1), and by Daniel (Daniel 9:24), who styles him "Messiah the Prince.&q

ot; The Messiah is the same person as "the seed of the woman" (Genesis 3:15), "the seed of Abraham" (Genesis 22:18), the "Prophet like unto Moses" (Deuteronomy 18:15), "the priest after the order of Melchizedek" (Psalms 110:4), "the rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:10), the "Immanuel," the virgin's son (Isaiah 7:14), "the branch of Jehovah" (Isaiah 4:2), and "the messenger of the covenant" (Malachi 3:1). This is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write." The Old Testament Scripture is full of prophetic declarations regarding the Great Deliverer and the work he was to accomplish. Jesus the Christ is Jesus the Great Deliverer, the Anointed One, the Saviour of men. This name denotes that Jesus was divinely appointed, commissioned, and accredited as the Saviour of men (Hebrews 5:4; Isaiah 11:2; Isaiah 49:6; Gospel of John 5:37; Acts 2:22).

To believe that "Jesus is the Christ" is to believe that he is the Anointed, the Messiah of the prophets, the Saviour sent of God, that he was, in a word, what he claimed to be. This is to believe the gospel, by the faith of which alone men can be brought unto God. That Jesus is the Christ is the testimony of God, and the faith of this constitutes a Christian (1_Corinthians 12:3; 1_John 5:1).

Christs, False

Our Lord warned his disciples that they would arise (Gospel of Matthew 24:24). It is said that no fewer than twenty-four persons have at different times appeared (the last in 1682) pretending to be the Messiah of the prophets.

Christian

The name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren," "the faithful," "elect," "saints," "believers." But as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name "Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted. This name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26; Acts 26:28; 1_Peter 4:16).

Chronicles

The words of the days, (1_Kings 14:19; 1_Chronicles 27:24), the daily or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the order of time.

Chronicles, Books of

The two books were originally one. They bore the title in the Massoretic Hebrew Dibre hayyamim, i.e., "Acts of the Days." This title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and hence "Chronicles." In the Septuagint version the book is divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, i.e., "things omitted," or "supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books of Kings.

The contents of these books are comprehended under four heads. (1.)The first nine chapters of Book I. contain little more than a list of genealogies in the line of Israel down to the time of David. (2.) The remainder of the first book contains a history of the reign of David. (3.) The first nine chapters of Book II. contain the history of the reign of Solomon. (4.) The remaining chapters of the second book contain the history of the separate kingdom of Judah to the time of the return from Babylonian Exile. The time of the composition of the Chronicles was, there is every ground to conclude, subsequent to the Babylonian Exile, probably between 450 and 435 B.C.

The contents of this twofold book, both as to matter and form, correspond closely with this idea. The close of the book records the proclamation of Cyrus permitting the Jews to return to their own land, and this forms the opening passage of the Book of Ezra, which must be viewed as a continuation of the Chronicles. The peculiar form of the language, being Aramaean in its general character, harmonizes also with that of the books which were written after the Exile. The author was certainly contemporary with Zerubbabel, details of whose family history are given (1_Chronicles 3:19). The time of the composition being determined, the question of the authorship may be more easily decided. According to Jewish tradition, which was universally received down to the middle of the seventeenth century, Ezra was regarded as the author of the Chronicles.

There are many points of resemblance and of contact between the Chronicles and the Book of Ezra which seem to confirm this opinion. The conclusion of the one and the beginning of the other are almost identical in expression. In their spirit and characteristics they are the same, showing thus also an identity of authorship. In their general scope and design these books are not so much historical as didactic. The principal aim of the writer appears to be to present moral and religious truth. He does not give prominence to political occurences, as is done in Samuel and Kings, but to ecclesiastical institutions. "The genealogies, so uninteresting to most modern readers, were really an important part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the basis on which not only the land was distributed and held, but the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted, the Levites and their descendants alone, as is well known, being entitled and first fruits set apart for that purpose." The "Chronicles" are an epitome of the sacred history from the days of Adam down to the return from Babylonian Exile, a period of about 3,500 years. The writer gathers up "the threads of the old national life broken by the Captivity." The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews. These are referred to in the course of the book (1_Chronicles 27:24; 1_Chronicles 29:29; 2_Chronicles 9:29; 2_Chronicles 12:15; 2_Chronicles 13:22; 2_Chronicles 20:34; 2_Chronicles 24:27; 2_Chronicles 26:22; 2_Chronicles 32:32; 2_Chronicles 33:18, 2_Chronicles 33:19; 2_Chronicles 27:7; 2_Chronicles 35:25). There are in Chronicles, and the books of Samuel and Kings, forty parallels, often verbal, proving that the writer both knew and used these records (1_Chronicles 17:18; compare 2_Samuel 7:18; 1 Chr. 19; compare 2 Sam. 10, etc.).

As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars there recorded (2_Samuel 6:20; 2_Samuel 9:1; 11; 14-19, etc.), and includes many things peculiar to itself (1 Chr. 12; 22; 23-26; 27; 28; 29, etc.). Twenty whole chapters, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matter not found elsewhere. It also records many things in fuller detail, as (e.g.) the list of David's heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (1_Chronicles 13:1; 15:2-24; 16:4-43; compare 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah's leprosy and its cause (2_Chronicles 26:16; compare 2_Kings 15:5), etc.

It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for those that had then become unusual or obsolete. This is seen particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such as were in use in the writer's day, for the old names; thus Gezer (1_Chronicles 20:4) is used instead of Gob (2_Samuel 21:18), etc.

The Books of Chronicles are ranked among the khethubim or hagiographa. They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in the New Testament (Hebrews 5:4; Gospel of Matthew 12:42; Gospel of Matthew 23:35; Gospel of Luke 1:5; Gospel of Luke 11:31, Gospel of Luke 11:51).

Chronicles of King David

(1_Chronicles 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters.

Chronology

Is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus (Numbers 1:1; Numbers 33:38; 1_Kings 6:1), and sometimes from the accession of kings (1_Kings 15:1, 1_Kings 15:9, 1_Kings 15:25, 1_Kings 15:33, etc.), and sometimes again from the return from Exile (Ezra 3:8).

Hence in constructing a system of Biblical chronology, the plan has been adopted of reckoning the years from the ages of the patriarchs before the birth of their firstborn sons for the period from the Creation to Abraham. After this period other data are to be taken into account in determining the relative sequence of events. See table, as to the patriarchal period, there are three principal systems of chronology: (1) that of the Hebrew text, (2) that of the Septuagint version, and (3) that of the Samaritan Pentateuch. Hebrew Text Septuagint Version Samaritan Pentateuch Patriarch Lived years before birth of first son Lived after birth of first son Total life Lived years before birth of first son Lived after birth of first son Total life Lived years before birth of first son Lived after birth of first son Total life Adam 130 800 930 230 700 930 130 800 930 Seth 105 807 912 205 707 912 105 807 912 Enos 90 815 905 190 715 905 90 815 905 Cainan 70 840 910 170 740 910 70 840 910 Mahalaleel 65 830 895 165 730 895 65 830 895 Jared 162 800 962 162 800 962 62 785 947 Enoch 65 300 365 165 200 365 65 300 365 Methuselah 187 782 969 187 782 969 67 653 720 Lamech 182 595 777 188 565 753 53 600 653 From Adam to the birth of Noah 1056 1662 707 From birth of Noah to the Flood 600 600 600 From Adam to the Flood 1656 2262 1307 The Samaritan and the Septuagint have considerably modified the Hebrew chronology. This modification some regard as having been wilfully made, and to be rejected.

The same system of variations is observed in the chronology of the period between the Flood and Abraham. See table following: Hebrew Septuagint Samaritan From the birth of Arphaxad, 2 years after the flood, to the birth of Terah. 220 1000 870 From the birth of Terah to the birth of Abraham 130 70 72 The Septuagint fixes on seventy years as the age of Terah at the birth of Abraham, from Genesis 11:26; but a comparison of Genesis 11:32 and Acts 7:4 with Genesis 12:4 shows that when Terah died, at the age of two hundred and five years, Abraham was seventy-five years, and hence Terah must have been one hundred and thirty years when Abraham was born. Thus, including the two years from the Flood to the birth of Arphaxad, the period from the Flood to the birth of Abraham was three hundred and fifty-two years.

The next period is from the birth of Abraham to the Exodus. This, according to the Hebrew, extends to five hundred and five years. The difficulty here is as to the four hundred and thirty years mentioned Exodus 12:40, Exodus 12:41; Galatians 3:17. These years are regarded by some as dating from the covenant with Abraham (Gen. 15), which was entered into soon after his sojourn in Egypt; others, with more probability, reckon these years from Jacob's going down into Egypt. (See EXODUS.)

In modern times the systems of Biblical chronology that have been adopted are chiefly those of Ussher and Hales. The former follows the Hebrew, and the latter the Septuagint mainly. Archbishop Ussher's (died 1656) system is called the short chronology. It is that given on the margin of the Authorized Version, but is really of no authority, and is quite uncertain. See table: System of Biblical Chronology Ussher B.C. Hales B.C. Creation 4004 5411 Flood 2348 3155 Abram leaves Haran 1921 2078 Exodus 1491 1648 Destruction of the Temple 588 586 See Chronological Tables - The Old Testament to the Death of Solomon - 4004 B.C.-976 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 976 B.C.-918 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 918 B.C.-883 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 883 B.C.-705 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 697 B.C.-588 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 562 B.C.-332 B.C. See Chronological Tables - Chronology According to the Assyrian Inscriptions - 858 B.C.-606 B.C. See Chronological Tables - Between the Testaments - 331 B.C.-4 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The New Testament History - 4 B.C.-A.D. 98 To show at a glance the different ideas of the date of the creation, it may be interesting to note the following: From Creation to 1894. According to Ussher, 5,898; Hales, 7,305; Zunz (Hebrew reckoning), 5,882; Septuagint (Perowne), 7,305; Rabbinical, 5,654; Panodorus, 7,387; Anianus, 7,395; Constantinopolitan, 7,403; Eusebius, 7,093; Scaliger, 5,844; Dionysius (from whom we take our Christian era), 7,388; Maximus, 7,395; Syncellus and Theophanes, 7,395; Julius Africanus, 7,395; Jackson, 7,320.

Chrysoprasus

Golden leek, a precious stone of the colour of leek's juice, a greenish-golden colour (Revelation 21:20).

Chub

The name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Ezekiel 30:5. They were probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt in the south.

Chun

One of the cities of Hadarezer, king of Syria. David procured brass (i.e., bronze or copper) from it for the temple (1_Chronicles 18:8). It is called Berothai in 2_Samuel 8:8; probably the same as Berothah in Ezekiel 47:16.

Church

Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (i.e., "the Lord's house"), which was used by ancient authors for the place of worship.

In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia , which is synonymous with the Hebrew kahal of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found. There is no clear instance of its being used for a place of meeting or of worship, although in post-apostolic times it early received this meaning. Nor is this word ever used to denote the inhabitants of a country united in the same profession, as when we say the "Church of England," the "Church of Scotland," etc.

We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the New Testament: (1.) It is translated "assembly" in the ordinary classical sense (Acts 19:32, Acts 19:39, Acts 19:41).

(2.) It denotes the whole body of the redeemed, all those whom the Father has given to Christ, the invisible catholic church (Ephesians 5:23, Ephesians 5:25, Ephesians 5:27, Ephesians 5:29; Hebrews 12:23).

(3.) A few Christians associated together in observing the ordinances of the gospel are an eccesia (Romans 16:5; Colossians 4:15).

(4.) All the Christians in a particular city, whether they assembled together in one place or in several places for religious worship, were an ecclesia. Thus all the disciples in Antioch, forming several congregations, were one church (Acts 13:1); so also we read of the "church of God at Corinth" (1_Corinthians 1:2), "the church at Jerusalem" (Acts 8:1), "the church of Ephesus" (Revelation 2:1), etc.

(5.) The whole body of professing Christians throughout the world (1_Corinthians 15:9; Galatians 1:13; Gospel of Matthew 16:18) are the church of Christ. The church visible "consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together with their children." It is called "visible" because its members are known and its assemblies are public. Here there is a mixture of "wheat and chaff," of saints and sinners. "God has commanded his people to organize themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges, ordinances, and discipline, for the great purpose of giving visibility to his kingdom, of making known the gospel of that kingdom, and of gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of these distinct organized communities which is faithful to the great King is an integral part of the visible church, and all together constitute the catholic or universal visible church." A credible profession of the true religion constitutes a person a member of this church. This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose character and progress are set forth in the parables recorded in Matt. 13.

The children of all who thus profess the true religion are members of the visible church along with their parents. Children are included in every covenant God ever made with man. They go along with their parents (Genesis 9:9; Genesis 12:1; Genesis 17:7; Exodus 20:5; Deuteronomy 29:10). Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same great principle. "The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed the promises were made] is unto you, and to your children" (Acts 2:38, Acts 2:39). The children of believing parents are "holy", i.e., are "saints", a title which designates the members of the Christian church (1_Corinthians 7:14). (See BAPTISM.) The church invisible "consists of the whole number of the elect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ, the head thereof." This is a pure society, the church in which Christ dwells. It is the body of Christ. it is called "invisible" because the greater part of those who constitute it are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and also because its members still on earth cannot certainly be distinguished.

The qualifications of membership in it are internal and are hidden. It is unseen except by Him who "searches the heart." "The Lord knoweth them that are his" (2_Timothy 2:19). The church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises appertaining to Christ's kingdom belong, is a spiritual body consisting of all true believers, i.e., the church invisible. (1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth. We sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isaiah 49:13; Isaiah 60:1). When the Jews are at length restored, they will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again into "their own olive tree" (Romans 11:18; compare Ephesians 2:11). The apostles did not set up a new organization. Under their ministry disciples were "added" to the "church" already existing (Acts 2:47). (2.) Its universality. It is the "catholic" church; not confined to any particular country or outward organization, but comprehending all believers throughout the whole world. (3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the end of the world. It can never be destroyed. It is an "everlasting kindgdom."

Churl

In Isaiah 32:5 (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In 1_Samuel 25:3, the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, "hard." The same Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Gospel of Matthew 25:24, and there is rendered "hard."

Chushan-rishathaim

Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately following Joshua (Judges 3:8). We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V., "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan. It is mentioned among the countries which took part in the attack upon Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the Twentieth Dynasty), but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually enter Egypt. As the reign of Rameses III. corresponds with the Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of Egypt, so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have been considered to be attacking Egypt.

Cilicia

A maritime province in the south-east of Asia Minor. Tarsus, the birth-place of Paul, was one of its chief towns, and the seat of a celebrated school of philosophy. Its luxurious climate attracted to it many Greek residents after its incorporation with the Macedonian empire. It was formed into a Roman province, 67 B.C.. The Jews of Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts 6:9). Paul visited it soon after his conversion (Galatians 1:21; Acts 9:30), and again, on his second missionary journey (Acts 15:41), "he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches." It was famous for its goat's-hair cloth, called cilicium. Paul learned in his youth the trade of making tents of this cloth.

Cinnamon

Heb. kinamon , the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal ingredients in the holy anointing oil (Exodus 30:23). It is mentioned elsewhere only in Proverbs 7:17; Song_of_Solomon 4:14; Revelation 18:13. The mention of it indicates a very early and extensive commerce carried on between Palestine and the East.

Cinnereth

A harp, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Joshua 19:35; compare Deuteronomy 3:17). It also denotes, apparently, a district which may have taken its name from the adjacent city or lake of Gennesaret, anciently called "the sea of Chinnereth" (q.v.), and was probably that enclosed district north of Tiberias afterwards called "the plain of Gennesaret." Called Chinneroth (R.V., Chinnereth) Joshua 11:2. The phrase "all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali" in 1_Kings 15:20 is parallel to "the store-houses of the cities of Naphtali" (R.V. marg.) in 2_Chronicles 16:4.

Circuit

The apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth (Psalms 19:6), and the changes of the wind (Ecclesiastes 1:6). In Job 22:14, "in the circuit of heaven" (R.V. marg., "on the vault of heaven") means the "arch of heaven," which seems to be bent over our heads.

Circumcision

Cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him. It was established as a national ordinance (Genesis 17:10, Genesis 17:11). In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirteen years old (Genesis 17:24). Slaves, whether homeborn or purchased, were circumcised (Genesis 17:12, Genesis 17:13); and all foreigners must have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the privileges of Jewish citizenship (Exodus 12:48). During the journey through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they entered the Promised Land (Joshua 5:2). It was observed always afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is not expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years. The Jews prided themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction (Judges 14:3; Judges 15:18; 1_Samuel 14:6; 1_Samuel 17:26; 2_Samuel 1:20; Ezekiel 31:18).

As a rite of the church it ceased when the New Testament times began (Galatians 6:15; Colossians 3:11). Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1; Galatians 6:12). Our Lord was circumcised, for it "became him to fulfil all righteousness," as of the seed of Abraham, according to the flesh; and Paul "took and circumcised" Timothy (Acts 16:3), to avoid giving offence to the Jews. It would render Timothy's labours more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Galatians 2:3). The great point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem.

In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to circumcision. It was the symbol of purity (Isaiah 52:1). We read of uncircumcised lips (Exodus 6:12, Exodus 6:30), ears (Jeremiah 6:10), hearts (Leviticus 26:41). The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of as uncircumcised (Leviticus 19:23).

It was a sign and seal of the covenant of grace as well as of the national covenant between God and the Hebrews. (1.) It sealed the promises made to Abraham, which related to the commonwealth of Israel, national promises. (2.) But the promises made to Abraham included the promise of redemption (Galatians 3:14), a promise which has come upon us. The covenant with Abraham was a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It had a spiritual meaning. It signified purification of the heart, inward circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deuteronomy 10:16; Deuteronomy 30:6; Ezekiel 44:7; Acts 7:51; Romans 2:28; Colossians 2:11).

Under the Jewish dispensation, church and state were identical. No one could be a member of the one without also being a member of the other. Circumcision was a sign and seal of membership in both. Every circumcised person bore thereby evidence that he was one of the chosen people, a member of the church of God as it then existed, and consequently also a member of the Jewish commonwealth.

Cistern

The rendering of a Hebrew work bor, which means a receptacle for water conveyed to it; distinguished from beer, which denotes a place where water rises on the spot (Jeremiah 2:13; Proverbs 5:15; Isaiah 36:16), a fountain. Cisterns are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The scarcity of springs in Palestine made it necessary to collect rain-water in reservoirs and cisterns (Numbers 21:22). (See WELL.)

Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons (Jeremiah 38:6; Lamentations 3:53; Psalms 40:2; Psalms 69:15). The "pit" into which Joseph was cast (Genesis 37:24) was a beer or dry well. There are numerous remains of ancient cisterns in all parts of Palestine.

Citizenship

The rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a foreigner (Gospel of Luke 15:15; Gospel of Luke 19:14; Acts 21:39). Under the Mosaic law non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the Ammonites and others mentioned in Deuteronomy 23:1, were admitted to the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Exodus 12:19; Leviticus 24:22; Numbers 15:15; Numbers 35:15; Deuteronomy 10:18; Deuteronomy 14:29; Deuteronomy 16:10, Deuteronomy 16:14).

The right of citizenship under the Roman government was granted by the emperor to individuals, and sometimes to provinces, as a favour or as a recompense for services rendered to the state, or for a sum of money (Acts 22:28). This "freedom" secured privileges equal to those enjoyed by natives of Rome. Among the most notable of these was the provision that a man could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial (Acts 22:25, Acts 22:26), or scourged (Acts 16:37). All Roman citizens had the right of appeal to Caesar (Acts 25:11).

City

The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which was built by Cain (Genesis 4:17). After the confusion of tongues, the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (Genesis 10:10). Next, we have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon, Gaza, Sodom, etc. (Genesis 10:12, Genesis 10:19; Genesis 11:3, Genesis 11:9; Genesis 36:31). The earliest description of a city is that of Sodom (Gen. 19:1-22). Damascus is said to be the oldest existing city in the world. Before the time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt (Numbers 13:22). The Israelites in Egypt were employed in building the "treasure cities" of Pithom and Raamses (Exodus 1:11); but it does not seem that they had any cities of their own in Goshen (Genesis 46:34; Genesis 47:1). In the kingdom of Og in Bashan there were sixty "great cities with walls," and twenty-three cities in Gilead partly rebuilt by the tribes on the east of Jordan (Numbers 21:21, Numbers 21:32, Numbers 21:33, Numbers 21:35; Numbers 32:1, Numbers 32:34; Deuteronomy 3:4, Deuteronomy 3:5, Deuteronomy 3:14; 1_Kings 4:13). On the west of Jordan were thirty-one "royal cities" (Josh. 12), besides many others spoken of in the history of Israel.

A fenced city was a city surrounded by fortifications and high walls, with watchtowers upon them (2_Chronicles 11:11; Deuteronomy 3:5). There was also within the city generally a tower to which the citizens might flee when danger threatened them (Judges 9:46).

A city with suburbs was a city surrounded with open pasture-grounds, such as the forty-eight cities which were given to the Levites (Numbers 35:2). There were six cities of refuge, three on each side of Jordan, namely, Kadesh, Shechem, Hebron, on the west of Jordan; and on the east, Bezer, Ramoth-gilead, and Golan. The cities on each side of the river were nearly opposite each other. The regulations concerning these cities are given in Num. 35:9-34; Deuteronomy 19:1; Exodus 21:12.

When David reduced the fortress of the Jebusites which stood on Mount Zion, he built on the site of it a palace and a city, which he called by his own name (1_Chronicles 11:5), the city of David. Bethlehem is also so called as being David's native town (Gospel of Luke 2:4).

Jerusalem is called the Holy City, the holiness of the temple being regarded as extending in some measure over the whole city (Nehemiah 11:1).

Pithom and Raamses, built by the Israelites as "treasure cities," were not places where royal treasures were kept, but were fortified towns where merchants might store their goods and transact their business in safety, or cities in which munitions of war were stored. (See PITHOM.)

Clauda

A small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:16). It is about 7 miles long and 3 broad. It is now called Gozzo (R.V., "Cauda").

Claudia

A female Christian mentioned in 2_Timothy 4:21. It is a conjecture having some probability that she was a British maiden, the daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that she was the wife of Pudens.

Claudius

Lame. (1.) The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D. 41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Acts 18:2). In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome.

During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed" (Acts 12:2). He died A.D. 54.

(2.) Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius (Acts 21:31; Acts 22:28; Acts 23:26).

Clay

This word is used of sediment found in pits or in streets (Isaiah 57:20; Jeremiah 38:6), of dust mixed with spittle (Gospel of John 9:6), and of potter's clay (Isaiah 41:25; Nahum 3:14; Jeremiah 18:1; Romans 9:21). Clay was used for sealing (Job 38:14; Jeremiah 32:14). Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed (Gospel of Matthew 27:66). The practice of sealing doors with clay is still common in the East. Clay was also in primitive times used for mortar (Genesis 11:3). The "clay ground" in which the large vessels of the temple were cast (1_Kings 7:46; 2_Chronicles 4:17) was a compact loam fitted for the purpose. The expression literally rendered is, "in the thickness of the ground,", meaning, "in stiff ground" or in clay.

Clean

The various forms of uncleanness according to the Mosaic law are enumerated in Lev. 11-15; Num. 19. The division of animals into clean and unclean was probably founded on the practice of sacrifice. It existed before the Flood (Genesis 7:2). The regulations regarding such animals are recorded in Lev. 11 and Deut. 14:1-21.

The Hebrews were prohibited from using as food certain animal substances, such as (1.) blood; (2.) the fat covering the intestines, termed the caul; (3.) the fat on the intestines, called the mesentery; (4.) the fat of the kidneys; and (5.) the fat tail of certain sheep (Exodus 29:13, Exodus 29:22; Leviticus 3:4; Leviticus 9:19; Leviticus 17:10; Leviticus 19:26). The chief design of these regulations seems to have been to establish a system of regimen which would distinguish the Jews from all other nations. Regarding the design and the abolition of these regulations the reader will find all the details in Leviticus 20:24; Acts 10:9; Acts 11:1; Hebrews 9:9.

Clement

Mild, a Christian of Philippi, Paul's "fellow-labourer," whose name he mentions as "in the book of life" (Philippians 4:3). It was an opinion of ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose name is well known in church history, and that he was the author of an Epistle to the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum. It is of some historical interest, and has given rise to much discussion among critics. It makes distinct reference to Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians.

Cleopas

(abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom Jesus conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection (Gospel of Luke 24:18). We know nothing definitely regarding him. It is not certain that he was the Clopas of Gospel of John 19:25, or the Alphaeus of Gospel of Matthew 10:3, although he may have been so.

Cleophas

(in the spelling of this word h is inserted by mistake from Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In Gospel of John 19:25 the Authorized Version reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word "wife" is conjecturally inserted here. If "wife" is rightly inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas is the same as Alphaeus (Gospel of Matthew 10:3; Gospel of Matthew 27:56).

Cloak

An upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to the ankles, but without sleeves" (Isaiah 59:17). The word so rendered is elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn by the high priest under the ephod (Exodus 28:31), by kings and others of rank (1_Samuel 15:27; Job 1:20; Job 2:12), and by women (2_Samuel 13:18).

The word translated "cloke", i.e., outer garment, in Gospel of Matthew 5:40 is in its plural form used of garments in general (Gospel of Matthew 17:2; Gospel of Matthew 26:65). The cloak mentioned here and in Gospel of Luke 6:29 was the Greek himation , Latin pallium , and consisted of a large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor (Exodus 22:26, Exodus 22:27), but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton ) mentioned in Gospel of Matthew 5:40 could not.

The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" (2_Timothy 4:13) was the Roman poenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the word used means a bookcase. (See DRESS.)

Closet

As used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse (Gospel of Luke 12:24), and hence a place of privacy and retirement (Gospel of Matthew 6:6; Gospel of Luke 12:3).

Cloud

The Hebrew so rendered means "a covering," because clouds cover the sky. The word is used as a symbol of the Divine presence, as indicating the splendour of that glory which it conceals (Exodus 16:10; Exodus 33:9; Numbers 11:25; Numbers 12:5; Job 22:14; Psalms 18:11). A "cloud without rain" is a proverbial saying, denoting a man who does not keep his promise (Proverbs 16:15; Isaiah 18:4; Isaiah 25:5; Jude 1:12). A cloud is the figure of that which is transitory (Job 30:15; Hosea 6:4). A bright cloud is the symbolical seat of the Divine presence (Exodus 29:42, Exodus 29:43; 1_Kings 8:10; 2_Chronicles 5:14; Ezekiel 43:4), and was called the Shechinah (q.v.). Jehovah came down upon Sinai in a cloud (Exodus 19:9); and the cloud filled the court around the tabernacle in the wilderness so that Moses could not enter it (Exodus 40:34, Exodus 40:35). At the dedication of the temple also the cloud "filled the house of the Lord" (1_Kings 8:10). Thus in like manner when Christ comes the second time he is described as coming "in the clouds" (Gospel of Matthew 17:5; Gospel of Matthew 24:30; Acts 1:9, Acts 1:11). False teachers are likened unto clouds carried about with a tempest (2_Peter 2:17). The infirmities of old age, which come one after another, are compared by Solomon to "clouds returning after the rain" (Ecclesiastes 12:2). The blotting out of sins is like the sudden disappearance of threatening clouds from the sky (Isaiah 44:22).

Cloud, the pillar of, was the glory-cloud which indicated God's presence leading the ransomed people through the wilderness (Exodus 13:22; Exodus 33:9, Exodus 33:10). This pillar preceded the people as they marched, resting on the ark (Exodus 13:21; Exodus 40:36). By night it became a pillar of fire (Numbers 9:17).

Cnidus

A town and harbour on the extreme south-west of the peninsula of Doris in Asia Minor. Paul sailed past it on his voyage to Rome after leaving Myra (Acts 27:7).

Coal

It is by no means certain that the Hebrews were acquainted with mineral coal, although it is found in Syria. Their common fuel was dried dung of animals and wood charcoal. Two different words are found in Hebrew to denote coal, both occurring in Proverbs 26:21, "As coal [Heb. peham ; i.e., "black coal"] is to burning coal (Heb. gehalim ]." The latter of these words is used in Job 41:21; Proverbs 6:28; Isaiah 44:19. The words "live coal" in Isaiah 6:6 are more correctly "glowing stone." In Lamentations 4:8 the expression "blacker than a coal" is literally rendered in the margin of the Revised Version "darker than blackness." "Coals of fire" (2_Samuel 22:9, 2_Samuel 22:13; Psalms 18:8, Psalms 18:12, Psalms 18:13, etc.) is an expression used metaphorically for lightnings proceeding from God. A false tongue is compared to "coals of juniper" (Psalms 120:4; James 3:6). "Heaping coals of fire on the head" symbolizes overcoming evil with good. The words of Paul (Romans 12:20) are equivalent to saying, "By charity and kindness thou shalt soften down his enmity as surely as heaping coals on the fire fuses the metal in the crucible."

Coat

The tunic worn like the shirt next the skin (Leviticus 16:4; Song_of_Solomon 5:3; 2_Samuel 15:32; Exodus 28:4; Exodus 29:5). The "coats of skins" prepared by God for Adam and Eve were probably nothing more than aprons (Genesis 3:21). This tunic was sometimes woven entire without a seam (Gospel of John 19:23); it was also sometimes of "many colours" (Genesis 37:3; R.V. marg., "a long garment with sleeves"). The "fisher's coat" of Gospel of John 21:7 was obviously an outer garment or cloak, as was also the "coat" made by Hannah for Samuel (1_Samuel 2:19). (See DRESS.)

Coat of Mail

In rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "glittering" (1_Samuel 17:5, 1_Samuel 17:38). The same word in the plural form is translated "habergeons" in 2_Chronicles 26:14 and Nehemiah 4:16. The "harness" (1_Kings 22:34), "breastplate" (Isaiah 59:17), and "brigandine" (Jeremiah 46:4), were probably also corselets or coats of mail. (See ARMOUR.)

Cock-crowing

In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening (Gospel of Luke 12:38; Gospel of Matthew 14:25; Gospel of Mark 6:48). But the ancient division, known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained. The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this is the first crowing), and again at the dawn of day (and this is the second crowing). Mark mentions (Gospel of Mark 14:30) the two cock-crowings. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew 26:34) alludes to that only which was emphatically the cock-crowing, viz, the second.

Cockatrice

The mediaeval name (a corruption of of "crocodile") of a fabulous serpent supposed to be produced from a cock's egg. It is generally supposed to denote the cerastes, or "horned viper," a very poisonous serpent about a foot long. Others think it to be the yellow viper (Daboia xanthina), one of the most dangerous vipers, from its size and its nocturnal habits (Isaiah 11:8; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 59:5; Jeremiah 8:17; in all which the Revised Version renders the Hebrew tziphoni by "basilisk"). In Proverbs 23:32 the Hebrew tzeph'a is rendered both in the Authorized Version and the Revised Version by "adder;" margin of Revised Version "basilisk," and of Authorized Version "cockatrice."

Cockle

Occurs only in Job 31:40 (marg., "noisome weeds"), where it is the rendering of a Hebrew word ( b'oshah ) which means "offensive," "having a bad smell," referring to some weed perhaps which has an unpleasant odour. Or it may be regarded as simply any noisome weed, such as the "tares" or darnel of Gospel of Matthew 13:30. In Isaiah 5:2, Isaiah 5:4 the plural form is rendered "wild grapes."

Coele-Syria

Hollow Syria, the name (not found in Scripture) given by the Greeks to the extensive valley, about 100 miles long, between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon range of mountains.

Coffer

The receptacle or small box placed beside the ark by the Philistines, in which they deposited the golden mice and the emerods as their trespass-offering (1_Samuel 6:8, 1_Samuel 6:11, 1_Samuel 6:15).

Coffin

Used in Genesis 50:26 with reference to the burial of Joseph. Here, it means a mummy - chest. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chest" in 2_Kings 12:9, 2_Kings 12:10.

Cogitations

(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Daniel 7:28 literally means), earnest meditation.

Coin

Before the Exile the Jews had no regularly stamped money. They made use of uncoined shekels or talents of silver, which they weighed out (Genesis 23:16; Exodus 38:24; 2_Samuel 18:12). Probably the silver ingots used in the time of Abraham may have been of a fixed weight, which was in some way indicated on them. The "pieces of silver" paid by Abimelech to Abraham (Genesis 20:16), and those also for which Joseph was sold (Genesis 37:28), were proably in the form of rings. The shekel was the common standard of weight and value among the Hebrews down to the time of the Captivity. Only once is a shekel of gold mentioned (1_Chronicles 21:25). The "six thousand of gold" mentioned in the transaction between Naaman and Gehazi (2_Kings 5:5) were probably so many shekels of gold. The "piece of money" mentioned in Job 42:11; Genesis 33:19 (marg., "lambs") was the Hebrew kesitah, probably an uncoined piece of silver of a certain weight in the form of a sheep or lamb, or perhaps having on it such an impression. The same Hebrew word is used in Joshua 24:32, which is rendered by Wickliffe "an hundred yonge scheep."

Collar

(Heb. peh ), means in Job 30:18 the mouth or opening of the garment that closes round the neck in the same way as a tunic (Exodus 39:23). The "collars" (Heb. netiphoth ) among the spoils of the Midianites (Judges 8:26; R.V., "pendants") were ear-drops. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chains" in Isaiah 3:19.

Collection

The Christians in Palestine, from various causes, suffered from poverty. Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf (Acts 24:17; Romans 15:25, Romans 15:26; 1_Corinthians 16:1; 2_Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 2:10).

College

Heb. mishneh (2_Kings 22:14; 2_Chronicles 34:22), rendered in Revised Version "second quarter", the residence of the prophetess Huldah. The Authorized Version followed the Jewish commentators, word its post-Biblical sense, as if it meant a place of instruction. It properly meant a place of instruction. It properly means the "second," and may therefore denote the lower city (Acra), which was built after the portion of the city on Mount Zion, and was enclosed by a second wall.

Colony

The city of Philippi was a Roman colony (Acts 16:12), i.e., a military settlement of Roman soldiers and citizens, planted there to keep in subjection a newly-conquered district. A colony was Rome in miniature, under Roman municipal law, but governed by military officers (praetors and lictors), not by proconsuls. It had an independent internal government, the jus Italicum; i.e., the privileges of Italian citizens.

Colour

The subject of colours holds an important place in the Scriptures.

White occurs as the translation of various Hebrew words. It is applied to milk (Genesis 49:12), manna (Exodus 16:31), snow (Isaiah 1:18), horses (Zechariah 1:8), raiment (Ecclesiastes 9:8). Another Hebrew word so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6), and a cognate word to the lily (Song_of_Solomon 2:16). A different term, meaning "dazzling," is applied to the countenance (Song_of_Solomon 5:10).

This colour was an emblem of purity and innocence (Gospel of Mark 16:5; Gospel of John 20:12; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14), of joy (Ecclesiastes 9:8), and also of victory (Zechariah 6:3; Revelation 6:2). The hangings of the tabernacle court (Exodus 27:9; Exodus 38:9), the coats, mitres, bonnets, and breeches of the priests (Exodus 39:27, Exodus 39:28), and the dress of the high priest on the day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:4, Leviticus 16:32), were white.

Black, applied to the hair (Leviticus 13:31; Song_of_Solomon 5:11), the complexion (Song_of_Solomon 1:5), and to horses (Zechariah 6:2, Zechariah 6:6). The word rendered "brown" in Genesis 30:32 (R.V., "black") means properly "scorched", i.e., the colour produced by the influence of the sun's rays. "Black" in Job 30:30 means dirty, blackened by sorrow and disease. The word is applied to a mourner's robes (Jeremiah 8:21; Jeremiah 14:2), to a clouded sky (1_Kings 18:45), to night (Micah 3:6; Jeremiah 4:28), and to a brook rendered turbid by melted snow (Job 6:16). It is used as symbolical of evil in Zechariah 6:2, Zechariah 6:6; Revelation 6:5. It was the emblem of mourning, affliction, calamity (Jeremiah 14:2; Lamentations 4:8; Lamentations 5:10).

Red, applied to blood (2 Kings 3; 22), a heifer (Numbers 19:2), pottage of lentis (Genesis 25:30), a horse (Zechariah 1:8), wine (Proverbs 23:31), the complexion (Genesis 25:25; Song_of_Solomon 5:10). This colour is symbolical of bloodshed (Zechariah 6:2; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 12:3).

Purple, a colour obtained from the secretion of a species of shell-fish (the Murex trunculus) which was found in the Mediterranean, and particularly on the coasts of Phoenicia and Asia Minor. The colouring matter in each separate shell-fish amounted to only a single drop, and hence the great value of this dye. Robes of this colour were worn by kings (Judges 8:26) and high officers (Esther 8:15). They were also worn by the wealthy and luxurious (Jeremiah 10:9; Ezekiel 27:7; Gospel of Luke 16:19; Revelation 17:4). With this colour was associated the idea of royalty and majesty (Judges 8:26; Song_of_Solomon 3:10; Song_of_Solomon 7:5; Daniel 5:7, Daniel 5:16, Daniel 5:29).

Blue. This colour was also procured from a species of shell-fish, the chelzon of the Hebrews, and the Helix ianthina of modern naturalists. The tint was emblematic of the sky, the deep dark hue of the Eastern sky. This colour was used in the same way as purple. The ribbon and fringe of the Hebrew dress were of this colour (Numbers 15:38). The loops of the curtains (Exodus 26:4), the lace of the high priest's breastplate, the robe of the ephod, and the lace on his mitre, were blue (Exodus 28:28, Exodus 28:31, Exodus 28:37).

Scarlet, or Crimson. In Isaiah 1:18 a Hebrew word is used which denotes the worm or grub whence this dye was procured. In Genesis 38:28, Genesis 38:30, the word so rendered means "to shine," and expresses the brilliancy of the colour. The small parasitic insects from which this dye was obtained somewhat resembled the cochineal which is found in Eastern countries. It is called by naturalists Coccus ilics. The dye was procured from the female grub alone. The only natural object to which this colour is applied in Scripture is the lips, which are likened to a scarlet thread (Song_of_Solomon 4:3). Scarlet robes were worn by the rich and luxurious (2_Samuel 1:24; Proverbs 31:21; Jeremiah 4:30; Revelation 17:4). It was also the hue of the warrior's dress (Nahum 2:3; Isaiah 9:5).

The Phoenicians excelled in the art of dyeing this colour (2_Chronicles 2:7). These four colours - white, purple, blue, and scarlet - were used in the textures of the tabernacle curtains (Exodus 26:1, Exodus 26:31, Exodus 26:36), and also in the high priest's ephod, girdle, and breastplate (Exodus 28:5, Exodus 28:6, Exodus 28:8, Exodus 28:15). Scarlet thread is mentioned in connection with the rites of cleansing the leper (Leviticus 14:4, Leviticus 14:6, Leviticus 14:51) and of burning the red heifer (Numbers 19:6). It was a crimson thread that Rahab was to bind on her window as a sign that she was to be saved alive (Joshua 2:18; Joshua 6:25) when the city of Jericho was taken.

Vermilion, the red sulphuret of mercury, or cinnabar; a colour used for drawing the figures of idols on the walls of temples (Ezekiel 23:14), or for decorating the walls and beams of houses (Jeremiah 22:14).

Colossae

Or Colosse, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, which is a tributary of the Maeander. It was about 12 miles above Laodicea, and near the greatroad from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and was consequently of some mercantile importance. It does not appear that Paul had visited this city when he wrote his letter to the church there (Colossians 1:2). He expresses in his letter to Philemon (Colossians 1:22) his hope to visit it on being delivered from his imprisonment. From Colossians 1:7; Colossians 4:12 it has been concluded that Epaphras was the founder of the Colossian church. This town afterwards fell into decay, and the modern town of Chonas or Chonum occupies a site near its ruins.

Colossians, Epistle to the

Was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there (Acts 28:16, Acts 28:30), probably in the spring of A.D. 57, or, as some think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians. Like some of his other epistles (e.g., those to Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the internal state of the church there (Colossians 1:4). Its object was to counteract false teaching. A large part of it is directed against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with Christianity, thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a higher spiritual life and a deeper insight into the world of spirits. Paul argues against such teaching, showing that in Christ Jesus they had all things. He sets forth the majesty of his redemption. The mention of the "new moon" and "sabbath days" (Colossians 2:16) shows also that there were here Judaizing teachers who sought to draw away the disciples from the simplicity of the gospel.

Like most of Paul's epistles, this consists of two parts, a doctrinal and a practical. (1.) The doctrinal part comprises the first two chapters. His main theme is developed in chapter 2. He warns them against being drawn away from Him in whom dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead, and who was the head of all spiritual powers. Christ was the head of the body of which they were members; and if they were truly united to him, what needed they more?

(2.) The practical part of the epistle (Col. 3-4) enforces various duties naturally flowing from the doctrines expounded. They are exhorted to mind things that are above (Colossians 3:1), to mortify every evil principle of their nature, and to put on the new man (Colossians 3:5). Many special duties of the Christian life are also insisted upon as the fitting evidence of the Christian character. Tychicus was the bearer of the letter, as he was also of that to the Ephesians and to Philemon, and he would tell them of the state of the apostle (Colossians 4:7). After friendly greetings (Colossians 4:10), he bids them interchange this letter with that he had sent to the neighbouring church of Laodicea. He then closes this brief but striking epistle with his usual autograph salutation. There is a remarkable resemblance between this epistle and that to the Ephesians (q.v.). The genuineness of this epistle has not been called in question.

Comforter

The designation of the Holy Ghost (Gospel of John 14:16, Gospel of John 14:26; Gospel of John 15:26; Gospel of John 16:7; R.V. marg., "or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos "). The same Greek word thus rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1_John 2:1 as applicable to Christ.

It means properly "one who is summoned to the side of another" to help him in a court of justice by defending him, "one who is summoned to plead a cause." "Advocate" is the proper rendering of the word in every case where it occurs. It is worthy of notice that although Paul nowhere uses the word paracletos, he yet presents the idea it embodies when he speaks of the "intercession" both of Christ and the Spirit (Romans 8:27, Romans 8:34).

Coming of Christ

(1.) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the time" (1_John 5:20; 2_John 1:7), or (2.) with reference to his coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11; Acts 3:20, Acts 3:21; 1_Thessalonians 4:15; 2_Timothy 4:1; Hebrews 9:28). The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of the gospel into any place (Gospel of John 15:22; Ephesians 2:17), the visible establishment of his kingdom in the world (Gospel of Matthew 16:28), the conferring on his people of the peculiar tokens of his love (Gospel of John 14:18, Gospel of John 14:23, Gospel of John 14:28), and his executing judgment on the wicked (2_Thessalonians 2:8).

Commandments, The Ten

(Exodus 34:28; Deuteronomy 10:4, marg. "ten words") i.e., the Decalogue (q.v.), is a summary of the immutable moral law. These commandments were first given in their written form to the people of Israel when they were encamped at Sinai, about fifty days after they came out of Egypt (Ex. 19:10-25). They were written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The first tables were broken by Moses when he brought them down from the mount (Exodus 32:19), being thrown by him on the ground. At the command of God he took up into the mount two other tables, and God wrote on them "the words that were on the first tables" (Exodus 34:1). These tables were afterwards placed in the ark of the covenant (Deuteronomy 10:5; 1_Kings 8:9). Their subsequent history is unknown. They are as a whole called "the covenant" (Deuteronomy 4:13), and "the tables of the covenant" (Deuteronomy 9:9, Deuteronomy 9:11; Hebrews 9:4), and "the testimony." They are obviously "ten" in number, but their division is not fixed, hence different methods of numbering them have been adopted. The Jews make the "Preface" one of the commandments, and then combine the first and second. The Roman Catholics and Lutherans combine the first and second and divide the tenth into two. The Jews and Josephus divide them equally. The Lutherans and Roman Catholics refer three commandments to the first table and seven to the second. The Greek and Reformed Churches refer four to the first and six to the second table. The Samaritans add to the second that Gerizim is the mount of worship. (See LAW.)

Communion

Fellowship with God (Gen. 18:17-33; Exodus 33:9; Numbers 12:7, Numbers 12:8), between Christ and his people (Gospel of John 14:23), by the Spirit (2_Corinthians 13:14; Philippians 2:1), of believers with one another (Ephesians 4:1). The Lord's Supper is so called (1_Corinthians 10:16, 1_Corinthians 10:17), because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his disciples, and of the disciples with one another.

Conaniah

Whom Jehovah hath set, a Levite placed over the tithes brought into the temple (2_Chronicles 35:9).

Concision

(Gr. katatome ; i.e., "mutilation"), a term used by Paul contemptuously of those who were zealots for circumcision (Philippians 3:2). Instead of the warning, "Beware of the circumcision" (peritome) i.e., of the party who pressed on Gentile converts the necessity of still observing that ordinance, he says, "Beware of the concision;" as much as to say, "This circumcision which they vaunt of is in Christ only as the gashings and mutilations of idolatrous heathen."

Concubine

In the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews, from various causes, the difference between a wife and a concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws recorded providing for their protection (Exodus 21:7; Deuteronomy 21:10), and setting limits to the relation they sustained to the household to which they belonged (Genesis 21:14; Genesis 25:6).

They had no authority in the family, nor could they share in the household government. The immediate cause of concubinage might be gathered from the conjugal histories of Abraham and Jacob (Gen. 16; 30). But in process of time the custom of concubinage degenerated, and laws were made to restrain and regulate it (Exodus 21:7).

Christianity has restored the sacred institution of marriage to its original character, and concubinage is ranked with the sins of fornication and adultery (Gospel of Matthew 19:5; 1_Corinthians 7:2).

Concupiscence

Desire, Romans 7:8 (R.V., "coveting"); Colossians 3:5 (R.V., "desire"). The "lust of concupiscence" (1_Thessalonians 4:5; R.V., "passion of lust") denotes evil desire, indwelling sin.

Conduit

A water-course or channel (Job 38:25). The "conduit of the upper pool" (Isaiah 7:3) was formed by Hezekiah for the purpose of conveying the waters from the upper pool in the valley of Gihon to the west side of the city of David (2_Kings 18:17; 2_Kings 20:20; 2_Chronicles 32:30). In carrying out this work he stopped "the waters of the fountains which were without the city" i.e., "the upper water-course of Gihon" - and conveyed it down from the west through a canal into the city, so that in case of a siege the inhabitants of the city might have a supply of water, which would thus be withdrawn from the enemy. (See SILOAM.)

There are also the remains of a conduit which conducted water from the so-called "Pools of Solomon," beyond Bethlehem, into the city. Water is still conveyed into the city from the fountains which supplied these pools by a channel which crosses the valley of Hinnom.

Coney

(Heb. shaphan ; i.e., "the hider"), an animal which inhabits the mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land. "The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks" (Proverbs 30:26; Psalms 104:18).

They are gregarious, and "exceeding wise" (Proverbs 30:24), and are described as chewing the cud (Leviticus 11:5; Deuteronomy 14:7). The animal intended by this name is known among naturalists as the Hyrax Syriacus. It is neither a ruminant nor a rodent, but is regarded as akin to the rhinoceros. When it is said to "chew the cud," the Hebrew word so used does not necessarily imply the possession of a ruminant stomach. "The lawgiver speaks according to appearances; and no one can watch the constant motion of the little creature's jaws, as it sits continually working its teeth, without recognizing the naturalness of the expression" (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible). It is about the size and colour of a rabbit, though clumsier in structure, and without a tail. Its feet are not formed for digging, and therefore it has its home not in burrows but in the clefts of the rocks. "Coney" is an obsolete English word for "rabbit."

Confection

(Exodus 30:35, "ointment" in Exodus 30:25; R.V., "perfume"). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root meaning to compound oil and perfume.

Confectionaries

Only in 1_Samuel 8:13, those who make confections, i.e., perfumers, who compound species and perfumes.

Confession

(1.) An open profession of faith (Gospel of Luke 12:8). (2.) An acknowledment of sins to God (Leviticus 16:21; Ezra 9:5; Daniel 9:3), and to a neighbour whom we have wronged (James 5:16; Gospel of Matthew 18:15).

Congregation

(Heb. kahal ), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community (Numbers 15:15). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Exodus 12:19; Numbers 9:14; Deuteronomy 23:1), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Exodus 12:19; Numbers 9:14; Numbers 15:15). The congregation were summonded together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met at the door of the tabernacle (Numbers 10:3]) These assemblies were convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious services (Exodus 12:27; Numbers 25:6; Joel 2:15), or of receiving new commandments (Exodus 19:7, Exodus 19:8). The elders, who were summonded by the sound of one trumpet (Numbers 10:4), represented on various occasions the whole congregation (Exodus 3:16; Exodus 12:21; Exodus 17:5; Exodus 24:1).

After the conquest of Canaan, the people were assembled only on occasions of the highest national importance (Judg. 20; 2_Chronicles 30:5; 2_Chronicles 34:29; 1_Samuel 10:17; 2_Samuel 5:1; 1_Kings 12:20; 2_Kings 11:19; 2_Kings 21:24; 2_Kings 23:30). In subsequent times the congregation was represented by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue, applied in the Septuagint version exclusively to the congregation, came to be used to denote the places of worship established by the Jews. (See CHURCH.)

In Acts 13:43, where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (q.v.) in Acts 13:42, and is so rendered in Acts 13:43 in R.V.

Congregation, Mount of the

(Isaiah 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised to meet with his people (Exodus 25:22; Exodus 29:42, Exodus 29:43) i.e., the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern mountain, supposed by the Babylonians to be the meeting-place of their gods. In the Babylonian inscriptions mention is made of a mountain which is described as "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head rivals heaven, whose root is the holy deep."This mountain was regarded in their mythology as the place where the gods had their seat.

Conscience

That faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is common to all men. Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall (Gospel of John 16:2; Acts 26:9; Romans 2:15). It is spoken of as "defiled" (Titus 1:15), and "seared" (1_Timothy 4:2). A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated (Acts 24:16; Romans 9:1; 2_Corinthians 1:12; 1_Timothy 1:5, 1_Timothy 1:19; 1_Peter 3:21).

Consecration

The devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were thus consecrated (Exodus 13:2, Exodus 13:12, Exodus 13:15; Numbers 3:12). The Hebrews devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of war, to the Lord (Leviticus 27:28, Leviticus 27:29). According to the Mosaic law the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God.

In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated to the Lord (1_Peter 2:9).

Consolation of Israel

A name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isaiah 12:1; Isaiah 49:13. The Greek word thus rendered (Gospel of Luke 2:25, paraklesis ) is kindred to that translated "Comforter" in Gospel of John 14:16, etc. parakletos .

Constellation

A cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification and of memory. In Isaiah 13:10, where this word only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew kesil i.e., "fool." This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion (Job 9:9; Job 38:31), a constellation which represented Nimrod, the symbol of folly and impiety. The word some interpret by "the giant" in this place, "some heaven-daring rebel who was chained to the sky for his impiety."

Contentment

A state of mind in which one's desires are confined to his lot whatever it may be (1_Timothy 6:6; 2_Corinthians 9:8). It is opposed to envy (James 3:16), avarice (Hebrews 13:5), ambition (Proverbs 13:10), anxiety (Gospel of Matthew 6:25, Gospel of Matthew 6:34), and repining (1_Corinthians 10:10). It arises from the inward disposition, and is the offspring of humility, and of an intelligent consideration of the rectitude and benignity of divine providence (Psalms 96:1, Psalms 96:2; 145), the greatness of the divine promises (2_Peter 1:4), and our own unworthiness (Genesis 32:10); as well as from the view the gospel opens up to us of rest and peace hereafter (Romans 5:2).

Conversation

Generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Ephesians 2:3; Ephesians 4:22; R.V., "manner of life"); one's deportment or course of life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of verbal communication from one to another (Psalms 50:23; Hebrews 13:5). In Philippians 1:27; Philippians 3:20, a different Greek word is used. It there means one's relations to a community as a citizen, i.e., citizenship.

Conversion

The turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (Acts 16:19-34), of Paul (Acts 9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (Acts 8:26), of Cornelius (Acts 10), of Lydia (Acts 16:13), and others. (See REGENERATION.)

Convocation

A meeting of a religious character as distinguished from congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such convocations were the Sabbaths (Leviticus 23:2, Leviticus 23:3), the Passover (Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:7, Leviticus 23:8; Numbers 28:25), Pentecost (Leviticus 23:21), the feast of Trumpets (Leviticus 23:24; Numbers 29:1), the feast of Weeks (Numbers 28:26), and the feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:35, Leviticus 23:36). The great fast, the annual day of atonement, was "the holy convocation" (Leviticus 23:27; Numbers 29:7).

Cook

A person employed to perform culinary service. In early times among the Hebrews cooking was performed by the mistress of the household (Genesis 18:2; Judges 6:19), and the process was very expeditiously performed (Genesis 27:3, Genesis 27:4, Genesis 27:9, Genesis 27:10). Professional cooks were afterwards employed (1_Samuel 8:13; 1_Samuel 9:23). Few animals, as a rule, were slaughtered (other than sacrifices), except for purposes of hospitality (Genesis 18:7; Gospel of Luke 15:23). The paschal lamb was roasted over a fire (Exodus 12:8, Exodus 12:9; 2_Chronicles 35:13). Cooking by boiling was the usual method adopted (Leviticus 8:31; Exodus 16:23). No cooking took place on the Sabbath day (Exodus 35:3).

Coos

(Written Cos in the R.V.) A small island, one of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of Caria. Paul on his return from his third missionary journey, passed the night here after sailing from Miletus (Acts 21:1). It is now called Stanchio.

Copper

Derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called "Cyprian brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra 8:27. Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly rendered "brass," and sometimes "steel" (2_Samuel 22:35; Jeremiah 15:12). The "bow of steel" (Job 20:24; Psalms 18:34])should have been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the R.V.). The vessels of "fine copper" of Ezra 8:27 were probably similar to those of "bright brass" mentioned in 1_Kings 7:45; Daniel 10:6.

Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron (Genesis 4:22). Hiram was noted as a worker in brass (1_Kings 7:14). Copper abounded in Palestine (Deuteronomy 8:9; Isaiah 60:17; 1_Chronicles 22:3, 1_Chronicles 22:14). All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle and the temple were made of it (Leviticus 6:28; Numbers 16:39; 2_Chronicles 4:16; Ezra 8:27); also weapons of war (1_Samuel 17:5, 1_Samuel 17:6, 1_Samuel 17:38; 2_Samuel 21:16). Iron is mentioned only four times (Genesis 4:22; Leviticus 26:19; Numbers 31:22; Numbers 35:16) in the first four books of Moses, while copper (rendered "brass") is mentioned forty times. (See BRASS.)

We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a "coppersmith" of Ephesus (2_Timothy 4:14).

Cor

This Hebrew word, untranslated, denotes a round vessel used as a measure both for liquids and solids. It was equal to one homer, and contained ten ephahs in dry and ten baths in liquid measure (Ezekiel 45:14). The Rabbins estimated the cor at forty-five gallons, while Josephus estimated it at about eighty-seven. In 1_Kings 4:22; 1_Kings 5:11; 2_Chronicles 2:10; 2_Chronicles 27:5, the original word is rendered "measure."

Coral

Heb. ramoth , meaning "heights;" i.e., "high-priced" or valuable things, or, as some suppose, "that which grows high," like a tree (Job 28:18; Ezekiel 27:16), according to the Rabbins, red coral, which was in use for ornaments.

The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the deposit by minute polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in which the animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it grows, but usually is branched like a tree. Great coral reefs +and coral islands abound in the Red Sea, whence probably the Hebrews derived their knowledge of it. It is found of different colours, white, black, and red. The red, being esteemed the most precious, was used, as noticed above, for ornamental purposes.

Corban

A Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and left untranslated. It occurs only once (Gospel of Mark 7:11). It means a gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the year of jubilee (Leviticus 27:16). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.

Cord

Frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Exodus 35:18; Exodus 39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isaiah 5:18), binding prisoners (Judges 15:13; Psalms 2:3; Psalms 129:4), and measuring ground (2 Sam. 8; 2; Psalms 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. "Is not their tent-cord plucked up?" R.V.). To gird one's self with a cord was a token of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant to level it with the ground (Lamentations 2:8). The "cords of sin" are the consequences or fruits of sin (Proverbs 5:22) A "threefold cord" is a symbol of union (Ecclesiastes 4:12). The "cords of a man" (Hosea 11:4) means that men employ, in inducing each other, methods such as are suitable to men, and not "cords" such as oxen are led by. Isaiah (Isaiah 5:18) says, "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope." This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: "Woe to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are strong and are like a cart rope." This may be the true meaning. The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which their sins deserved."

Coriander

Heb. gad , (Exodus 16:31; Numbers 11:7), seed to which the manna is likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a spice. The Greek name of this plant is korion or koriannon , whence the name "coriander."

Corinth

A Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (146 B.C.), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern Greece or Achaia (Acts 18:12). It was noted for its wealth, and for the luxurious and immoral and vicious habits of the people. It had a large mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. When Paul first visited the city (A.D. 51 or 52), Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul. Here Paul resided for eighteen months (Acts 18:1-18). Here he first became aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and soon after his departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval he visited it a second time, and remained for three months (Acts 20:3). During this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written (probably A.D. 55). Although there were many Jewish converts at Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there.

Some have argued from 2_Corinthians 12:14; 2_Corinthians 13:1, that Paul visited Corinth a third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he visited the city between what are usually called the first and second visits). But the passages referred to only indicate Paul's intention to visit Corinth (compare 1_Corinthians 16:5, where the Greek present tense denotes an intention), an intention which was in some way frustrated. We can hardly suppose that such a visit could have been made by the apostle without more distinct reference to it.

Corinthians, First Epistle to the

Was written from Ephesus (1_Corinthians 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10; Acts 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57).

The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and then from a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe," and from Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him (1_Corinthians 1:11; 1_Corinthians 16:17). Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that has sprung up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter (2_Corinthians 2:13; 2_Corinthians 8:6, 2_Corinthians 8:16).

The epistle may be divided into four parts: (1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor. 1-4).

(2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought the very first principles of morality (1_Corinthians 5:1; 6).

(3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to him. He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord's supper (1 Cor. 7-14).

(4.) The concluding part (1 Cor. 15; 16) contains an elaborate defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been called in question by some among them, followed by some general instructions, intimations, and greetings. This epistle "shows the powerful selfcontrol of the apostle in spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature. It was written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart... and with streaming eyes' (2_Corinthians 2:4); yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early church... It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear.

This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin. The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi. This error arose from a mistranslation of 1_Corinthians 16:5, "For I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am passing through Macedonia." In 1_Corinthians 16:8 he declares his intention of remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After tha, his purpose is to "pass through Macedonia."

Corinthians, Second Epistle to the

Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed (1_Corinthians 16:9; 2_Corinthians 1:8; 2_Corinthians 2:12, 2_Corinthians 2:13). He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2_Corinthians 7:6, 2_Corinthians 7:7), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year A.D. 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia, i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.

The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged: (1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7).

(2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (2 Cor. 8; 2_Corinthians 9:1).

(3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (2 Cor. 10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal." Lias, Second Corinthians.

Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information. We know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it (Acts 20:2, Acts 20:3), and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months. In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.

Cormorant

(Leviticus 11:17; Deuteronomy 14:17), Heb. shalak , "plunging," or "darting down (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean" birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley during several months of the year. But there is no reason to depart from the ordinary rendering.

In Isaiah 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14 (but in R.V., "pelican") the Hebrew word rendered by this name is ka'ath . It is translated "pelican" (q.v.) in Psalms 102:6. The word literally means the "vomiter," and the pelican is so called from its vomiting the shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See PELICAN.)

Corn

The word so rendered (dagan) in Genesis 27:28, Genesis 27:37; Numbers 18:27; Deuteronomy 28:51; Lamentations 2:12 is a general term representing all the commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds, peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in Gospel of John 12:24.

In Genesis 41:35, Genesis 41:49; Proverbs 11:26; Joel 2:24 ("wheat"), the word thus translated (bar; i.e., "winnowed") means corn purified from chaff. With this corresponds the use of the word in the New Testament (Gospel of Matthew 3:12; Gospel of Luke 3:17; Acts 7:12). In Psalms 65:13 it means "growing corn.&q

ot; In Genesis 42:1, Genesis 42:2, Genesis 42:19; Joshua 9:14; Nehemiah 10:31 ("victuals"), the word (sheber; i.e., "broken," i.e., grist) denotes generally victuals, provisions, and corn as a principal article of food.

From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from Palestine (Ezekiel 27:17; Amos 8:5). "Plenty of corn" was a part of Issac's blessing conferred upon Jacob (Genesis 27:28; compare Psalms 65:13).

Cornelius

A centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a "devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized and admitted into the Christian church (Acts 10:1, Acts 10:44). (See CENTURION.)

Corner

The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Proverbs 7:8). "Corners" in Nehemiah 9:22 denotes the various districts of the promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Numbers 24:17, the "corners of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" (Leviticus 19:9; Leviticus 23:22) is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers running round the ears (Leviticus 19:27; Leviticus 21:5).

The "four corners of the earth" in Isaiah 11:12 and Ezekiel 7:2 denotes the whole land. The "corners of the streets" mentioned in Gospel of Matthew 6:5 means the angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of public resort. The corner gate of Jerusalem (2_Kings 14:13; 2_Chronicles 26:9) was on the north-west side of the city.

Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isaiah 28:16), a block of great importance in binding together the sides of a building. The "head of the corner" (Psalms 118:22, Psalms 118:23) denotes the coping, the "coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone of a building. But the word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote some person of rank and importance (Isaiah 28:16). It is applied to our Lord, who was set in highest honour (Gospel of Matthew 21:42). He is also styled "the chief corner stone" (Ephesians 2:20; 1_Peter 2:6). When Zechariah (Zechariah 10:4), speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner stone." (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON's.)

Cornet

Heb. shophar , "brightness," with reference to the clearness of its sound (1_Chronicles 15:28; 2_Chronicles 15:14; Psalms 98:6; Hosea 5:8). It is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long. The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Daniel 3:5, Daniel 3:7, Daniel 3:10, Daniel 3:15, the word (keren) so rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in 2_Samuel 6:5 (Heb. mena'an'im , occurring only here] was some kind of instrument played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.

Cotes

Pens or enclosures for flocks (2_Chronicles 32:28, "cotes for flocks;" R.V., "flocks in folds").

Cottage

(1.) A booth in a vineyard (Isaiah 1:8); a temporary shed covered with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter (Job 27:18).

(2.) A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in Isaiah 1:8); a slighter structure than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more temporary than a vineyard (Isaiah 24:20). It denotes a frail structure of boughs supported on a few poles, which is still in use in the East, or a hammock suspended between trees, in which the watchman was accustomed to sleep during summer.

(3.) In Zephaniah 2:6 it is the rendering of the Hebrew keroth, which some suppose to denote rather "pits" (R.V. marg., "caves") or "wells of water," such as shepherds would sink.

Couch

(Genesis 49:4; 1_Chronicles 5:1; Job 7:13; Psalms 6:6, etc.), a seat for repose or rest. (See BED.)

Coulter

(1_Samuel 13:20, 1_Samuel 13:21), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" (Isaiah 2:4; Micah 4:3; Joel 3:10). It was the facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter.

Council

Spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor of a province (Acts 25:12).

The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the "judgment," perhaps, in Gospel of Matthew 5:21, Gospel of Matthew 5:22) in the cities of Palestine (Gospel of Matthew 10:17; Gospel of Mark 13:9). In the time of Christ the functions of the Sanhedrim were limited (Gospel of John 16:2; 2_Corinthians 11:24). In Psalms 68:27 the word "council" means simply a company of persons. (R.V. marg., "company.")

In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an assembly of pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation of church affairs. The first of these councils was that of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem, of which we have a detailed account in Acts 15.

Counsellor

An adviser (Proverbs 11:14; Proverbs 15:22), a king's state counsellor (2_Samuel 15:12) Used once of the Messiah (Isaiah 9:6). In Gospel of Mark 15:43; Gospel of Luke 23:50 the word probably means a member of the Jewish Sanhedrim.

Courses

When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded, among the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to be conducted in the house of God. (1.) He divided the priests into twenty-four courses (1 Chr. 24:1-19), sixteen being of the house of Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was under a head or chief, and ministered for a week, the order being determined by lot. (2.) The rest of the 38,000 Levites (1_Chronicles 23:4) were divided also into twenty-four courses, each to render some allotted service in public worship: 4,000 in twenty-four courses were set apart as singers and musicians under separate leaders (1_Chronicles 23:25); 4,000 as porters or keepers of the doors and gates of the sanctuary (1 Chr. 26:1-19); and 6,000 as officers and judges to see to the administration of the law in all civil and ecclesiastical matters (1_Chronicles 26:20).

This arrangement was re-established by Hezekiah (2_Chronicles 31:2); and afterwards the four sacerdotal courses which are said to have returned from the Captivity were re-divided into the original number of twenty-four by Ezra (Ezra 6:18).

Court

The enclosure of the tabernacle (Exodus 27:9; Exodus 40:8), of the temple (1_Kings 6:36), of a prison (Nehemiah 3:25), of a private house (2_Samuel 17:18), and of a king's palace (2_Kings 20:4).

Covenant

A contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated. Berith is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jeremiah 34:18, Jeremiah 34:19).

The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke , which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the word berith of the Old Testament, "covenant.&q

ot; This word is used (1.) of a covenant or compact between man and man (Genesis 21:32), or between tribes or nations (1_Samuel 11:1; Joshua 9:6, Joshua 9:15). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Genesis 31:50), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1_Samuel 20:8). The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Proverbs 2:17), because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isaiah 28:15, Isaiah 28:18).

(2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9; Jeremiah 33:20, "my covenant"). We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, compare Leviticus 26:42), of the covenant of the priesthood (Numbers 25:12, Numbers 25:13; Deuteronomy 33:9; Nehemiah 13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Exodus 34:27, Exodus 34:28; Leviticus 26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34; Ezra 10; Neh. 9). In conformity with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deuteronomy 4:31; Psalms 89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17). Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Psalms 89:3, Psalms 89:4; Psalms 105:8; Hebrews 6:13; Gospel of Luke 1:68). God's covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isaiah 59:21; Jeremiah 31:33, Jeremiah 31:34). The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jeremiah 33:20), the Sabbath (Exodus 31:16), circumcision (Genesis 17:9, Genesis 17:10), and in general any ordinance of God (Jeremiah 34:13, Jeremiah 34:14). A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Numbers 18:19; Leviticus 2:13; 2_Chronicles 13:5). COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation. In this covenant, (1.) The contracting parties were (a.) God the moral Governor, and (b.) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Romans 5:12). (2.) The promise was "life" (Gospel of Matthew 19:16, Gospel of Matthew 19:17; Galatians 3:12). (3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Genesis 2:16, Genesis 2:17). This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law.

The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant. This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his righteousness. CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts. In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety (Gospel of John 17:4, Gospel of John 17:6, Gospel of John 17:9; Isaiah 42:6; Psalms 89:3). The conditions of this covenant were, (1.) On the part of the Father (a.) all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment of his work (Hebrews 10:5; Isaiah 42:1); (b.) support in the work (Gospel of Luke 22:43); and (c.) a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Philippians 2:6), his investiture with universal dominion (Gospel of John 5:22; Psalms 110:1), his having the administration of the covenant committed into his hands (Gospel of Matthew 28:18; Gospel of John 1:12; Gospel of John 17:2; Acts 2:33), and in the final salvation of all his people (Isaiah 35:10; Isaiah 53:10, Isaiah 53:11; Jeremiah 31:33; Titus 1:2). (2.) On the part of the Son the conditions were (a.) his becoming incarnate (Galatians 4:4, Galatians 4:5); and (b.) as the second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated covenant of works; (c.) obeying the law (Psalms 40:8; Isaiah 42:21; Gospel of John 9:4, Gospel of John 9:5), and (d.) suffering its penalty (Isaiah 53:1; 2_Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:13), in their stead. Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf of his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24, this title is given to Christ. (See DISPENSATION.)

Covering of the Eyes

Occurs only in Genesis 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face.

Covetousness

A strong desire after the possession of worldly things (Colossians 3:5; Ephesians 5:5; Hebrews 13:5; 1_Timothy 6:9, 1_Timothy 6:10; Gospel of Matthew 6:20). It assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is the mark of cold-hearted worldliness.

Cow

A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Leviticus 22:28; Exodus 23:19; Deuteronomy 22:6, Deuteronomy 22:7). The reason for this enactment is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words of Isaiah 7:21, where, instead of possessing great resources, a man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.

Crane

(Isaiah 38:14; Jeremiah 8:7). In both of these passages the Authorized Version has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. "Crane or swallow" should be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine. It is migratory, and is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry being hoarse and melancholy.

Creation

"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed (1.) to the Godhead (Genesis 1:1, Genesis 1:26); (2.) to the Father (1_Corinthians 8:6); (3.) to the Son (Gospel of John 1:3; Colossians 1:16, Colossians 1:17); (4.) to the Holy Spirit (Genesis 1:2; Job 26:13; Psalms 104:30). The fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God (Isaiah 37:16; Isaiah 40:12, Isaiah 40:13; Isaiah 54:5; Psalms 96:5; Jeremiah 10:11, Jeremiah 10:12). The one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of the glory of the Creator (Colossians 1:16; Revelation 4:11; Romans 11:36). God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the teachings of the one and those of the other, when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction. Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD.) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.

Creature

Denotes the whole creation in Romans 8:39; Colossians 1:15; Revelation 5:13; the whole human race in Gospel of Mark 16:15; Romans 8:19.

The living creatures in Ezekiel 10:15, Ezekiel 10:17, are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes and operations.

Crescens

Increasing, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He was one of Paul's assistants (2_Timothy 4:10), probably a Christian of Rome.

Crete

Now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Titus 1:12). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). The island was visited by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left Titus (Titus 1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.

Crimson

See COLOUR.

Crisping-pin

(Isaiah 3:22; R.V., "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word harit properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in 2_Kings 5:23.

Crispus

Curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1_Corinthians 1:14).

Cross

In the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Ephesians 2:16; Hebrews 12:2; 1_Corinthians 1:17, 1_Corinthians 1:18; Galatians 5:11; Galatians 6:12, Galatians 6:14; Philippians 3:18).

The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Gospel of Matthew 10:38; Gospel of Matthew 16:24; Gospel of Mark 8:34; Gospel of Mark 10:21). The forms in which the cross is represented are these: (1.) The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom." (2.) The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross. (3.) The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross. (4.) The crux immissa ( or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the projecting beam, was placed the "title." (See CRUCIFIXION.) After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (313 B.C.), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P ( chi and rho ), with the Alpha and Omega . (See ALPHA.)

Crown

(1.) Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest's mitre (Exodus 29:6; Exodus 39:30). The same Hebrew word so rendered ( ne'zer ) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2_Samuel 1:10), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash (2_Kings 11:12).

(2.) The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is 'atarah , meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown taken from the king of Ammon by David (2_Samuel 12:30). The crown worn by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre, sometimes adorned with flowers. There are sculptures also representing the crowns worn by the early Egyptian and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or three countries. In Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1, we read of "many crowns," a token of extended dominion.

(3.) The ancient Persian crown (Esther 1:11; Esther 2:17; Esther 6:8) was called kether; i.e., "a chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn sometimes to represent honour and power (Ezekiel 23:42).

They were worn at marriages (Song_of_Solomon 3:11; Isaiah 61:10, "ornaments;" R.V., "a garland"), and at feasts and public festivals. The crown was among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory and reward. The crown or wreath worn by the victors in the Olympic games was made of leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the "civic crown" on him who saved the life of a citizen. It was made of the leaves of the oak. In opposition to all these fading crowns the apostles speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life (James 1:12; Revelation 2:10) "that fadeth not away" (1_Peter 5:4, Gr. amarantinos ; compare 1_Peter 1:4). Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to flowers we call "everlasting," the "immortal amaranth."

Crown of Thorns

Our Lord was crowned with a, in mockery by the Romans (Gospel of Matthew 27:29). The object of Pilate's guard in doing this was probably to insult, and not specially to inflict pain. There is nothing to show that the shrub thus used was, as has been supposed, the spina Christi, which could have been easily woven into a wreath. It was probably the thorny nabk, which grew abundantly round about Jerusalem, and whose flexible, pliant, and round branches could easily be platted into the form of a crown. (See THORN, 3.)

Crucifixion

A common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times. It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Ex. 21), strangling, fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21).

This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deuteronomy 21:23.

This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging. In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment (Gospel of Luke 23:22; Gospel of John 19:1).

The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose. Before the nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be clear (Gospel of Matthew 27:34). The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca, the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Gospel of Matthew 27:48; Gospel of Luke 23:36), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst (Gospel of John 19:29). The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases. He was crucified between two "malefactors" (Isaiah 53:12; Gospel of Luke 23:32), and was watched by a party of four soldiers (Gospel of John 19:23; Gospel of Matthew 27:36, Gospel of Matthew 27:54), with their centurion. The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended to hasten death, and put them out of misery (Gospel of John 19:31); but the unusual rapidity of our Lord's death (Gospel of John 19:33) was due to his previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. The omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfillment of a type (Exodus 12:46). He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart, and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier's spear (Gospel of John 19:34). Our Lord uttered seven memorable words from the cross, namely, (1.) Gospel of Luke 23:34; (2.) Gospel of Luke 23:43; (3.) Gospel of John 19:26; (4.) Gospel of Matthew 27:46, Gospel of Mark 15:34; (5.) Gospel of John 19:28; (6.) Gospel of John 19:30; (7.) Gospel of Luke 23:46.

Cruse

A utensil; a flask or cup for holding water (1_Samuel 26:11, 1_Samuel 26:12, 1_Samuel 26:16; 1_Kings 19:6) or oil (1_Kings 17:12, 1_Kings 17:14, 1_Kings 17:16). In 1_Kings 14:3 the word there so rendered means properly a bottle, as in Jeremiah 19:1, Jeremiah 19:10, or pitcher. In 2_Kings 2:20, a platter or flat metal saucer is intended. The Hebrew word here used is translated "dish" in 2_Kings 21:13; "pans," in 2_Chronicles 35:13; and "bosom," in Proverbs 19:24; Proverbs 26:15 (R.V., "dish")

Crystal

(Ezekiel 1:22, with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Revelation 4:6; Revelation 21:11; Revelation 22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally "ice." The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time.

Cubit

Heb. 'ammah ; i.e., "mother of the arm," the fore-arm, is a word derived from the Latin cubitus , the lower arm. It is difficult to determine the exact length of this measure, from the uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit. The common computation as to the length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches for the ordinary cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. This is the same as the Egyptian measurements.

A rod or staff the measure of a cubit is called in Judges 3:16 gomed, which literally means a "cut," something "cut off." The LXX. and Vulgate render it "span."

Cuckoo

(Heb. shahaph ), from a root meaning "to be lean; slender." This bird is mentioned only in Leviticus 11:16 and Deuteronomy 14:15 (R.V., "seamew"). Some have interpreted the Hebrew word by "petrel" or "shearwater" (Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of Syria; others think it denotes the "sea-gull" or "seamew." The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) feeds on reptiles and large insects. It is found in Asia and Africa as well as in Europe. It only passes the winter in Palestine. The Arabs suppose it to utter the cry Yakub, and hence they call it tir el-Yakub; i.e., "Jacob's bird."

Cucumbers

(Heb. plur. kishshuim ; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion, only in Numbers 11:5). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most refreshing. "We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites, wearily marching through the arid solitudes of the Sinaitic peninsula, thought more of the cucumbers and watermelons of which they had had no lack in Egypt, rather than of the cruel bondage which was the price of these luxuries." Groser's Scripture Natural History.

Isaiah speaks of a "lodge" (Isaiah 1:8; Heb. sukkah ), i.e., a shed or edifice more solid than a booth, for the protection throughout the season from spring to autumn of the watchers in a "garden of cucumbers."

Cummin

(Heb. kammon ; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isaiah 28:25, Isaiah 28:27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Gospel of Matthew 23:23, where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the weightier matters of the law." "It is used as a spice, both bruised, to mix with bread, and also boiled, in the various messes and stews which compose an Oriental banquet." Tristram, Natural History.

Cup

A wine-cup (Genesis 40:11, Genesis 40:21), various forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold (1_Kings 10:21).

The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold (Revelation 17:4).

The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt (Gen. 44:2-17), and in the East generally. The "cup of salvation" (Psalms 116:13) is the cup of thanksgiving for the great salvation. The "cup of consolation" (Jeremiah 16:7) refers to the custom of friends sending viands and wine to console relatives in mourning (Proverbs 31:6). In 1_Corinthians 10:16, the "cup of blessing" is contrasted with the "cup of devils" (1_Corinthians 10:21). The sacramental cup is the "cup of blessing," because of blessing pronounced over it (Gospel of Matthew 26:27; Gospel of Luke 22:17). The "portion of the cup" (Psalms 11:6; Psalms 16:5) denotes one's condition of life, prosperous or adverse. A "cup" is also a type of sensual allurement (Jeremiah 51:7; Proverbs 23:31; Revelation 17:4). We read also of the "cup of astonishment," the "cup of trembling," and the "cup of God's wrath" (Psalms 75:8; Isaiah 51:17; Jeremiah 25:15; Lamentations 4:21; Ezekiel 23:32; Revelation 16:19; compare Gospel of Matthew 26:39, Gospel of Matthew 26:42; Gospel of John 18:11). The cup is also the symbol of death (Gospel of Matthew 16:28; Gospel of Mark 9:1; Hebrews 2:9).

Cup-bearer

An officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is mentioned in connection with Joseph's history (Gen. 40:1-21; Genesis 41:9). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court (2_Kings 18:17). Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia (Nehemiah 1:11). We read also of Solomon's cup-bearers (1_Kings 10:5; 2_Chronicles 9:4).

Curious arts

(Acts 19:19), magical arts; jugglery practiced by the Ephesian conjurers. Ephesus was noted for its wizard and the "Ephesian spells;" i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written over with certain formulae, which were worn as a safeguard against all manner of evils. The more important and powerful of these charms were written out in books which circulated among the exorcists, and were sold at a great price.

Curse

Denounced by God against the serpent (Genesis 3:14), and against Cain (Genesis 4:11). These divine maledictions carried their effect with them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men (Genesis 9:25; Genesis 49:7; Deuteronomy 27:15; Joshua 6:26). Such curses are not the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions.

No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother (Exodus 21:17), nor the prince of his people (Exodus 22:28), nor the deaf (Leviticus 19:14). Cursing God or blaspheming was punishable by death (Leviticus 24:10). The words "curse God and die" (R.V., "renounce God and die"), used by Job's wife (Job 2:9), have been variously interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but death was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.

Curtain

(1.) Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide, made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's hair, covered the tabernacle (Exodus 26:1; Exodus 36:8).

(2.) The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh). It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work" (Exodus 26:31; Leviticus 16:2; Numbers 18:7).

(3.) "Stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain" (Isaiah 40:22), is an expression used with reference to the veil or awning which Orientals spread for a screen over their courts in summer. According to the prophet, the heavens are spread over our heads as such an awning. Similar expressions are found in Psalms 104:2; compare Isaiah 44:24; Job 9:8.

Cush

Black. (1.) A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod (Genesis 10:8; 1_Chronicles 1:10). From him the land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush (Genesis 2:13, R.V.). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10, A.V. "Ethiopia," Heb. Cush ), with which it is generally associated (Psalms 68:31; Isaiah 18:1; Jeremiah 46:9, etc.). It stands also associated with Elam (Isaiah 11:11), with Persia (Ezekiel 38:5), and with the Sabeans (Isaiah 45:14). From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks (Ezekiel 29:10; compare Ezekiel 30:4) of it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us as Nubia and Abyssinia (Isaiah 18:1; Zephaniah 3:10, Heb. Cush ). In ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh. The Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts, stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India." The Hamite races, soon after their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west. Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief. He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation.

(2.) A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Ps. 7. "Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe, and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of 'rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him.'"

Cushan

Probably a poetic or prolonged name of the land of Cush - the Arabian Cush (Habakkuk 3:7). Some have, however, supposed this to be the same as Chushan-rishathaim (Judges 3:8, Judges 3:10) - i.e., taking the latter part of the name as a title or local appellation, Chushan "of the two iniquities" (=oppressing Israel, and provoking them to idolatry) - a Mesopotamian king, identified by Rawlinson with Asshur-ris-ilim (the father of Tiglathpileser I.); but incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was not yet founded. He held Israel in bondage for eight years.

Cushite

(1.) The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory over Absalom (2_Samuel 18:32).

(2.) The father of Shelemiah (Jeremiah 36:14).

(3.) Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah (Zephaniah 1:1).

(4.) Moses married a Cushite woman (Numbers 12:1). From this circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was Cush.

Custom

A tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities, and in the public highways, and at the place set apart for that purpose, called the "receipt of custom" (Gospel of Matthew 9:9; Gospel of Mark 2:14), where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain goods (Gospel of Matthew 17:25). These publicans were tempted to exact more from the people than was lawful, and were, in consequence of their extortions, objects of great hatred. The Pharisees would have no intercourse with them (Gospel of Matthew 5:46, Gospel of Matthew 5:47; Gospel of Matthew 9:10, Gospel of Matthew 9:11).

A tax or tribute (q.v.) of half a shekel was annually paid by every adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin (Gospel of Matthew 22:17; Gospel of Mark 12:14, Gospel of Mark 12:15). Money-changers (q.v.) were necessary, to enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the feasts to exchange their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as it was forbidden by the law to carry on such a traffic for emolument (Deuteronomy 23:19, Deuteronomy 23:20), our Lord drove them from the temple (Gospel of Matthew 21:12; Gospel of Mark 11:15).

Cuthah

One of the Babylonian cities or districts from which Shalmaneser transplanted certain colonists to Samaria (2_Kings 17:24). Some have conjectured that the "Cutheans" were identical with the "Cossaeans" who inhabited the hill-country to the north of the river Choaspes. Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15 miles north-east of Babylon.

Cutting

The flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice - a part of idol worship (Deuteronomy 14:1; 1_Kings 18:28). The Israelites were commanded not to imitate this practice (Leviticus 19:28; Leviticus 21:5; Deuteronomy 14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection (Jeremiah 16:6; Jeremiah 41:5; Jeremiah 48:37).

Allusions are made in Revelation (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 19:20) to the practice of printing marks on the body, to indicate allegiance to a deity. We find also references to it, through in a different direction, by Paul (Gal. 6; 7) and by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 9:4). (See HAIR.)

Cymbals

(Heb. tzeltzelim , from a root meaning to "tinkle"), musical instruments, consisting of two convex pieces of brass one held in each hand, which were clashed together to produce a loud clanging sound; castanets; "loud cymbals." "High-sounding cymbals" consisted of two larger plates, one held also in each hand (2_Samuel 6:5; Psalms 150:5; 1_Chronicles 13:8; 1_Chronicles 15:16, 1_Chronicles 15:19, 1_Chronicles 15:28; 1_Corinthians 13:1).

Cypress

(Heb. tirzah , "hardness"), mentioned only in Isaiah 44:14 (R.V., "holm tree"). The oldest Latin version translates this word by ilex - i.e., the evergreen oak - which may possibly have been the tree intended; but there is great probability that our Authorized Version is correct in rendering it "cypress." This tree grows abundantly on the mountains of Hermon. Its wood is hard and fragrant, and very durable. Its foliage is dark and gloomy. It is an evergreen (Cupressus sempervirens). "Throughout the East it is used as a funereal tree; and its dark, tall, waving plumes render it peculiarly appropriate among the tombs."

Cyprus

One of the largest islands of the Mediterranean - about 148 miles long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament (Numbers 24:24). The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros , from the cyprus - i.e., the henna (see CAMPHIRE) - which grew on this island. It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In 477 B.C. it fell under the dominion of the Greeks; and became a Roman province 58 B.C.. In ancient times it was a centre of great commercial activity. Corn and wine and oil were produced here in the greatest perfection.

It was rich also in timber and in mineral wealth. It is first mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 4:36) as the native place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul's first missionary labours (Acts 13:4), when he and Barnabas and John Mark were sent forth by the church of Antioch. It was afterwards visited by Barnabas and Mark alone (Acts 15:39). Mnason, an "old disciple," probaly one of the converts of the day of Pentecost belonging to this island, is mentioned (Acts 21:16). It is also mentioned in connection with the voyages of Paul (Acts 21:3; Acts 27:4). After being under the Turks for three hundred years, it was given up to the British Government in 1878.

Cyrene

A city (now Tripoli) in Upper Libya, North Africa, founded by a colony of Greeks (630 B.C.). It contained latterly a large number of Jews, who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, because he thought they would contribute to the security of the place. They increased in number and influence; and we are thus prepared for the frequent references to them in connection with the early history of Christianity. Simon, who bore our Lord's cross, was a native of this place (Gospel of Matthew 27:32; Gospel of Mark 15:21). Jews from Cyrene were in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:10); and Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts 6:9). Converts belonging to Cyrene contributed to the formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch (Acts 11:20). Among "the prophets and teachers" who "ministered to the Lord at Antioch" was Lucius of Cyrene (Acts 13:1).

Cyrenius

The Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria at the time of our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled, being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he was dejure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was appointed governor of Syria for the second time. During his tenure of office, at the time of our Lord's birth (Gospel of Luke 2:2), a "taxing" (R.V., "enrollment;" i.e., a registration) of the people was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under his government. (See TAXING.)

Cyrus

(Heb. Koresh ), the celebrated "King of Persia" (Elam) who was conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the Jews (Ezra 1:1, Ezra 1:2). He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia, and was born about 599 B.C.. In the year 559 B.C. he became king of Persia, the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest. Cyrus was a great military leader, bent on universal conquest. Babylon fell before his army (538 B.C.) on the night of Belshazzar's feast (Daniel 5:30), and then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to his empire (cf., "Go up, O Elam" - Isaiah 21:2).

Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus was to them as a "shepherd" (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1). God employed him in doing service to his ancient people. He may possibly have gained, through contact with the Jews, some knowledge of their religion.

The "first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:1) is not the year of his elevation to power over the Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall of Babylon, but the year succeeding the two years during which "Darius the Mede" was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time only (536 B.C.) Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his Babylonian empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people (2_Chronicles 36:22, 2_Chronicles 36:23; Ezra 1:1; Ezra 4:3; Ezra 5:13; Ezra 6:3).

This decree was discovered "at Achmetha [R.V. marg., "Ecbatana"], in the palace that is in the province of the Medes" (Ezra 6:2). A chronicle drawn up just after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of Nabonidus (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of the Babylonian empire. In 538 B.C. there was a revolt in Southern Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis, and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror. Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Kurdistan, was then sent to Babylon, which surrendered "without fighting," and the daily services in the temples continued without a break. In October, Cyrus himself arrived, and proclaimed a general amnesty, which was communicated by Gobryas to "all the province of Babylon," of which he had been made governor. Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was captured, but treated honourably; and when his wife died, Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the title of "king of Babylon," claimed to be the descendant of the ancient kings, and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he allowed the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of their gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they had no images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple.

Daberath

Pasture - a Levitical town of Issachar (Joshua 19:12; Joshua 21:28), near the border of Zebulum. It is the modern small village of Deburich, at the base of Mount Tabor. Tradition has incorrectly made it the scene of the miracle of the cure of the lunatic child (Gospel of Matthew 17:14).

Daemon

The Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings (Gospel of Matthew 8:16; Gospel of Matthew 10:1; Gospel of Matthew 12:43) at enmity with God, and as having a certain power over man (James 2:19; Revelation 16:14). They recognize our Lord as the Son of God (Gospel of Matthew 8:20; Gospel of Luke 4:41). They belong to the number of those angels that "kept not their first estate, "unclean spirits," "fallen angels," the angels of the devil (Gospel of Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7). They are the "principalities and powers" against which we must "wrestle" (Ephesians 6:12).

Daemoniac

One "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his apostles evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted by God to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies of men, inflicting dumbness (Gospel of Matthew 9:32), blindness (Gospel of Matthew 12:22), epilepsy (Gospel of Mark 9:17), insanity (Gospel of Matthew 8:28; Gospel of Mark 5:1). Daemoniacs are frequently distinguished from those who are afflicted with ordinary bodily maladies (Gospel of Mark 1:32; Gospel of Mark 16:17, Gospel of Mark 16:18; Gospel of Luke 6:17, Gospel of Luke 6:18). The daemons speak in their own persons (Gospel of Matthew 8:29; Gospel of Mark 1:23, Gospel of Mark 1:24; Gospel of Mark 5:7). This influence is clearly distinguished from the ordinary power of corruption and of temptation over men. In the daemoniac his personality seems to be destroyed, and his actions, words, and even thoughts to be overborne by the evil spirit (Mark, l.c.; Acts 19:15).

Dagon

Little fish; diminutive from dag = a fish, the fish-god; the national god of the Philistines (Judges 16:23). This idol had the body of a fish with the head and hands of a man. It was an Assyrio-Babylonian deity, the worship of which was introduced among the Philistines through Chaldea. The most famous of the temples of Dagon were at Gaza (Judges 16:23) and Ashdod (1_Samuel 5:1). (See FISH.)

Dagon's House

(1_Samuel 5:2), or Bethdagon, as elsewhere rendered (Joshua 15:41; Joshua 19:27), was the sanctuary or temple of Dagon. The Beth-dagon of Joshua 15:41 was one of the cities of the tribe of Judah, in the lowland or plain which stretches westward. It has not been identified. The Beth-dagon of Joshua 19:27 was one of the border cities of Asher. That of 1_Chronicles 10:10 was in the western half-tribe of Manasseh, where the Philistines, after their victory at Gilboa, placed Saul's head in the temple of their god. (Compare 1_Samuel 31:8.)

Daily Sacrifice

(Daniel 8:12; Daniel 11:31; Daniel 12:11), a burnt offering of two lambs of a year old, which were daily sacrificed in the name of the whole Israelitish people upon the great altar, the first at dawn of day, and the second at evening (Daniel 9:21), or more correctly, "between the two evenings." (See SACRIFICE.)

Dale, The King's

The name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh" (q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham (Genesis 14:17). Some have identified it with the southern part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family monument (2_Samuel 18:18).

Dalmanutha

A place on the west of the Sea of Galilee, mentioned only in Gospel of Mark 8:10. In the parallel passage it is said that Christ came "into the borders of Magdala" (Gospel of Matthew 15:39). It is plain, then, that Dalmanutha was near Magdala, which was probably the Greek name of one of the many Migdols (i.e., watch-towers) on the western side of the lake of Gennesaret. It has been identified in the ruins of a village about a mile from Magdala, in the little open valley of 'Ain-el-Barideh , "the cold fountain," called el-Mejdel, possibly the "Migdal-el" of Joshua 19:38.

Dalmatia

A mountainous country on the eastern shore of the Adriatic, a part of the Roman province of Illyricum. It still bears its ancient name. During Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Titus left him to visit Dalmatia (2_Timothy 4:10) for some unknown purpose. Paul had himself formerly preached in that region (Romans 15:19).

The present Emperor of Austria bears, among his other titles, that of "King of Dalmatia."

Damaris

A heifer, an Athenian woman converted to Christianity under the preaching of Paul (Acts 17:34). Some have supposed that she may have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.

Damascus

Activity, the most ancient of Oriental cities; the capital of Syria (Isaiah 7:8; Isaiah 17:3); situated about 133 miles to the north of Jerusalem. Its modern name is Esh-Sham; i.e., "the East.&q

ot; The situation of this city is said to be the most beautiful of all Western Asia. It is mentioned among the conquests of the Egyptian king Thothmes III. (1500 B.C.), and in the Amarna tablets (1400 B.C.).

It is first mentioned in Scripture in connection with Abraham's victory over the confederate kings under Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14:15). It was the native place of Abraham's steward (Genesis 15:2). It is not again noticed till the time of David, when "the Syrians of Damascus came to succour Hadadezer" (q.v.), 2_Samuel 8:5; 1_Chronicles 18:5. In the reign of Solomon, Rezon became leader of a band who revolted from Hadadezer (1_Kings 11:23), and betaking themselves to Damascus, settled there and made their leader king.

There was a long war, with varying success, between the Israelites and Syrians, who at a later period became allies of Israel against Judah (2_Kings 15:37). The Syrians were at length subdued by the Assyrians, the city of Damascus was taken and destroyed, and the inhabitants carried captive into Assyria (2_Kings 16:7; compare Isaiah 7:8). In this, prophecy was fulfilled (Isaiah 17:1; Amos 1:4; Jeremiah 49:24). The kingdom of Syria remained a province of Assyria till the capture of Nineveh by the Medes (625 B.C.), when it fell under the conquerors. After passing through various vicissitudes, Syria was invaded by the Romans (64 B.C.), and Damascus became the seat of the government of the province. In A.D. 37 Aretas, the king of Arabia, became master of Damascus, having driven back Herod Antipas.

This city is memorable as the scene of Saul's conversion (Acts 9:1-25). The street called "Straight," in which Judas lived, in whose house Saul was found by Ananias, is known by the name Sultany, or "Queen's Street." It is the principal street of the city. Paul visited Damascus again on his return from Arabia (Galatians 1:16, Galatians 1:17). Christianity was planted here as a centre (Acts 9:20), from which it spread to the surrounding regions.

In A.D. 634 Damascus was conquered by the growing Mohammedan power. In A.D. 1516 it fell under the dominion of the Turks, its present rulers. It is now the largest city in Asiatic Turkey. Christianity has again found a firm footing within its walls.

Damnation

In Romans 13:2, means "condemnation," which comes on those who withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of condemnation comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority is thus resisted.

In 1_Corinthians 11:29 (R.V., "judgment") this word means condemnation, in the sense of exposure to severe temporal judgments from God, as the following verse explains.

In Romans 14:23 the word "damned" means "condemned" by one's own conscience, as well as by the Word of God. The apostle shows here that many things which are lawful are not expedient; and that in using our Christian liberty the question should not simply be, Is this course I follow lawful? but also, can I follow it without doing injury to the spiritual interests of a brother in Christ? He that "doubteth", i.e., is not clear in his conscience as to "meats", will violate his conscience "if he eat," and in eating is condemned; and thus one ought not so to use his liberty as to lead one who is "weak" to bring upon himself this condemnation.

Dan

A judge. (1.) The fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's maid (Genesis 30:6, "God hath judged me", Heb. dananni ). The blessing pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall judge his people" (Genesis 49:16), probably in allusion to the judgeship of Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan.

The tribe of Dan had their place in the march through the wilderness on the north side of the tabernacle (Numbers 2:25, Numbers 2:31; Numbers 10:25). It was the last of the tribes to receive a portion in the Land of Promise. Its position and extent are described in Joshua 19:40.

The territory of Dan extended from the west of that of Ephraim and Benjamin to the sea. (2.) It was a small territory, but was very fertile. It included in it, among others, the cities of Lydda, Ekron, and Joppa, which formed its northern boundary. But this district was too limited. "Squeezed into the narrow strip between the mountains and the sea, its energies were great beyond its numbers." Being pressed by the Amorites and the Philistines, whom they were unable to conquer, they longed for a wider space. They accordingly sent out five spies from two of their towns, who went north to the sources of the Jordan, and brought back a favourable report regarding that region. "Arise," they said, "be not slothful to go, and to possess the land," for it is "a place where there is no want of any thing that is in the earth" (Judges 18:10). On receiving this report, 600 Danites girded on their weapons of war, and taking with them their wives and their children, marched to the foot of Hermon, and fought against Leshem, and took it from the Sidonians, and dwelt therein, and changed the name of the conquered town to Dan (Joshua 19:47). This new city of Dan became to them a new home, and was wont to be spoken of as the northern limit of Palestine, the length of which came to be denoted by the expression "from Dan to Beersheba", i.e., about 144 miles. But like Lot under a similar temptation, they seem to have succumbed to the evil influences around them, and to have sunk down into a condition of semi-heathenism from which they never emerged. The mounds of ruins which mark the site of the city show that it covered a considerable extent of ground. But there remains no record of any noble deed wrought by the degenerate tribe. Their name disappears from the roll-book of the natural and the spiritual Israel.", Manning's Those Holy Fields.

This old border city was originally called Laish. Its modern name is Tell el-Kady, "Hill of the Judge." It stands about four miles below Caesarea Philippi, in the midst of a region of surpassing richness and beauty.

(2.) This name occurs in Ezekiel 27:19, Authorize Version; but the words there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised Version, "Vedan," an Arabian city, from which various kinds of merchandise were brought to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been the city of Aden in Arabia. (See MAHANEH-DAN.) See map, Showing the Territory of Dan See also map, Showing the Territory of Asher

Dance

Found in Judges 21:21, Judges 21:23; Psalms 30:11; Psalms 149:3; Psalms 150:4; Jeremiah 31:4, Jeremiah 31:13, etc., as the translation of hul, which points to the whirling motion of Oriental sacred dances. It is the rendering of a word (rakad) which means to skip or leap for joy, in Ecclesiastes 3:4; Job 21:11; Isaiah 13:21, etc.

In the New Testament it is in like manner the translation of different Greek words, circular motion (Gospel of Luke 15:25); leaping up and down in concert (Gospel of Matthew 11:17), and by a single person (Gospel of Matthew 14:6).

It is spoken of as symbolical of rejoicing (Ecclesiastes 3:4. Compare Psalms 30:11; Gospel of Matthew 11:17).

The Hebrews had their sacred dances expressive of joy and thanksgiving, when the performers were usually females (Exodus 15:20; 1_Samuel 18:6). The ancient dance was very different from that common among Western nations. It was usually the part of the women only (Exodus 15:20; Judges 11:34; compare Exodus 5:1). Hence the peculiarity of David's conduct in dancing before the ark of the Lord (2_Samuel 6:14). The women took part in it with their timbrels. Michal should, in accordance with the example of Miriam and others, have herself led the female choir, instead of keeping aloof on the occasion and "looking through the window." David led the choir "uncovered", i.e., wearing only the ephod or linen tunic. He thought only of the honour of God, and forgot himself.

From being reserved for occasions of religious worship and festivity, it came gradually to be practiced in common life on occasions of rejoicing (Jeremiah 31:4). The sexes among the Jews always danced separately. The daughter of Herodias danced alone (Gospel of Matthew 14:6).

Daniel

God is my judge, or judge of God. (1.) David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess" (1_Chronicles 3:1). He is called also Chileab (2_Samuel 3:3).

(2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of the noble families of Judah (Daniel 1:3), and was probably born in Jerusalem about 623 B.C., during the reign of Josiah. At the first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (the kingdom of Israel had come to an end nearly a century before), or immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at the second battle of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim (606 B.C.), Daniel and other three noble youths were carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of the temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right bank of the river.

His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Daniel 1:4) was to fit him for service to the empire. He was distinguished during this period for his piety and his strict observance of the Mosaic law (Daniel 1:8), and gained the confidence and esteem of those who were over him. His habit of attention gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him soon to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to excel his compeers.

At the close of his three years of discipline and training in the royal schools, Daniel was distinguished for his proficiency in the "wisdom" of his day, and was brought out into public life. He soon became known for his skill in the interpretation of dreams (Daniel 1:17; Daniel 2:14), and rose to the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became "chief of the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. He made known and also interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years afterwards, when he was now an old man, amid the alarm and consternation of the terrible night of Belshazzar's impious feast, he was called in at the instance of the queen-mother (perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret the mysterious handwriting on the wall. He was rewarded with a purple robe and elevation to the rank of "third ruler." The place of "second ruler" was held by Belshazzar as associated with his father, Nabonidus, on the throne (Daniel 5:16). Daniel interpreted the handwriting, and "in that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain.&q

ot; After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews (Dan. 9), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing restored to their own land, although he did not return with them, but remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God exposed him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (Daniel 6:26). He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of the decree which put an end to the Captivity (536 B.C.).

He had a series of prophetic visions vouchsafed to him which opened up the prospect of a glorious future for the people of God, and must have imparted peace and gladness to his spirit in his old age as he waited on at his post till the "end of the days." The time and circumstances of his death are not recorded. He probably died at Susa, about eighty-five years of age.

Ezekiel, with whom he was contemporary, mentions him as a pattern of righteousness (Ezekiel 14:14, Ezekiel 14:20) and wisdom (Ezekiel 28:3). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.)

Daniel, Book of

Is ranked by the Jews in that division of their Bible called the Hagiographa (Heb. Khethubim ). (See BIBLE.) It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of the first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part, consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical.

The historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity. Daniel is "the historian of the Captivity, the writer who alone furnishes any series of events for that dark and dismal period during which the harp of Israel hung on the trees that grew by the Euphrates. His narrative may be said in general to intervene between Kings and Chronicles on the one hand and Ezra on the other, or (more strictly) to fill out the sketch which the author of the Chronicles gives in a single verse in his last chapter: 'And them that had escaped from the sword carried he [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar] away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia'" (2_Chronicles 36:20).

The prophetical part consists of three visions and one lengthened prophetical communication.

The genuineness of this book has been much disputed, but the arguments in its favour fully establish its claims. (1.)We have the testimony of Christ (Gospel of Matthew 24:15; Gospel of Matthew 25:31; Gospel of Matthew 26:64) and his apostles (1_Corinthians 6:2; 2_Thessalonians 2:3) for its authority; and (2.) the important testimony of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 14:14, Ezekiel 14:20; Ezekiel 28:3). (3.) The character and records of the book are also entirely in harmony with the times and circumstances in which the author lived. (4.) The linguistic character of the book is, moreover, just such as might be expected. Certain portions (Daniel 2:4; 7) are written in the Chaldee language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra. The writer is familiar both with the Hebrew and the Chaldee, passing from the one to the other just as his subject required. This is in strict accordance with the position of the author and of the people for whom his book was written. That Daniel is the writer of this book is also testified to in the book itself (Daniel 7:1, Daniel 7:28; Daniel 8:2; Daniel 9:2; Daniel 10:1, Daniel 10:2; Daniel 12:4, Daniel 12:5). (See BELSHAZZAR.)

Dan-jaan

Woodland Dan, a place probably somewhere in the direction of Dan, near the sources of the Jordan (2_Samuel 24:6). The LXX. and the Vulgate read "Dan-jaar", i.e., "Dan in the forest."

Dannah

Murmuring, a city (Joshua 15:49) in the mountains of Judah about 8 miles south-west of Hebron.

Darda

Pearl of wisdom, one of the four who were noted for their wisdom, but whom Solomon excelled (1_Kings 4:31).

Daric

In the Revised Version of 1_Chronicles 29:7; Ezra 2:69; Ezra 8:27; Nehemiah 7:70, where the Authorized Version has "dram." It is the rendering of the Hebrew darkemon and the Greek dareikos . It was a gold coin, bearing the figure of a Persian King with his crown and armed with bow and arrow. It was current among the Jews after their return from Babylon, i.e., while under the Persian domination. It weighed about 128 grains troy, and was of the value of about one guinea or rather more of our money. It is the first coin mentioned in Scripture, and is the oldest that history makes known to us.

Darius

The holder or supporter, the name of several Persian kings. (1.) Darius the Mede (Daniel 11:1), "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes" (Daniel 9:1). On the death of Belshazzar the Chaldean he "received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. During his brief reign (538-536 B.C.) Daniel was promoted to the highest dignity (Daniel 6:1, Daniel 6:2); but on account of the malice of his enemies he was cast into the den of lions. After his miraculous escape, a decree was issued by Darius enjoining "reverence for the God of Daniel" (Daniel 6:26). This king was probably the "Astyages" of the Greek historians. Nothing can, however, be with certainty affirmed regarding him. Some are of opinion that the name "Darius" is simply a name of office, equivalent to "governor," and that the "Gobryas" of the inscriptions was the person intended by the name.

(2.) Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. He did not immediately succeed Cyrus on the throne. There were two intermediate kings, viz., Cambyses (the Ahasuerus of Ezra), the son of Cyrus, who reigned from 529-522 B.C., and was succeeded by a usurper named Smerdis, who occupied the throne only ten months, and was succeeded by this Darius (521-486 B.C.). Smerdis was a Margian, and therefore had no sympathy with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in which they had treated the Jews. He issued a decree prohibiting the restoration of the temple and of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:17). But soon after his death and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q.v.). It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2); and Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help. It was with the army of this king that the Greeks fought the famous battle of Marathon (490 B.C.). During his reign the Jews enjoyed much peace and prosperity. He was succeeded by Ahasuerus, known to the Greeks as Xerxes, who reigned for twenty-one years.

(3.) Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:22) was probably the Darius II. (Ochus or Nothus) of profane history, the son of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was the son and successor of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). There are some, however, who think that the king here meant was Darius III. (Codomannus), the antagonist of Alexander the Great (336-331 B.C.).

Darkness

The plague (the ninth) of darkness in Egypt (Exodus 10:21) is described as darkness "which may be felt." It covered "all the land of Egypt," so that "they saw not one another." It did not extend to the land of Goshen (Exodus 10:23).

When Jesus hung upon the cross (Gospel of Matthew 27:45; Gospel of Luke 23:44), from the "sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.&q

ot; On Mount Sinai, Moses (Exodus 20:21) "drew near unto the thick darkness where God was." This was the "thick cloud upon the mount" in which Jehovah was when he spake unto Moses there. The Lord dwelt in the cloud upon the mercy-seat (1_Kings 8:12), the cloud of glory. When the psalmist (Psalms 97:2) describes the inscrutable nature of God's workings among the sons of men, he says, "Clouds and darkness are round about him." God dwells in thick darkness.

Darkness (Isaiah 13:9, Isaiah 13:10; Gospel of Matthew 24:29) also is a symbol of the judgments that attend on the coming of the Lord. It is a symbol of misery and adversity (Job 18:6; Psalms 107:10; Isaiah 8:22; Ezekiel 30:18). The "day of darkness" in Joel 2:2, caused by clouds of locusts, is a symbol of the obscurity which overhangs all divine proceedings. "Works of darkness" are impure actions (Ephesians 5:11). "Outer darkness" refers to the darkness of the streets in the East, which are never lighted up by any public or private lamps after nightfall, in contrast with the blaze of cheerful light in the house. It is also a symbol of ignorance (Isaiah 9:2; Isaiah 60:2; Gospel of Matthew 6:23) and of death (Job 10:21; Job 17:13).

Dart

An instrument of war; a light spear. "Fiery darts" (Ephesians 6:16) are so called in allusion to the habit of discharging darts from the bow while they are on fire or armed with some combustible material. Arrows are compared to lightning (Deuteronomy 32:23, Deuteronomy 32:42; Psalms 7:13; Psalms 120:4).

Darling

Psalms 22:20; Psalms 35:17) means an "only one."

Date

The fruit of a species of palm (q.v.), the Phoenix dactilifera. This was a common tree in Palestine (Joel 1:12; Nehemiah 8:15). Palm branches were carried by the Jews on festive occasions, and especially at the feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:40; Nehemiah 8:15).

Dathan

Welled; belonging to a fountain a son of Eliab, a Reubenite, who joined Korah (q.v.) in his conspiracy, and with his accomplices was swallowed up by an earthquake (Numbers 16:1; Numbers 26:9; Deuteronomy 11:6; Psalms 106:17).

Daughter

This word, besides its natural and proper sense, is used to designate, (1.) A niece or any female descendant (Genesis 20:12; Genesis 24:48; Genesis 28:6). (2.) Women as natives of a place, or as professing the religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isaiah 3:16), "daughters of the Philistines" (2_Samuel 1:20). (3.) Small towns and villages lying around a city are its "daughters," as related to the metropolis or mother city. Tyre is in this sense called the daughter of Sidon (Isaiah 23:12). (4.) The people of Jerusalem are spoken of as "the daughters of Zion" (Isaiah 37:22). (5.) The daughters of a tree are its boughs (Genesis 49:22). (6.) The "daughters of music" (Ecclesiastes 12:4) are singing women.

David

Beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life. His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash of 2_Samuel 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1_Samuel 16:12; 1_Samuel 17:42).

His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history, doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged, with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock, beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1_Samuel 17:34, 1_Samuel 17:35).

While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been guided thither by divine direction (1_Samuel 16:1). There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought. David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him as the chosen of God - chosen to succeed Saul, who was now departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1_Samuel 16:13, 1_Samuel 16:14).

Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skillfully that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and cut off his head with his own sword (1 Sam. 17). The result was a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines to the gates of Gath and Ekron.

David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened Saul's jealousy (1_Samuel 18:6), which he showed in various ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various stratagems sought his death (1 Sam. 18 - 30). The deep-laid plots of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm friendship was formed.

A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled to Ramah (1_Samuel 19:12) to Samuel, who received him, and he dwelt among the sons of the sons of the prophets, who were there under Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth, seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time. This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward David (1 Sam. 20), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find him first at Nob (1_Samuel 1:1) and then at Gath, the chief city of the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him into his service, as he expected that he would, and David accordingly now betook himself to the strong-hold of Adullam (1_Samuel 22:1; 1_Chronicles 12:8). Here in a short time 400 men gathered around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed (2_Samuel 23:13), but which he would not drink.

In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Compare Psalms 52:1.

Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1_Samuel 23:1); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Compare Ps. 31. While encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement (1_Samuel 23:16). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea (1_Samuel 23:29). Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district. Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife Abigail (1 Sam. 25), whom David married after Nabal's death.

Saul again went forth (1 Sam. 26) in pursuit of David, who had hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his elevation to the throne.

Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought refuge among the Philistines (1_Samuel 27:1). He was welcomed by the king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived among his followers for some time as an independent chief engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on the south of Judah.

Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Sam. 1). An Amalekite brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet. David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2_Samuel 1:18). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of Jasher" (q.v.).

David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for Hebron under divine direction (2_Samuel 2:1). There they were cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was now about thirty years of age.

But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies, led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner. Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2_Samuel 3:1, 2_Samuel 3:5), but still success was on the side of David. For the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron. Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon (2 Sam. 3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all Israel (2_Samuel 4:1).

David king over all Israel (2_Samuel 5:1; 1_Chronicles 11:1). The elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron, as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim. Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.

David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his new capital (2 Sam. 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it home (1 Sam. 6; 7). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the ark, Num. 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark into the house of Obededom, a Philistine from Gath. After three months David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Compare Psalms 24:1. Here it was placed in a new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose. About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chr. 16) carefully set in order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship. Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill.&q

ot; David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Sam. 8). In a few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was under his sway (2_Samuel 8:3; 10).

David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery (2 Sam. 11:2-27). It has been noted as characteristic of the Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the attempt to conceal it, led to another. He was guilty of murder. Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim, the corps of heroes (2_Samuel 23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Sam. 7:1-17; 12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and his spiritual recovery.

Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately succeeded him on the throne (2_Samuel 12:24, 2_Samuel 12:25).

Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious message (2 Sam. 7:1-16). On receiving it he went into the sanctuary the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord, and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving (2_Samuel 7:18). The building of the temple was reserved for his son Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1_Chronicles 22:9; 1_Chronicles 28:3).

A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's career had been one of great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days cam. His eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Sam. 13). This was the beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom, afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Sam. 14).

After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three years' famine (2_Samuel 21:1). This was son after followed by a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Sam. 24), in which no fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.

Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne. Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king. David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2_Samuel 15:13), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2_Samuel 18:1). Absalom's army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab (2_Samuel 18:9). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept" (2_Samuel 18:33), giving utterance to the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel (2_Samuel 19:41). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to death, and so the revolt came to an end.

The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed away. During those years he seems to have been principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his successor to build (1 Chr. 22; 28; 29), a house which was to be "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all countries" (Psalms 22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent, and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring," in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last words are a grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2_Samuel 23:1).

After a reign of forty years and six months (2_Samuel 5:5; 1_Chronicles 3:4) David died (1015 B.C.) at the age of seventy years, "and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed out on Mount Zion.

Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a type of the Messiah (1_Samuel 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the collection. (See PSALMS.) "The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that the spirit of his government had been thoroughly loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had striven to act justly to all (2_Samuel 8:15). His weak indulgence to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2_Samuel 5:5). Israel at his accession had reached the lowest point of national depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The scepter of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.

David, City of

(1.) David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1_Chronicles 11:7). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished form Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a bridge over the Tyropoeon valley. (2.) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Gospel of Luke 2:4, Gospel of Luke 2:11), because it was David's birth-place and early home (1_Samuel 17:12).

Day

The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset (Leviticus 23:32). It was originally divided into three parts (Psalms 55:17). "The heat of the day" (1_Samuel 11:11; Nehemiah 7:3) was at our nine o'clock, and "the cool of the day" just before sunset (Genesis 3:8). Before the Captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches, (1.) from sunset to midnight (Lamentations 2:19); (2.) from midnight till the cock-crowing (Judges 7:19); and (3.) from the cock-crowing till sunrise (Exodus 14:24). In the New Testament the division of the Greeks and Romans into four watches was adopted (Gospel of Mark 13:35). (See WATCHES.) The division of the day by hours is first mentioned in Daniel 3:6, Daniel 3:15; Daniel 4:19; Daniel 5:5. This mode of reckoning was borrowed from the Chaldeans.

The reckoning of twelve hours was from sunrise to sunset, and accordingly the hours were of variable length (Gospel of John 11:9). The word "day" sometimes signifies an indefinite time (Genesis 2:4; Isaiah 22:5; Hebrews 3:8, etc.). In Job 3:1 it denotes a birthday, and in Isaiah 2:12, Acts 17:31, and 2_Timothy 1:18, the great day of final judgment.

Day's Journey

The usual length of a day's journey in the East, on camel or horseback, in six or eight hours, is about 25 or 30 miles. The "three days' journey" mentioned in Exodus 3:18 is simply a journey which would occupy three days in going and returning.

Daysman

An umpire or arbiter or judge (Job 9:33). This word is formed from the Latin diem dicere , i.e., to fix a day for hearing a cause. Such an one is empowered by mutual consent to decide the cause, and to "lay his hand", i.e., to impose his authority, on both, and enforce his sentence.

Dayspring

Job 38:12; Gospel of Luke 1:78), the dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Compare Isaiah 60:1, Isaiah 60:2; Malachi 4:2; Revelation 22:16.)

Daystar

Which precedes and accompanies the sun-rising. It is found only in 2_Peter 1:19, where it denotes the manifestation of Christ to the soul, imparting spiritual light and comfort. He is the "bright and morning star" of Revelation 2:28; Revelation 22:16. (Compare Numbers 24:17.)

Deacon

Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos , meaning a "runner," "messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew. This jealousy early appeared in the Christian community. It was alleged by the Hellenists that their widows were overlooked in the daily distribution of alms. This spirit must be checked. The apostles accordingly advised the disciples to look out for seven men of good report, full of the Holy Ghost, and men of practical wisdom, who should take entire charge of this distribution, leaving them free to devote themselves entirely to the spiritual functions of their office (Acts 6:1). This was accordingly done. Seven men were chosen, who appear from their names to have been Hellenists. The name "deacon" is nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they are simply called "the seven" (Acts 21:8). Their office was at first secular, but it afterwards became also spiritual; for among other qualifications they must also be "apt to teach" (1_Timothy 3:8). Both Philip and Stephen, who were of "the seven," preached; they did "the work of evangelists."

Deaconess

Romans 16:1, Romans 16:3, Romans 16:12; Philippians 4:2, Philippians 4:3; 1_Timothy 3:11; 1_Timothy 5:9, 1_Timothy 5:10; Titus 2:3, Titus 2:4). In these passages it is evident that females were then engaged in various Christian ministrations. Pliny makes mention of them also in his letter to Trajan (A.D. 110).

Dead Sea

The name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland sea called in Scripture the "salt sea" (Genesis 14:3; Numbers 34:12), the "sea of the plain" (Deuteronomy 3:17), the "east sea" (Ezekiel 47:18; Joel 2:20), and simply "the sea" (Ezekiel 47:8). The Arabs call it Bahr Lut, i.e., the Sea of Lot. It lies about 16 miles in a straight line to the east of Jerusalem. Its surface is 1,292 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea. It covers an area of about 300 square miles. Its depth varies from 1,310 to 11 feet. From various phenomena that have been observed, its bottom appears to be still subsiding. It is about 53 miles long, and of an average breadth of 10 miles. It has no outlet, the great heat of that region causing such rapid evaporation that its average depth, notwithstanding the rivers that run into it (see JORDAN), is maintained with little variation.

The Jordan alone discharges into it no less than six million tons of water every twenty-four hours. The waters of the Dead Sea contain 24.6 per cent. of mineral salts, about seven times as much as in ordinary sea-water; thus they are unusually buoyant. Chloride of magnesium is most abundant; next to that chloride of sodium (common salt). But terraces of alluvial deposits in the deep valley of the Jordan show that formerly one great lake extended from the Waters of Merom to the foot of the watershed in the Arabah. The waters were then about 1,400 feet above the present level of the Dead Sea, or slightly above that of the Mediterranean, and at that time were much less salt.

Nothing living can exist in this sea. "The fish carried down by the Jordan at once die, nor can even mussels or corals live in it; but it is a fable that no bird can fly over it, or that there are no living creatures on its banks. Dr. Tristram found on the shores three kinds of kingfishers, gulls, ducks, and grebes, which he says live on the fish which enter the sea in shoals, and presently die. He collected one hundred and eighteen species of birds, some new to science, on the shores, or swimming or flying over the waters. The cane-brakes which fringe it at some parts are the homes of about forty species of mammalia, several of them animals unknown in England; and innumerable tropical or semi-tropical plants perfume the atmosphere wherever fresh water can reach. The climate is perfect and most delicious, and indeed there is perhaps no place in the world where a sanatorium could be established with so much prospect of benefit as at Ain Jidi (Engedi).", Geikie's Hours, etc.

Deal, Tenth

See OMER.

Dearth

A scarcity of provisions (1 Kings 17). There were frequent dearths in Palestine. In the days of Abram there was a "famine in the land" (Genesis 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (Genesis 47:4, Genesis 47:13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth 1:1), and of the kings (2_Samuel 21:1; 1_Kings 18:2; 2_Kings 4:38; 2_Kings 8:1).

In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts 11:28) in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Claudius (A.D. 44 and 45).

Death

May be simply defined as the termination of life. It is represented under a variety of aspects in Scripture: (1.) "The dust shall return to the earth as it was" (Ecclesiastes 12:7).

(2.) "Thou takest away their breath, they die" (Psalms 104:29).

(3.) It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this tabernacle" (2_Corinthians 5:1); the "putting off this tabernacle" (2_Peter 1:13, 2_Peter 1:14).

(4.) Being "unclothed" (2_Corinthians 5:3, 2_Corinthians 5:4).

(5.) "Falling on sleep" (Psalms 76:5; Jeremiah 51:39; Acts 13:36; 2_Peter 3:9.

(6.) "I go whence I shall not return" (Job 10:21); "Make me to know mine end" (Psalms 39:4); "to depart" (Philippians 1:23). The grave is represented as "the gates of death" (Job 38:17; Psalms 9:13; Psalms 107:18).

The gloomy silence of the grave is spoken of under the figure of the "shadow of death" (Jeremiah 2:6). Death is the effect of sin (Hebrews 2:14), and not a "debt of nature." It is but once (Hebrews 9:27), universal (Genesis 3:19), necessary (Gospel of Luke 2:28). Jesus has by his own death taken away its sting for all his followers (1_Corinthians 15:55).

There is a spiritual death in trespasses and sins, i.e., the death of the soul under the power of sin (Romans 8:6; Ephesians 2:1, Ephesians 2:3; Colossians 2:13).

The "second death" (Revelation 2:11) is the everlasting perdition of the wicked (Revelation 21:8), and "second" in respect to natural or temporal death.

THE DEATH OF CHRIST is the procuring cause incidentally of all the blessings men enjoy on earth. But specially it is the procuring cause of the actual salvation of all his people, together with all the means that lead thereto. It does not make their salvation merely possible, but certain (Gospel of Matthew 18:11; Romans 5:10; 2_Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 1:4; Galatians 3:13; Ephesians 1:7; Ephesians 2:16; Romans 8:32).

Debir

Oracle town; sanctuary. (1.) One of the eleven cities to the west of Hebron, in the highlands of Judah (Joshua 15:49; Judges 1:11). It was originally one of the towns of the Anakim (Joshua 15:15), and was also called Kirjath-sepher (q.v.) and Kirjath-sannah (Joshua 15:49). Caleb, who had conquered and taken possession of the town and district of Hebron (Joshua 14:6), offered the hand of his daughter to any one who would successfully lead a party against Debir. Othniel, his younger brother (Judges 1:13; Judges 3:9), achieved the conquest, and gained Achsah as his wife. She was not satisfied with the portion her father gave her, and as she was proceeding toward her new home, she "lighted from off her ass" and said to him, "Give me a blessing [i.e., a dowry]: for thou hast given me a south land" (Joshua 15:19, A.V.); or, as in the Revised Version, "Thou hast set me in the land of the south", i.e., in the Negeb, outside the rich valley of Hebron, in the dry and barren land. "Give me also springs of water. And he gave her the upper springs, and the nether springs.&q

ot; Debir has been identified with the modern Edh-Dhaheriyeh, i.e., "the well on the ridge", to the south of Hebron.

(2.) A place near the "valley of Achor" (Joshua 15:7), on the north boundary of Judah, between Jerusalem and Jericho.

(3.) The king of Eglon, one of the five Canaanitish kings who were hanged by Joshua (Joshua 10:3, Joshua 10:23) after the victory at Gibeon. These kings fled and took refuge in a cave at Makkedah. Here they were kept confined till Joshua returned from the pursuit of their discomfited armies, when he caused them to be brought forth, and "Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged them on five trees" (Joshua 10:26).

Deborah

A bee. (1.) Rebekah's nurse. She accompanied her mistress when she left her father's house in Padan-aram to become the wife of Isaac (Genesis 24:59). Many years afterwards she died at Bethel, and was buried under the "oak of weeping", Allon-bachuth (Genesis 35:8).

(2.) A prophetess, "wife" (woman?) of Lapidoth. Jabin, the king of Hazor, had for twenty years held Israel in degrading subjection. The spirit of patriotism seemed crushed out of the nation. In this emergency Deborah roused the people from their lethargy. Her fame spread far and wide. She became a "mother in Israel" (Judges 4:6, Judges 4:14; Judges 5:7), and "the children of Israel came up to her for judgment" as she sat in her tent under the palm tree "between Ramah and Bethel." Preparations were everywhere made by her direction for the great effort to throw off the yoke of bondage. She summoned Barak from Kadesh to take the command of 10,000 men of Zebulun and Naphtali, and lead them to Mount Tabor on the plain of Esdraelon at its north-east end. With his aid she organized this army. She gave the signal for attack, and the Hebrew host rushed down impetuously upon the army of Jabin, which was commanded by Sisera, and gained a great and decisive victory. The Canaanitish army almost wholly perished. That was a great and ever-memorable day in Israel. In Judg. 5 is given the grand triumphal ode, the "song of Deborah," which she wrote in grateful commemoration of that great deliverance. (See LAPIDOTH, JABIN [2].)

Debt

The Mosaic law encouraged the practice of lending (Deuteronomy 15:7; Psalms 37:26; Gospel of Matthew 5:42); but it forbade the exaction of interest except from foreigners. Usury was strongly condemned (Proverbs 28:8; Ezekiel 18:8, Ezekiel 18:13, Ezekiel 18:17; Ezekiel 22:12; Psalms 15:5). On the Sabbatical year all pecuniary obligations were canceled (Deuteronomy 15:1). These regulations prevented the accumulation of debt.

Debtor

Various regulations as to the relation between debtor and creditor are laid down in the Scriptures. (1.) The debtor was to deliver up as a pledge to the creditor what he could most easily dispense with (Deuteronomy 24:10, Deuteronomy 24:11).

(2.) A mill, or millstone, or upper garment, when given as a pledge, could not be kept over night (Exodus 22:26, Exodus 22:27).

(3.) A debt could not be exacted during the Sabbatic year (Deuteronomy 15:1).

For other laws bearing on this relation see Leviticus 25:14, Leviticus 25:32, Leviticus 25:39; Gospel of Matthew 18:25, Gospel of Matthew 18:34.

(4.) A surety was liable in the same way as the original debtor (Proverbs 11:15; Proverbs 17:18).

Decalogue

The name given by the Greek fathers to the ten commandments; "the ten words," as the original is more literally rendered (Exodus 20:3). These commandments were at first written on two stone slabs (Exodus 31:18), which were broken by Moses throwing them down on the ground (Exodus 32:19). They were written by God a second time (Exodus 34:1).

The decalogue is alluded to in the New Testament five times (Gospel of Matthew 5:17, Gospel of Matthew 5:18, Gospel of Matthew 5:19; Gospel of Mark 10:19; Gospel of Luke 18:20; Romans 7:7, Romans 7:8; Romans 13:9; 1_Timothy 1:9, 1_Timothy 1:10). These commandments have been divided since the days of Origen the Greek father, as they stand in the Confession of all the Reformed Churches except the Lutheran. The division adopted by Luther, and which has ever since been received in the Lutheran Church, makes the first two commandments one, and the third the second, and so on to the last, which is divided into two. "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house" being ranked as ninth, and "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife," etc., the tenth. (See COMMANDMENTS.

Decapolis

Ten cities = deka, ten, and polis, a city, a district on the east and south-east of the Sea of Galilee containing "ten cities," which were chiefly inhabited by Greeks. It included a portion of Bashan and Gilead, and is mentioned three times in the New Testament (Gospel of Matthew 4:25; Gospel of Mark 5:20; Gospel of Mark 7:31). These cities were Scythopolis, i.e., "city of the Scythians", (ancient Bethshean, the only one of the ten cities on the west of Jordan), Hippos, Gadara, Pella (to which the Christians fled just before the destruction of Jerusalem), Philadelphia (ancient Rabbath-ammon), Gerasa, Dion, Canatha, Raphana, and Damascus. When the Romans conquered Syria (B.C. 65) they rebuilt, and endowed with certain privileges, these "ten cities," and the province connected with them they called "Decapolis." See map, of the District of Decapolis

Decision, Valley of

A name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14; marg., "valley of concision or threshing").

Decrees of God

The decrees of God are his eternal, unchangeable, holy, wise, and sovereign purpose, comprehending at once all things that ever were or will be in their causes, conditions, successions, and relations, and determining their certain futurition. The several contents of this one eternal purpose are, because of the limitation of our faculties, necessarily conceived of by us in partial aspects, and in logical relations, and are therefore styled Decrees." The decree being the act of an infinite, absolute, eternal, unchangeable, and sovereign Person, comprehending a plan including all his works of all kinds, great and small, from the beginning of creation to an unending eternity; ends as well as means, causes as well as effects, conditions and instrumentalities as well as the events which depend upon them, must be incomprehensible by the finite intellect of man. The decrees are eternal (Acts 15:18; Ephesians 1:4; 2_Thessalonians 2:13), unchangeable (Psalms 33:11; Isaiah 46:9), and comprehend all things that come to pass (Ephesians 1:11; Gospel of Matthew 10:29, Gospel of Matthew 10:30; Ephesians 2:10; Acts 2:23; Acts 4:27, Acts 4:28; Psalms 17:13, Psalms 17:14).

The decrees of God are (1.) efficacious, as they respect those events he has determined to bring about by his own immediate agency; or (2.) permissive, as they respect those events he has determined that free agents shall be permitted by him to effect. This doctrine ought to produce in our minds "humility, in view of the infinite greatness and sovereignty of God, and of the dependence of man; confidence and implicit reliance upon wisdom, righteousness, goodness, and immutability of God's purpose."

Dedan

Low ground. (1.) A son of Raamah (Genesis 10:7). His descendants are mentioned in Isaiah 21:13, and Ezekiel 27:15. They probably settled among the sons of Cush, on the north-west coast of the Persian Gulf.

(2.) A son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah (1_Chronicles 1:32). His descendants settled on the Syrian borders about the territory of Edom. They probably led a pastoral life.

Dedanim

The descendants of Dedan, the son of Raamah. They are mentioned in Isaiah 21:13 as sending out "traveling companies" which lodged "in the forest of Arabia." They are enumerated also by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 27:20) among the merchants who supplied Tyre with precious things.

Dedication, Feast of the

(Gospel of John 10:22, Gospel of John 10:42),i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted 164 B.C. to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (167 B.C.), and the rebuilding of the altar after the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December), which was often a period of heavy rains (Ezra 10:9, Ezra 10:13). It was an occasion of much rejoicing and festivity.

But there were other dedications of the temple. (1.) That of Solomon's temple (1_Kings 8:2; 2_Chronicles 5:3); (2.) the dedication in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29); and (3.) the dedication of the temple after the Captivity (Ezra 6:16).

Deep

Used to denote (1.) the grave or the abyss (Romans 10:7; Gospel of Luke 8:31); (2.) the deepest part of the sea (Psalms 69:15); (3.) the chaos mentioned in Genesis 1:2; (4.) the bottomless pit, hell (Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:2; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 20:13).

Degrees, Song of

Song of steps, a title given to each of these fifteen psalms, Ps. 120-134 inclusive. The probable origin of this name is the circumstance that these psalms came to be snug by the people on the ascents or goings up to Jerusalem to attend the three great festivals (Deuteronomy 16:16). They were well fitted for being sung by the way from their peculiar form, and from the sentiments they express. "They are characterized by brevity, by a key-word, by epanaphora [i.e., repetition], and by their epigrammatic style...More than half of them are cheerful, and all of them hopeful." They are sometimes called "Pilgrim Songs." Four of them were written by David, one (Psalms 127:1) by Solomon, and the rest are anonymous.

Dehavites

Villagers, one of the Assyrian tribes which Asnapper sent to repopulate Samaria (Ezra 4:9). They were probably a nomad Persian tribe on the east of the Caspian Sea, and near the Sea of Azof.

Delaiah

Freed by Jehovah. (1.) The head of the twenty-third division of the priestly order (1_Chronicles 24:18).

(2.) A son of Shemaiah, and one of the courtiers to whom Jeremiah's first roll of prophecy was read (Jeremiah 36:12).

(3.) The head of one of the bands of exiles that returned under Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:60; Nehemiah 7:62).

Delilah

Languishing, a Philistine woman who dwelt in the valley of Sorek (Judg. 16:4-20). She was bribed by the "lords of the Philistines" to obtain from Samson the secret of his strength and the means of overcoming it (Judges 16:4). She tried on three occasions to obtain from him this secret in vain. On the fourth occasion she wrung it from him. She made him sleep upon her knees, and then called the man who was waiting to help her; who "cut off the seven locks of his head," and so his "strength went from him." (See SAMSON.)

Deluge

The name given to Noah's flood, the history of which is recorded in Gen. 7 - 8.

It began in the year 2516 B.C., and continued twelve lunar months and ten days, or exactly one solar year.

The cause of this judgment was the corruption and violence that filled the earth in the ninth generation from Adam. God in righteous indignation determined to purge the earth of the ungodly race. Amid a world of crime and guilt there was one household that continued faithful and true to God, the household of Noah. "Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations.&q

ot; At the command of God, Noah made an ark 300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high. He slowly proceeded with this work during a period of one hundred and twenty years (Genesis 6:3). At length the purpose of God began to be carried into effect. The following table exhibits the order of events as they occurred:, In the six hundredth year of his life Noah is commanded by God to enter the ark, taking with him his wife, and his three sons with their wives (Genesis 7:1).

The rain begins on the seventeenth day of the second month (Genesis 7:11).

The rain ceases, the waters prevail, fifteen cubits upward (Genesis 7:18).

The ark grounds on one of the mountains of Ararat on the seventeenth day of the seventh month, or one hundred and fifty days after the Deluge began (Genesis 8:1).

Tops of the mountains visible on the first day of the tenth month (Genesis 8:5).

Raven and dove sent out forty days after this (Genesis 8:6).

Dove again sent out seven days afterwards; and in the evening she returns with an olive leaf in her mouth (Genesis 8:10, Genesis 8:11).

Dove sent out the third time after an interval of other seven days, and returns no more (Genesis 8:12).

The ground becomes dry on the first day of the first month of the new year (Genesis 8:13).

Noah leaves the ark on the twenty-seventh day of the second month (Genesis 8:14). The historical truth of the narrative of the Flood is established by the references made to it by our Lord (Gospel of Matthew 24:37; compare Gospel of Luke 17:26). Peter speaks of it also (1_Peter 3:20; 2_Peter 2:5). In Isaiah 54:9 the Flood is referred to as "the waters of Noah." The Biblical narrative clearly shows that so far as the human race was concerned the Deluge was universal; that it swept away all men living except Noah and his family, who were preserved in the ark; and that the present human race is descended from those who were thus preserved. Traditions of the Deluge are found among all the great divisions of the human family; and these traditions, taken as a whole, wonderfully agree with the Biblical narrative, and agree with it in such a way as to lead to the conclusion that the Biblical is the authentic narrative, of which all these traditions are more or less corrupted versions.

The most remarkable of these traditions is that recorded on tablets prepared by order of Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria. These were, however, copies of older records which belonged to somewhere about 2000 B.C., and which formed part of the priestly library at Erech (q.v.), "the ineradicable remembrance of a real and terrible event." (See NOAH; and DELUGE.)

Demas

A companion and fellow-labourer of Paul during his first imprisonment at Rome (Philemon 1:24; Colossians 4:14). It appears, however, that the love of the world afterwards mastered him, and he deserted the apostle (2_Timothy 4:10).

Demetrius

(1.) A silversmith at Ephesus, whose chief occupation was to make "silver shrines for Diana" (q.v.), Acts 19:24, i.e., models either of the temple of Diana or of the statue of the goddess. This trade brought to him and his fellow-craftsmen "no small gain," for these shrines found a ready sale among the countless thousands who came to this temple from all parts of Asia Minor. This traffic was greatly endangered by the progress of the gospel, and hence Demetrius excited the tradesmen employed in the manufacture of these shrines, and caused so great a tumult that "the whole city was filled with confusion.&q

ot; (2.) A Christian who is spoken of as having "a good report of all men, and of the truth itself" (3_John 1:12).

Demon

See DAEMON.

Den

A liar of wild beasts (Psalms 10:9; Psalms 104:22; Job 37:8); the hole of a venomous reptile (Isaiah 11:8); a recess for secrecy "in dens and caves of the earth" (Hebrews 11:38); a resort of thieves (Gospel of Matthew 21:13; Gospel of Mark 11:17). Daniel was cast into "the den of lions" (Daniel 6:16, Daniel 6:17). Some recent discoveries among the ruins of Babylon have brought to light the fact that the practice of punishing offenders against the law by throwing them into a den of lions was common.

Deputy

In 1_Kings 22:47, means a prefect; one set over others. The same Hebrew word is rendered "officer;" i.e., chief of the commissariat appointed by Solomon (1_Kings 4:5, etc.).

In Esther 8:9; Esther 9:3 (R.V., "governor") it denotes a Persian prefect "on this side" i.e., in the region west of the Euphrates. It is the modern word pasha.

In Acts 13:7, Acts 13:8, Acts 13:12; Acts 18:12, it denotes a proconsul; i.e., the governor of a Roman province holding his appointment from the senate. The Roman provinces were of two kinds, (1.) senatorial and (2.) imperial. The appointment of a governor to the former was in the hands of the senate, and he bore the title of proconsul (Gr. anthupatos ). The appointment of a governor to the latter was in the hands of the emperor, and he bore the title of propraetor (Gr. antistrategos).

Derbe

A small town on the eastern part of the upland plain of Lycaonia, about 20 miles from Lystra. Paul passed through Derbe on his route from Cilicia to Iconium, on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1), and probably also on his third journey (Acts 18:23; Acts 19:1). On his first journey (Acts 14:20, Acts 14:21) he came to Derbe from the other side; i.e., from Iconium. It was the native place of Gaius, one of Paul's companions (Acts 20:4). He did not here suffer persecution (2_Timothy 3:11).

Desert

(1.) Heb. midbar , "pasture-ground;" an open tract for pasturage; a common (Joel 2:22). The "backside of the desert" (Exodus 3:1) is the west of the desert, the region behind a man, as the east is the region in front. The same Hebrew word is rendered "wilderness," and is used of the country lying between Egypt and Palestine (Genesis 21:14, Genesis 21:21; Exodus 4:27; Exodus 19:2; Joshua 1:4), the wilderness of the wanderings. It was a grazing tract, where the flocks and herds of the Israelites found pasturage during the whole of their journey to the Promised Land.

The same Hebrew word is used also to denote the wilderness of Arabia, which in winter and early spring supplies good pasturage to the flocks of the nomad tribes than roam over it (1_Kings 9:18).

The wilderness of Judah is the mountainous region along the western shore of the Dead Sea, where David fed his father's flocks (1_Samuel 17:28; 1_Samuel 26:2). Thus in both of these instances the word denotes a country without settled inhabitants and without streams of water, but having good pasturage for cattle; a country of wandering tribes, as distinguished from that of a settled people (Isaiah 35:1; Isaiah 50:2; Jeremiah 4:11). Such, also is the meaning of the word "wilderness" in Gospel of Matthew 3:3; Gospel of Matthew 15:33; Gospel of Luke 15:4.

(2.) The translation of the Hebrew Aribah' , "an arid tract" (Isaiah 35:1, Isaiah 35:6; Isaiah 40:3; Isaiah 41:19; Isaiah 51:3, etc.). The name Arabah is specially applied to the deep valley of the Jordan (the Ghor of the Arabs), which extends from the lake of Tiberias to the Elanitic gulf. While midbar denotes properly a pastoral region, arabah denotes a wilderness. It is also translated "plains;" as "the plains of Jericho" (Joshua 5:10; 2_Kings 25:5), "the plains of Moab" (Numbers 22:1; Deuteronomy 34:1, Deuteronomy 34:8), "the plains of the wilderness" (2_Samuel 17:16).

(3.) In the Revised Version of Numbers 21:20 the Hebrew word jeshimon is properly rendered "desert," meaning the waste tracts on both shores of the Dead Sea. This word is also rendered "desert" in Psalms 78:40; Psalms 106:14; Isaiah 43:19, Isaiah 43:20. It denotes a greater extent of uncultivated country than the other words so rendered. It is especially applied to the desert of the peninsula of Arabia (Numbers 21:20; Numbers 23:28), the most terrible of all the deserts with which the Israelites were acquainted. It is called "the desert" in Exodus 23:31; Deuteronomy 11:24. (See JESHIMON.)

(4.) A dry place; hence a desolation (Psalms 9:6), desolate (Leviticus 26:34); the rendering of the Hebrew word horbah' . It is rendered "desert" only in Psalms 102:6, Isaiah 48:21, and Ezekiel 13:4, where it means the wilderness of Sinai.

(5.) This word is the symbol of the Jewish church when they had forsaken God (Isaiah 40:3). Nations destitute of the knowledge of God are called a "wilderness" (Isaiah 32:15, midbar). It is a symbol of temptation, solitude, and persecution (Isaiah 27:10, midbar; Isaiah 33:9, arabah).

Desire of All Nations

(Haggai 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord.

Desolation, Abomination of

(Gospel of Matthew 24:15; Gospel of Mark 13:14; comp Gospel of Luke 21:20), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Daniel 9:27. (See ABOMINATION.)

Destroyer

(Exodus 12:23), the agent employed in the killing of the first-born; the destroying angel or messenger of God. (Compare 2_Kings 19:35; 2_Samuel 24:15, 2_Samuel 24:16; Psalms 78:49; Acts 12:23.)

Destruction

In Job 26:6, Job 28:22 (Heb. abaddon ) is sheol, the realm of the dead.

Destruction, City of

(Isaiah 19:18; Heb. Ir-ha-Heres , "city of overthrow," because of the evidence it would present of the overthrow of heathenism), the ideal title of On or Heliopolis (q.v.).

Deuteronomy

In all the Hebrew manuscripts the Pentateuch (q.v.) forms one roll or volume divided into larger and smaller sections called parshioth and sedarim. It is not easy to say when it was divided into five books. This was probably first done by the Greek translators of the book, whom the Vulgate follows. The fifth of these books was called by the Greeks Deuteronomion, i.e., the second law, hence our name Deuteronomy, or a second statement of the laws already promulgated. The Jews designated the book by the two first Hebrew words that occur, 'Elle haddabharim , i.e., "These are the words." They divided it into eleven parshioth. In the English Bible it contains thirty-four chapters.

It consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses a short time before his death. They were spoken to all Israel in the plains of Moab, in the eleventh month of the last year of their wanderings.

The first discourse (Deut. 1-4:40) recapitulates the chief events of the last forty years in the wilderness, with earnest exhortations to obedience to the divine ordinances, and warnings against the danger of forsaking the God of their fathers.

The second discourse (Deut. 5 - 26:19) is in effect the body of the whole book. The first address is introductory to it. It contains practically a recapitulation of the law already given by God at Mount Sinai, together with many admonitions and injunctions as to the course of conduct they were to follow when they were settled in Canaan.

The concluding discourse (Deut. 27 - 30) relates almost wholly to the solemn sanctions of the law, the blessings to the obedient, and the curse that would fall on the rebellious. He solemnly adjures them to adhere faithfully to the covenant God had made with them, and so secure for themselves and their posterity the promised blessings.

These addresses to the people are followed by what may be called three appendices, namely (1.) a song which God had commanded Moses to write (Deut. 32:1-47); (2.) the blessings he pronounced on the separate tribes (Deut. 33); and (3.) the story of his death (Deuteronomy 32:48) and burial (Deuteronomy 34:1), written by some other hand, probably that of Joshua. These farewell addresses of Moses to the tribes of Israel he had so long led in the wilderness "glow in each line with the emotions of a great leader recounting to his contemporaries the marvelous story of their common experience.

The enthusiasm they kindle, even to-day, though obscured by translation, reveals their matchless adaptation to the circumstances under which they were first spoken. Confidence for the future is evoked by remembrance of the past. The same God who had done mighty works for the tribes since the Exodus would cover their head in the day of battle with the nations of Palestine, soon to be invaded. Their great lawgiver stands before us, vigorous in his hoary age, stern in his abhorrence of evil, earnest in his zeal for God, but mellowed in all relations to earth by his nearness to heaven. The commanding wisdom of his enactments, the dignity of his position as the founder of the nation and the first of prophets, enforce his utterances. But he touches our deepest emotions by the human tenderness that breathes in all his words. Standing on the verge of life, he speaks as a father giving his parting counsels to those he loves; willing to depart and be with God he has served so well, but fondly lengthening out his last farewell to the dear ones of earth. No book can compare with Deuteronomy in its mingled sublimity and tenderness." Geikie, Hours, etc. The whole style and method of this book, its tone and its peculiarities of conception and expression, show that it must have come from one hand. That the author was none other than Moses is established by the following considerations: (1.) The uniform tradition both of the Jewish and the Christian Church down to recent times. (2.) The book professes to have been written by Moses (Deuteronomy 1:1; Deuteronomy 29:1; Deuteronomy 31:1, Deuteronomy 31:9, etc.), and was obviously intended to be accepted as his work. (3.) The incontrovertible testimony of our Lord and his apostles (Gospel of Matthew 19:7, Gospel of Matthew 19:8; Gospel of Mark 10:3, Gospel of Mark 10:4; Gospel of John 5:46, Gospel of John 5:47; Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37; Romans 10:19) establishes the same conclusion. (4.) The frequent references to it in the later books of the canon (Joshua 8:31; 1_Kings 2:9; 2_Kings 14:6; 2_Chronicles 23:18; 2_Chronicles 25:4; 2_Chronicles 34:14; Ezra 3:2; Ezra 7:6; Nehemiah 8:1; Daniel 9:11, Daniel 9:13) prove its antiquity; and (5.) the archaisms found in it are in harmony with the age in which Moses lived. (6.) Its style and allusions are also strikingly consistent with the circumstances and position of Moses and of the people at that time. This body of positive evidence cannot be set aside by the conjectures and reasonings of modern critics, who contended that the book was somewhat like a forgery, introduced among the Jews some seven or eight centuries after the Exodus.

Devil

(Gr. diabolos ), a slanderer, the arch-enemy of man's spiritual interest (Job 1:6; Revelation 2:10; Zechariah 3:1). He is called also "the accuser of the brethren" (Revelation 12:10).

In Leviticus 17:7 the word "devil" is the translation of the Hebrew sair, meaning a "goat" or "satyr" (Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14), alluding to the wood-daemons, the objects of idolatrous worship among the heathen.

In Deuteronomy 32:17 and Psalms 106:37 it is the translation of Hebrew shed, meaning lord, and idol, regarded by the Jews as a "demon," as the word is rendered in the Revised Version.

In the narratives of the Gospels regarding the "casting out of devils" a different Greek word ( daimon ) is used. In the time of our Lord there were frequent cases of demoniacal possession (Gospel of Matthew 12:25; Mark 5:1-20; Gospel of Luke 4:35; Gospel of Luke 10:18, etc.).

Dew

"There is no dew properly so called in Palestine, for there is no moisture in the hot summer air to be chilled into dew-drops by the coldness of the night. From May till October rain is unknown, the sun shining with unclouded brightness day after day. The heat becomes intense, the ground hard, and vegetation would perish but for the moist west winds that come each night from the sea. The bright skies cause the heat of the day to radiate very quickly into space, so that the nights are as cold as the day is the reverse, a peculiarity of climate from which poor Jacob suffered thousands of years ago (Genesis 31:40). To this coldness of the night air the indispensable watering of all plant-life is due. The winds, loaded with moisture, are robbed of it as they pass over the land, the cold air condensing it into drops of water, which fall in a gracious rain of mist on every thirsty blade. In the morning the fog thus created rests like a sea over the plains, and far up the sides of the hills, which raise their heads above it like so many islands. At sunrise, however, the scene speedily changes. By the kindling light the mist is transformed into vast snow-white clouds, which presently break into separate masses and rise up the mountain-sides, to disappear in the blue above, dissipated by the increasing heat. These are 'the morning clouds and the early dew that go away' of which Hosea (Hosea 6:4; Hosea 13:3) speaks so touchingly" (Geikie's The Holy Land, etc., i., p. 72). Dew is a source of great fertility (Genesis 27:28; Deuteronomy 33:13; Zechariah 8:12), and its withdrawal is regarded as a curse from God (2_Samuel 1:21; 1_Kings 17:1). It is the symbol of a multitude (2_Samuel 17:12; Psalms 110:3); and from its refreshing influence it is an emblem of brotherly love and harmony (Psalms 133:3), and of rich spiritual blessings (Hosea 14:5).

Diadem

The tiara of a king (Ezekiel 21:26; Isaiah 28:5; Isaiah 62:3); the turban (Job 29:14). In the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn between the diadem as a badge of royalty (Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12) and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life. It is not known what the ancient Jewish "diadem" was. It was the mark of Oriental sovereigns. (See CROWN.)

Dial

For the measurement of time, only once mentioned in the Bible, erected by Ahaz (2_Kings 20:11; Isaiah 38:8). The Hebrew word ( ma'aloth ) is rendered "steps" in Exodus 20:26, 1_Kings 10:19, and "degrees" in 2_Kings 20:9, 2_Kings 20:10, 2_Kings 20:11. The ma'aloth was probably stairs on which the shadow of a column or obelisk placed on the top fell. The shadow would cover a greater or smaller number of steps, according as the sun was low or high.

Probably the sun-dial was a Babylonian invention. Daniel at Babylon (Daniel 3:6) is the first to make mention of the "hour."

Diamond

(1.) A precious gem (Heb. yahalom' , in allusion to its hardness), otherwise unknown, the sixth, i.e., the third in the second row, in the breastplate of the high priest, with the name of Naphtali engraven on it (Exodus 28:18; Exodus 39:11; R.V. marg., "sardonyx.")

(2.) A precious stone (Heb. shamir' , a sharp point) mentioned in Jeremiah 17:1. From its hardness it was used for cutting and perforating other minerals. It is rendered "adamant" (q.v.) in Ezekiel 3:9, Zechariah 7:12. It is the hardest and most valuable of precious stones.

Diana

So called by the Romans; called Artemis by the Greeks, the "great" goddess worshipped among heathen nations under various modifications. Her most noted temple was that at Ephesus. It was built outside the city walls, and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. "First and last it was the work of 220 years; built of shining marble; 342 feet long by 164 feet broad; supported by a forest of columns, each 56 feet high; a sacred museum of masterpieces of sculpture and painting. At the centre, hidden by curtains, within a gorgeous shrine, stood the very ancient image of the goddess, on wood or ebony reputed to have fallen from the sky. Behind the shrine was a treasury, where, as in 'the safest bank in Asia,' nations and kings stored their most precious things. The temple as St. Paul saw it subsisted till A.D. 262, when it was ruined by the Goths" (Acts 19:23-41)., Moule on Ephesians: Introd.

Diblaim

Doubled cakes, the mother of Gomer, who was Hosea's wife (Hosea 1:3).

Diblathaim

Two cakes, a city of Moab, on the east of the Dead Sea (Numbers 33:46; Jeremiah 48:22).

Dibon

Pining; wasting. (1.) A city in Moab (Numbers 21:30); called also Dibon-gad (Numbers 33:45), because it was built by Gad and Dimon (Isaiah 15:9). It has been identified with the modern Diban, about 3 miles north of the Arnon and 12 miles east of the Dead Sea. (See MOABITE STONE.)

(2.) A city of the tribe of Judah, inhabited after the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:25); called also Dimonah (Joshua 15:22). It is probably the modern ed-Dheib.

Didymus

(Gr. twin = Heb. Thomas , (q.v.), Gospel of John 11:16; Gospel of John 20:24; Gospel of John 21:2.

Dimnah

Dunghill, a city of Zebulun given to the Merarite Levites (Joshua 21:35). In 1_Chronicles 6:77 the name "Rimmon" is substituted.

Dinah

Judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of Simeon and Levi (Genesis 30:21). She was seduced by Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the neighbourhood of Shechem. This led to the terrible revenge of Simeon and Levi in putting the Shechemites to death (Gen. 34). Jacob makes frequent reference to this deed of blood with abhorrence and regret (Genesis 34:30; Genesis 49:5). She is mentioned among the rest of Jacob's family that went down into Egypt (Genesis 46:8, Genesis 46:15).

Dine

(Genesis 43:16) It was the custom in Egypt to dine at noon. But it is probable that the Egyptians took their principal meal in the evening, as was the general custom in the East (Gospel of Luke 14:12).

Dinhabah

Robbers' den, an Edomitish city, the capital of king Bela (Genesis 36:32). It is probably the modern Dibdiba, a little north-east of Petra.

Dionysius

The Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens (Acts 17:34).

Diotrephes

Jove-nourished, rebuked by John for his pride (3_John 1:9). He was a Judaizer, prating against John and his fellow-labourers "with malicious words" (3_John 1:7).

Disciple

A scholar, sometimes applied to the followers of John the Baptist (Gospel of Matthew 9:14), and of the Pharisees (Gospel of Matthew 22:16), but principally to the followers of Christ. A disciple of Christ is one who (1.) believes His doctrine, (2.) rests on His sacrifice, (3.) imbibes His spirit, and (4.) imitates His example (Gospel of Matthew 10:24; Gospel of Luke 14:26, Gospel of Luke 14:27, Gospel of Luke 14:33; Gospel of John 6:69).

Dish

For eating from (2_Kings 21:13). Judas dipped his hand with a "sop" or piece of bread in the same dish with our Lord, thereby indicating friendly intimacy (Gospel of Matthew 26:23). The "lordly dish" in Judges 5:25 was probably the shallow drinking cup, usually of brass. In Judges 6:38 the same Hebrew word is rendered "bowl.&q

ot; The dishes of the tabernacle were made of pure gold (Exodus 25:29; Exodus 37:16).

Dishan

Antelope, the youngest son of Seir the Horite, head of one of the tribes of Idumaea (Genesis 36:21, Genesis 36:28, Genesis 36:30).

Dispensation

(Gr. oikonomia , "management," "economy"). (1.) The method or scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the Christian. (See COVENANT, ADMINISTRATION OF). These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace toward men. The word is not found with this meaning in Scripture.

(2.) A commission to preach the gospel (1_Corinthians 9:17; Ephesians 1:10; Ephesians 3:2; Colossians 1:25). Dispensations of Providence are providential events which affect men either in the way of mercy or of judgment.

Dispersion

(1.) (Gr. diaspora , "scattered," James 1:1; 1_Peter 1:1) of the Jews. At various times, and from the operation of divers causes, the Jews were separated and scattered into foreign countries "to the out-most parts of heaven" (Deuteronomy 30:4). (a.) Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. The ten tribes, after existing as a separate kingdom for two hundred and fifty-five years, were carried captive (721 B.C.) by Shalmaneser (or Sargon), king of Assyria. They never returned to their own land as a distinct people, although many individuals from among these tribes, there can be no doubt, joined with the bands that returned from Babylon on the proclamation of Cyrus. See map, The Table of Nations (b.) Many Jews migrated to Egypt and took up their abode there. This migration began in the days of Solomon (2_Kings 18:21, 2_Kings 18:24; Isaiah 30:7). Alexander the Great placed a large number of Jews in Alexandria, which he had founded, and conferred on them equal rights with the Egyptians. Ptolemy Philadelphus, it is said, caused the Jewish Scriptures to be translated into Greek (the work began 284 B.C.), for the use of the Alexandrian Jews. The Jews in Egypt continued for many ages to exercise a powerful influence on the public interests of that country. From Egypt they spread along the coast of Africa to Cyrene (Acts 2:10) and to Ethiopia (Acts 8:27). (c.) After the time of Seleucus Nicator (280 B.C.), one of the captains of Alexander the Great, large numbers of Jews migrated into Syria, where they enjoyed equal rights with the Macedonians.

From Syria they found their way into Asia Minor. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia. (d.) From Asia Minor many Jews moved into Greece and Macedonia, chiefly for purposes of commerce. In the apostles' time they were found in considerable numbers in all the principal cities. From the time of Pompey the Great (B.C. 63) numbers of Jews from Palestine and Greece went to Rome, where they had a separate quarter of the city assigned to them. Here they enjoyed considerable freedom.

Thus were the Jews everywhere scattered abroad. This, in the overruling providence of God, ultimately contributed in a great degree toward opening the way for the spread of the gospel into all lands. (2.)From the plain of Shinar This was occasioned by the confusion of tongues at Babel (Genesis 11:9). They were scattered abroad "every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations" (Genesis 10:5, Genesis 10:20, Genesis 10:31).

The tenth chapter of Genesis gives us an account of the principal nations of the earth in their migrations from the plain of Shinar, which was their common residence after the Flood. In general, it may be said that the descendants of Japheth were scattered over the north, those of Shem over the central regions, and those of Ham over the extreme south. See table showing how the different families were dispersed: Japheth Families scattered to the north Gomer Magog Madai Javan Tubal Meshech Tiras Cimmerians and Armenians Caucasians and Scythians Medes and some Persian tribes The Tibareni and the Tartars The Moschi and the Muscovites The Thracians Elishah Tarshish Chittim Dodanim The Greeks Etruscans and Romans Cyprians and Macedonians The Rhodians Shem Families scattered to the central regions Elam Asshur Arphaxad Lud Aram Some Persian tribes Assyrian founders of Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calneh and Resen Abraham The Lydians The Syrians Isaac Ishmael Jacob Esau The Hebrews The Edomites The Ishmaelites, who mingled with the Arab tribes descended from Joktan, in the line of Eber, from Arphaxad Ham Families scattered to the extreme south Cush Mizraim Phut Canaan The Ethiopians and their colonies The Egyptians and their colonies The Libyans and Mauritanians The Canaanites, Phoenicians, and their colonies

Distaff

(Heb. pelek , a "circle"), the instrument used for twisting threads by a whirl (Proverbs 31:19).

Divination

Of false prophets (Deuteronomy 18:10, Deuteronomy 18:14; Micah 3:6, Micah 3:7, Micah 3:11), of necromancers (1_Samuel 28:8), of the Philistine priests and diviners (1_Samuel 6:2), of Balaam (Joshua 13:22). Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Ezekiel 21:21, by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim), and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art seems to have been encouraged in ancient Egypt. Diviners also abounded among the aborigines of Canaan and the Philistines (Isaiah 2:6; 1 Sam. 28). At a later period multitudes of magicians poured from Chaldea and Arabia into the land of Israel, and pursued their occupations (Isaiah 8:19; 2_Kings 21:6; 2_Chronicles 33:6). This superstition widely spread, and in the time of the apostles there were "vagabond Jews, exorcists" (Acts 19:13), and men like Simon Magus (Acts 8:9), Bar-jesus (Acts 13:6, Acts 13:8), and other jugglers and impostors (Acts 19:19; 2_Timothy 3:13). Every species and degree of this superstition was strictly forbidden by the law of Moses (Exodus 22:18; Leviticus 19:26, Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:27; Deuteronomy 18:10, Deuteronomy 18:11).

But beyond these various forms of superstition, there are instances of divination on record in the Scriptures by which God was pleased to make known his will. (1.) There was divination by lot, by which, when resorted to in matters of moment, and with solemnity, God intimated his will (Joshua 7:13). The land of Canaan was divided by lot (Numbers 26:55, Numbers 26:56); Achan's guilt was detected (Joshua 7:16), Saul was elected king (1_Samuel 10:20, 1_Samuel 10:21), and Matthias chosen to the apostleship, by the solemn lot (Acts 1:26). It was thus also that the scape-goat was determined (Leviticus 16:8).

(2.) There was divination by dreams (Genesis 20:6; Deuteronomy 13:1, Deuteronomy 13:3; Judges 7:13, Judges 7:15; Gospel of Matthew 1:20; Gospel of Matthew 2:12, Gospel of Matthew 2:13, Gospel of Matthew 2:19, Gospel of Matthew 2:22). This is illustrated in the history of Joseph (Genesis 41:25) and of Daniel (Daniel 2:27; Daniel 4:19).

(3.) By divine appointment there was also divination by the Urim and Thummim (Numbers 27:21), and by the ephod.

(4.) God was pleased sometimes to vouchsafe direct vocal communications to men (Deuteronomy 34:10; Exodus 3:4; Exodus 4:3; Deuteronomy 4:14, Deuteronomy 4:15; 1_Kings 19:12). He also communed with men from above the mercy-seat (Exodus 25:22), and at the door of the tabernacle (Exodus 29:42, Exodus 29:43).

(5.) Through his prophets God revealed himself, and gave intimations of his will (2_Kings 13:17; Jeremiah 51:63, Jeremiah 51:64).

Divorce

The dissolution of the marriage tie was regulated by the Mosaic law (Deuteronomy 24:1). The Jews, after the Captivity, were required to dismiss the foreign women they had married contrary to the law (Ezra 10:11). Christ limited the permission of divorce to the single case of adultery. It seems that it was not uncommon for the Jews at that time to dissolve the union on very slight pretenses (Gospel of Matthew 5:31, Gospel of Matthew 5:32; Gospel of Matthew 19:1; Gospel of Mark 10:2; Gospel of Luke 16:18). These precepts given by Christ regulate the law of divorce in the Christian Church.

Dizahab

Region of gold, a place in the desert of Sinai, on the western shore of the Elanitic gulf (Deuteronomy 1:1). It is now called Dehab.

Doctor

Gospel of Luke 2:46; Gospel of Luke 5:17; Acts 5:34), a teacher. The Jewish doctors taught and disputed in synagogues, or wherever they could find an audience. Their disciples were allowed to propose to them questions. They assumed the office without any appointment to it. The doctors of the law were principally of the sect of the Pharisees. Schools were established after the destruction of Jerusalem at Babylon and Tiberias, in which academical degrees were conferred on those who passed a certain examination. Those of the school of Tiberias were called by the title "rabbi," and those of Babylon by that of "master."

Dodai

Loving, one of David's captains (1_Chronicles 27:4). (See DODO [2].)

Dodanim

Leaders, a race descended from Javan (Genesis 10:4). They are known in profane history as the Dardani, originally inhabiting Illyricum. They were a semi-Pelasgic race, and in the ethnographical table (Gen. 10) they are grouped with the Chittim (q.v.). In 1_Chronicles 1:7, they are called Rodanim. The LXX. and the Samaritan Version also read Rhodii, whence some have concluded that the Rhodians, the inhabitants of the island of Rhodes, are meant.

Dodo

Amatory; loving. (1.) A descendant of Issachar (